Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Communication skills associated with a range of media and targeted at a range of audiences
  • Personal and professional skills associated with the identification of individual needs and requirements and including adaptability and flexibility in both independent and team working

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Communication Icebreaker (Physical) (QAA 4,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives: 

  • Ice breaker (which builds a connection between pairs)
  • Participants will have to interact and adapt their communication skills to help their team member 
  • Participants will reflect and evaluate their performance as a pair
  • Improve communication and listening skills and to highlight the importance of trust when working in a team or pair

Overview: 

This physical task engages the whole person in supporting a colleague and ensuring their safety through good communication.  The activity can be used at any time during the session, however it is highly effective as and ice breaker.  It is a fun method to start participants communicating and is simple to deliver in an appropriate environment and can be adjusted depending upon group size, age etc. However health and safety is paramount and you must consider the appropriateness of the group and room for this challenge.

Activity:

You should initiative this activity by stressing the nature of the challenge and stressing that the safety of those involved is paramount.  You can also agree across the group that “stop” can be initiated by any member of the team by raising a hand if they don’t feel that it is safe to proceed.  This can be actioned by anyone and will not result in any penalties.

To run the task, gather the group outside the room and:

  1. Scatter furniture that can be used as obstacles but ensuring that safety is not compromised. 
  2. Put team members into pairs and should decide amongst them who is to be blindfolded first. 
  3. The sighted and blindfolded member should stand at one end of the room. 
  4. Aim of the task is for the sighted individual to guide their partner across the room and giving concise information to avoid the obstacles. 
  5. Once each team reaches the other side, the pairs are to swap roles 

It could also be possible to create a preferred route or course (as seen in horse show jumping) which they need to accomplish (if you didn’t wish to use obstacles for safety or mobility reasons) which would lead the pair to particular numbers/letters indicated on the wall.

Subject specialisms could also be tested by placing knowledge based answers on the walls and asking the pairs to walk to their answer through the course (see QAARunaround for details of how to do a multiple choice but don’t mix the games in play for safety reasons).

Skill Development: 

This task requires listening and communication skills and also helps builds trust and connections across the pairings.  However the skill development and improved future practice comes from evaluating performance across the group and understanding how and when particular techniques were effective and what lessons that provides for the future.  It is important to acknowledge fears and concerns, or frustrations between the pairings but keep the discussion to the general learning, rather than focusing upon particular experiences of individual pairings as the depth of learning will come from the lessons that can be applied in future group work or communication challenges.  These lessons include clear communication; agreeing ground rules for working together; recognising the need of feedback or support; understanding the importance of clear short messages within these circumstances etc.

Resources:

  • Blindfolds
  • Large room  - large, safe, open space
  • Items that can be used as obstacles which will act as safe barriers (not fall over; not hurt if walked into – no sharp edges)

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Production Line (QAA 4,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objectives:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • To explore and establish methods of production for a simple products
  • To understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation
  • Understanding processes and procedures
  • Replicating methods

Overview

This task focuses a group of people to organise themselves to set up a production line to exactly replicate an existing product as many times as possible in set amount of time. They are giveqaan the opportunity to reflect on and improve their approach twice to increase efficiency, quality and productivity. This gives participants and others the opportunity to see how their own and other behaviour, ideas, approach affects the development and outcome of the task and how by working together and reflecting and analysing a situation it can be adapted and improved going forward.

Activity:

This activity could take from 30 minutes to a couple of hours depending on how much review, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

Group gathers around a table with all the resources on it. There is a sample product : a booklet with 13 squares of paper 10cm x 10cm, secured with 2 staples in a x shape in the top left hand corner of the booklet.

The group is asked to put together a production line replicating this booklet. They will have 2 minutes to discuss how they think they could best do thisand to allocate roles. Then 3 minutes to put this into practice and produce as many booklets as possible. When the time is up the facilitator then countsand inspects the finished products, looking for quality and accuracy ie:

  • Correct number of sheets
  • Correct size
  • Cut lines are straight
  • There are 2 staples
  • Staples are in the right place
  • Staples are crossed correctly

The group then gets 2 minutes to discuss and review their methods, systems and procedures and come up with improvements or a different approach. They then get another 3 minutes on the production line to best their last score.

The above process is then repeated for a third time.

This could be done with any size group as long as there are sufficient facilitators to split into smaller groups. The optimum numbers in each group wouldbe between 6 and 10, however multiple groups could be working at the same time. They would have to work at the same time so as not to hear the discussion of other groups.

Skill Development:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Efficiency/Productivity
  • Quality Control
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

As has been described this task involves many different skills and objectives on all different levels and can be assessed and analysed either briefly or in great depth across some or all of the objectives. For example, if this is an exercise for managers or recruiters to assess staff skills and abilities it can be finished there at the end of the last count. However it can be extended further, so each team then breaks off with a facilitator to analyse what happened at each stage and why.

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the review and analysis go, who took the lead, someone different? How were news ideas taken on board.
  • What changed the next time, was there an improvement, if so why
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

For example : the focus could just be on the outcomes, ie the quality and quantity of the finished products. Often the first time, people are rushing and slapdash and may do quite a few but get a lot rejected, so need to slow down. Or get them all passed but do a small number, so need to speed up. So it's finding that balance between speed and quality/accuracy.

Or the focus can be on the review and reflection, how the method was changed or improved each time to give better results.

Or the focus can be on the team dynamics how they evolved through each stage, or on the leadership and management of the task and how that changed and fluctuated at each stage, how the balance of power shifted as the task went along.

Or it could very much focus on the individual, the role they played, how this evolved, how they felt, how they were affected by the different characters,how they affected other members in the group, positively or negatively what they would do differently next time.

Depending on whether the focus is on 1 or 2 of the objectives and skills or all of them, all of these and more angles can be identified and explored after the task.

Resources:

Large sheets of paper (A3 or larger, could use old newspapers) minimum of 60 sheets per team, pens, pencils, markers, rulers, scissors, staplers.

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Team Building Time Challenge (QAA 4,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Outside

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • Understanding the importance of careful research, discussion and planning
  • Listening to other members of the team
  • Research
  • Idea generation
  • Sales, persuasion techniques (as needed)

Overview

This exercise is a fantastic way to get people working together as they tackle up to 10 tasks in a given time frame. With limited information (on each other and the tasks presented) the group must navigate through the challenges in order to be the most successful group (back within the time frame; most tasks achieved; most accurate delivery of the tasks). Depending on the tasks selected, specific industry or sector knowledge can be tested as widerskills of background knowledge, research and creative thinking are required. Insist upon evidence of the achievements (photos on flip or camera phones) as well as delivery of objectives.

Activity : This activity needs a long session (such as 120 minutes) to complete, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

The groups of up to 6 people are sent out to complete > 10 tasks (usually 3 cryptic, 3 researched and 4 fun)

Examples of these could include:

  • To find an encryption or statue (or similar engraving) in the University Library
  • Two examples of their subject/discipline in practice (photographs or illustrations of)
  • Interview a relevant professional in the field
  • Find a particular journal article
  • How many people can you fit in a phone box
  • Share a message on social media as widely as possible

These tasks should be developed beforehand to suit the environment where the day is taking place. Ensure there are fun tasks involved and that everyone has a chance to engage by creating a range of challenges that involve the physical, mental, social aspects of your learners.

To manage this challenge effectively, if it important that you:

  • Give strict time frames and penalties for not meeting the time
  • Consider the health and safety aspects of all the challenges and adapt to suit your learners (by keeping everyone on campus; in 1 building; or keeping all the tasks within the 1 room etc as necessary).
  • Consider whether you wish to keep them all together as a team or are happy for individuals to split off to deliver tasks back to the group.

Practically it can also be helpful to give them a puzzle to solve before they can leave and a further one when they return. This means they are leaving at different times and they return to a final challenge, so that you can record time and award points.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the challenges you create, there is a wide range of transferable skills and knowledge base that you can test during this challenge. You can create tasks that draw upon their:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Route Planning
  • Research skills
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

It is important that you review the challenges and how the groups tackled the tasks in order to draw out the subject learning and these wider skills, before reviewing the wider team experience by exploring:

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who planned the route
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved
  • How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

Drawing out the team dynamics will allow the students to identify the lessons that they can take forward that will improve their future group work and learning experiences.

Ask if they started by sharing their knowledge and skill set or just started on the tasks (the most typical response) and whether they would do that again. Ask when, or if they ever start a task by reviewing when they have collectively or individually undertaken something similar and what was learnt that they could take forward.

Resources:

  • Prepared tasks – such as Two indoor puzzles/tasks
  • Research the area for tasks to complete
  • A flip phone or check if students have their own camera phone
  • Flip boards or wall space to show evidence
  • A prize
  • A timer or watch

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Engaging Alumni for Real World Learning (QAA 2, 3, 4, 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

Effective engagement of Alumni seeks to support the students to become:

  • be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions
  • review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk.

Overview:

With the pre-arranged (and prolonged) support of alumni (now professionals) this approach of continued access to external professionals (ideally programme/course Alumni) is designed to prepare students to be able to engage with real clients and better enable them to respond proactively to change.

Externals are invited to engage with the current student group as they undertake a task, using social media (facebook; twitter etc) an/or Skype. This creates either incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment or regular support or feedback on course work from externals.

Activity

This approach needs pre-agreement and commitment of externals (ideally Programme/course Alumni) who commit to short, but regular interaction through social media or Skype.

This activity can either be driven by a live brief or challenge identified by the external (higher level of engagement) or as comment and support to those undertaking the programme, through sharing expertise and current work experiences. If the students are working on a live brief or task given by the external, this high level of interactivity can mean that summative deadlines can changedand information updated, and the newsworthy or other high profile influences can be included throughout the module. (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni professional).

This engagement can be “managed” by the tutor – to pre-plan some ambiguity or pre-agreed change of brief/scope with the Alumni contact, or left open to allow access to externals as an organic relationship, where advice may be sought by the students or experience/daily practice shared by the Professional as they see fit.

In addition, any presentation /show case or final assignment submission can be shared with the external and their input made part of the summative or formative feedback (assessment strategy).

Note that the choice of social media will impact on the type of engagement between alumni and students, but ideally something that the Alumni member uses regularly will ensure more regular engagement. Even small inputs (as typically seen in social media such as Twitter) can guide student approach and ensure that they are able to ask private questions, and that other students can also learn from the mentor/alumni generic comments or insights.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the level and type of engagement, students can benefit from insights from a ‘typical day/week’ of a professional working in their area, or be pushed to develop their tolerance to ambiguity (through changing deadlines, or unexpected changes to the brief or additional information). This can build resilience in the students but there needs to be clear expectations of this relationship, as well as additional tutor support.

Students typically respond well to changes and additional insights from professional Alumni and can develop their understanding and judgement, in their chosen field, whilst gaining further insight regarding professional practice.

Students should be bought together to share their experience of virtually engaging with their Alumni contact and explore their emotional responses to the changing briefs or additional information. They need to explore, and develop strategies, for coping with ‘real world’ brief/challenges and exploringthis together, and sharing how they dealt with it, and could deal with it in the future, builds their confidence and resilience to change. Using reflective practice to consider the learning across the group can draw out a range of key lessons for preparing for future challenges.

Resources:

Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project or to commit to regular updating/comment for a pre-agreed period of time.

References:

Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).

Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)

Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)

Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) ‘When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes’, Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410

Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna, University of Wales, Trinity St David.

Communication Clarification Group Task (QAA 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

This simple activity helps participants understand that even the simplest task is open to interpretation, illustrating the importance of good communication.  

The Paper Tear exercise teaches people to think for themselves and to ask clarifying questions.

Overview:

An Icebreaker exercise that can be used to illustrate a simple point of the importance of clear communication.  This Icebreaker uses a piece of paper and the participants interpretation to show how people see things very differently.

Activity:

Give each seated participant a half piece of A4 ask them to close their eyes.
Ask them to fold the piece of paper in half. Ask them to tear off the upper right corner.
Have them fold the piece of paper in half again. Ask them to tear off the upper right corner again.
And one more time, ask them to fold the paper in half And tear off the upper right corner one last time.
Ask the group to open their eyes and show everyone their original work of art.

[Note:  Each paper will be different because the individuals chose to:
–  fold the paper in different ways –  tear off different corners (his or her interpretation of “upper right corner”) –  different size tears]

Skill Development:

When exploring and debriefing this activity, communication can be explored and the role of questioning discussed.  The potential to have an open dialogue can be explored and consideration of how decisions can be impacted from an incorrect “original” decision.  It is therefore important to explore the root of activity going awry, and how blame/lack of information needs to be handled in order to deliver on a task.

This activity is great to illustrate how different everyone is, how everyone responds differently to instructions, and how it is important to have an open dialogue and illustrate the point that it is always better to ask questions and have an open dialogue. 

As facilitator, you can pretend to be surprised and say something like; ‘I gave everyone the same directions, yet look at how different the papers are! Did you listen?’ 

Resources:  

A4 Pieces of Paper for each person

Communication & Emotional Intelligence (QAA 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

To understand the importance of developing active listening skills as part of effective communication 

To appreciate the impact of emotions (frustration; anticipation) within communication

To understand the importance of recognising the importance of active listening, using effective listening techniques (which can affect ability to build rapport and gather information in both management situations or when mentoring, counselling etc).

Overview:

This quick icebreaker session is run as a group activity in an informal environment with all participants sitting in a relaxed state, but working to deliver a result within a time frame. Primarily this "parlour game" seeks to actively explore:

  • Understand the importance of how to listen effectively 
  • How our feeling and emotions can impact on our ability to listen effectively 
  • What methods to use and when would you use them? 
  • How our listening can affect our overall communication 

Activity:

This activity takes no more than five minutes to deliver and needs few resources and is therefore an ideal ice-breaker or pre or post lunch "recharge" activity to embed within a formal input.

To change the course dynamic, and shift thinking, take the lead as the "narrator" and explain that you are having a picnic to which they all are invited but to attend they must bring a contribution to the picnic with them. However not all of them will be able to attend (your fictitious picnic) if the item they chose to bring renders them ineligible to attend.

The premise upon which this works as a "parlour game" is that 

THE ITEM MUST BEGIN WITH THE FIRST LETTER OF THEIR NAME - THEREFORE JANE CAN BRING SOME JAM BUT BRENDA CAN'T. 

However, you can alter this premise to be subject related, and therefore draw out subject based learning as well communication skills (by, for example, asking chemistry students to bring liquids, and making a (silent) premise that are soluble in each other or items that would be connected within an experiment or situation or even industry situation).

Remember to invite each member individually to the picnic and respond to each person individually e.g.: "Jane what can you bring to my picnic" response Jane wants to bring some bread, reply "I am sorry Jane you cannot bring bread to my picnic" etc. as the exercise proceeds some people will be able to attend by just being lucky in what they are bringing others thought might cotton on to the rules other's will not and may get frustrated so make sure you don't go on for too long. When everyone can "come to the picnic" or attend the "industry expo" or whichever scenario you selected, you can need to lead the debriefing session.

It is vital that emotions throughout the game, and across the team, are recognised and the group then explores how when we become emotional, frustrated or angry our ability listen effectively is impaired.

Skill Development:

This can take the form of a relatively short discussion, but will need to explore the learning across the group, and by encouraging everyone to share their story/emotions/feelings.

In larger groups, you can encourage them to share their feelings throughout the experience in small teams before presenting the range of emotions to the wider group. This reduces the perceived risk of sharing emotions across a big group but retains the breadth of emotions and highlights this to the wider group.

It is important to end this group discussion with an exploration of their feelings and frustrations, and what techniques they could use in the future, or in work or study situations to work professionally.

This debrief should explore the importance of active listening as well as how our listening is effected by our feeling and emotions, which can lead to an exploration of wider communication issues such as ability to build rapport, think effectively and manage or support the person we are communicating with.

Resources:

No physical resources, but planned scenario needs to be predetermined if subject based.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Subject Review through Communication (QAA 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Ice breaker that encourages communication

Overview:

The activity can is best used as an ice breaker as it is a fun method to start participants communicating – however it can be adapted to test subject knowledge and specialisms that the students have prior to joining class with you, or are gaining during their studies.

Activity:

  1. Buy a large bag of multi-coloured sweets, such as skittles (determine expected number in class and ensure sufficient for each student to have 5 sweets each).
  2. Pass the bag around and ask everyone to pick 5 skittles each (but they're not to eat them ! yet!)
  3. Once they have chosen their skittles, each colour represents a different question, for eg: (Red = favourite hobby, Green = Favourite holiday destination, Yellow = dream job, Orange = favourite memory, purple = wildcard - tell us anything)
  4. Split the group, 4-6 in a team
  5. Each person takes turns introducing themselves, beginning with their name and then a fact for each skittle they have

This can be adapted to bring out subject knowledge or prior learning/experience by making each colour link to a subject theme/study area. This means that the group have to share facts and background with each other on a specific topic.

To bring together their learning you can invite them to present the information they have gained across the team as a flipchart or play to the other groups. This can help you understand the level of prior knowledge as they forfeit eating the colours they cant supply answers for and yet share their knowledge across the full group in the short presentation.

You can also add an element of jeopardy within this by allowing them to trade colours without knowing what the categories are – or even between teams once they know what the categories are.

Skill Development:

Listening and communication skills as well as interpersonal skills are the focus of this task, and it can be extended to develop group presentation skills if you wish to add the extension of a short presentation at the end. This requires them to communicate effectively within a limited time. Debrief this exercise by asking the group to explore their emotions as the task unfolded. It is important to recognise that some group members feel excited by a new challenge, whilst others are concerned by ambiguity (selecting colours without knowing why). Explore the emotions of undertaking this challenge and recognise how they may impact on performance.

Resources:

Packet of multi-coloured sweets, such as Skittles

References:

N/A

About the Author
This guide was produced by SS.

A Compendium of Pedagogies: THE USE OF DEBATE (QAA 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

7Communication and Strategy

Objective: 

Debate is used to provide a forum for delivery of argument for and against an issue. It provides a platform for exploring all relevant issues It also is a vehicle for practicing delivery skills and 'thinking on one's feet'. It also has to have audience appeal as the aim is to win their vote but also involve them.

Overview: 

A debate can be formal or informal. It is relatively easy to construct an issue for argument with a class, get them to consider arguments for or against and then speak to it from the 'floor'. A more formal version is described below (however it is possible just to work at an informal level, having established 2 sides for the debate and defined roles 1-3 below). 

Traditionally, a debate will have a 'Motion' (statement) which the 'House' (those attending) must address. For example, 'This House believes that entrepreneurs are 'born not made' or 'This House believes that entrepreneurial management can only be fully pursued in the independent business organisation'.

Activity:

The debate will need: (indicative timings included for an hour session)

1. A Chairperson:

  • Who will introduce the Motion and the Proposers, Opposers and 'Summers up'.
  • The Chair also sets out the rules of the game, the time limits and how he/she will enforce these and how the audience should contribute.
  • A chair will explain the vote and how this will be for the best arguments best delivered not the audience's personal preference (as more reflective of the learning gained, rather than opinion at the time).

2. A Proposer

  • To put up all the major positive arguments for the Motion {7 minutes}

3. An Oppose

  • To put all the main arguments against the Motion {7 minutes}

4. A Seconded for the Motion

  • To counter the arguments of the Oppose as they have been anticipated and as they occur in reality. Also to back up and add arguments to those of the Proposer {5 minutes}

5. A Seconded against the Motion

  • To counter all the arguments of the Proposer and Seconded for the Motion as they have been anticipated and as they occur in practice and to back up the opposition arguments {5 minutes}

6. Speakers from the floor (the audience)

  • Think of their own views and articulate them.
  • Speakers do not ask questions but make points and arguments. They may of course take up what has been said by the speakers.
  • In a small audience it should be emphasised that every member has to contribute

7. A Summariser for the Motion

  • To summarise up the debate after the audience has contributed, using the key audience contributions, and emphatically inviting the audience to support the Motion {5 minutes}

8. A Summariser against the Motion

  • To summarise up the debate after the audience has contributed, using the audience contributions that support their argument, and emphatically inviting the audience to oppose the Motion {5 minutes}

All speakers should not read from notes but should address the audience warmly and convincingly and should use humour sufficiently to entertain.

The sequence is as follows:

  • Chairpersons Introduction of Motion, Speakers and Rules
  • First Speaker for the Motion
  • First Speaker against the Motion
  • Seconded for the Motion
  • Seconded against the Motion
  • Floor opened to the audience
  • Final Summary for the motion
  • Final Summary against
  • Vote by the audience
  • Concluding remarks by the Chair

To engage all the participants in the debate it can be organised as follows: 

Divide the class into 6 groups

  • Group 1 has to agree the main points for the Motion make suggestions as to innovative/entertaining arguments and choose a speaker.
  • Group 2 has to agree the major points against the Motion, make suggestions for Innovative/entertaining arguments and choose a speaker.
  • Group 3 has to brainstorm on the arguments that might be put by the opposition, think of counterpoints and ways of refuting them entertainingly and subsidiary points to reinforce the Motion. They then choose a speaker to second the Motion.
  • Group 4 has to brainstorm on the arguments that might be presented by the proposers of the Motion and also how the points against might be attacked and choose a speaker to second the opposition to the Motion.
  • Group 5 has to brainstorm on what they think will be the main points for and against (including any possible points from the floor). They then prepare an outline summary of the argument for supporting the motion and refuting the opposition. They then choose a speaker who has however to be prepared to build flexibly upon what goes on in the debate
  • Group 6 goes through the same procedure as Group 5 except that they prepare an outline summary of the arguments for opposing the Motion and refuting proposition arguments. They then choose a speaker who has however to be prepared to build flexibly upon what goes on in the debate.

Skill Development:

The ability to think and speak on one's feet is tested and in particular the ability to have empathy with the alternative point of view. This also tests the capacity to argue and present a case in a flexible and innovative manner. Critically, it is a vehicle for exploring key issues in entrepreneurship development which creates group cohesion, bonding and fun.

Outcomes

Major outcomes to be targeted are the airing of key issues in entrepreneurship development via an innovative format. Participants can also apply their more formal learning in a flexible and demanding context and building a team spirit is also a key component, within a cohort.

Resources:

A Compendium of Pedagogies for Teaching Entrepreneurship. Professor Alan Gibb and Professor Alison Price - Download (PDF)

References:

N/A

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Allan Gibb and Professor Alison Price.

Team Roles/Membership using Myers Briggs (QAA 5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • To introduce the group to the increasingly popular MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator) Test that is felt by many to help individuals identify their personality type and thereby inform them how best they might work or operate in a team/ group situation.
  • To construct teams based on the individual’s responses before setting a task to complete and then reflect upon understanding.

 Introduction:

The increased popularity of Psychological tests to help recruiters or managers select characteristics that they believe will make their work teams more effective is something all students and tutors need to be aware of.

While the practice may (or may not!) be well founded, it cannot be ignored. Personally I have been given several opportunities to have my personality and working style measured through a variety of tests. Clearly the results will be shaped by the environment in which the test is taken. I would feel my responses were different when I was a Business School Director involved in managerial decision making when compared to my earlier life as a humble academic or even when I was a research scientist.

What has to be made clear is – your preferred working style or approach to team situations will change as you change. The results are not set in stone, rather they are an indicator.

The “quick and dirty” exercise here is just that – it is far from rigorous! It should be used to raise awareness of the issue and for those who wish to take it further; then most Universities have licences for the real thing and will be more than happy to pay for a proper test to be completed.

Activity:

I tend to introduce the session by running though the Power Point slide deck to explain the background and the rationale for the activity.  Then I ask the four questions and invite everybody to select a letter response.

When everybody has a four letter code, we look how the “population” breaks down.

WE then can talk about how the group feel about the four letter codes they have chosen. Do they relate to the characteristics attributed to the four letter codes from the full MBTI test?

I then invite individuals to adopt a specific role within a group context. I then link a four letter MBTI code to the roles and start to construct teams based on the role mix.

Individuals can do this in a variety of ways. I simply ask for teams of four to be created. A show of hands for each role allows me to go – “OK you ; you; you and you – you are one team.” And so on. Individuals can create teams/ groups based on their knowledge of the cohort and student’s ability to work collaboratively.

You will have teams of varying levels of maturity and motivation and you will find some teams do not have the exact or optimum role mix.

The joy of this activity is to watch how the teams perform when the open ended task is given.

As experienced tutors, you can float and pick out the team dynamics. You will soon hear gentle laughter and see smiles on the faces of those in the teams that are starting to relax and work to their preferred style. This will be contrasted by the teams that have individuals who are not comfortable in their role or team.

Leave the exercise to run for as long as you wish. Make sure you spend time drawing the learning from the exercise. Why did some teams laugh more than others? How did the individuals feel about the role they were asked to perform? How did the team come together? What did they learn about themselves and about team working?

Impact:

I have used this activity when a lecturer with groups of students before they embark on a major assessed team work activity. I conducted this activity with L5 students before they were expected to go out on their Industrial Placement year. An awareness of how to operate in a team is essential preparation for the world of work.

I also have used this with Enterprise Educators in Wales (ELVIS) and when running staff development activities with tutor teams in departments I am supporting. I have also shared this with IEEP participants.

Everybody can take something away from this and use it in their teaching or working lives.

Learner outcomes:

At the end of the session the participants will:

  • Appreciate the different roles that are required for effective teams.
  • Recognise that personality types impact on effective teams performance
  • Understand that they have a preferred learning / work style that will change over time
  • Be more understanding of how fellow team members feel when put in situations that do not allow them to work to their preferred style.

Resources:

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Dr Simon Brown (with Matthew Draycott) (Visiting Professor UWTSD, Head of Enterprise Development NCEE, Fellow EEUK).

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If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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Case Examples

Bring the 'real-world' into the lab (QAA 1,2)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation

Objective

  • To practice key techniques in the lab
  • To apply experimental practice to ‘real world’ environment
  • To explore for new opportunities and applications of key skills in new settings and commercial environments

Introduction

This ‘revamp’ of pre-existing module has been highly successful in broadening the students approach and experience of the ‘real world’ application, without requiring revalidation of the module objectives. The traditional approach of weekly lab-practicals was typically delivered with a method sheet and work plan for the students to follow in order to refresh their practical lab skills. Additional information relating to the application of these techniques within local small businesses or as global opportunities for new markets, has refreshed the programme and created opportunities for idea creation and evaluation.

Activity

This final year module was traditionally offered to refresh lab techniques and reinforce key methods. In order to deepen the skill development, it was possible to find a ‘real-world’ application of each technique and provide a small vignette about each company using this approach. Details were provided regarding the potential market, income stream and how this process added value, together with the traditional lab/method outline. During their practical work student groups were encouraged to consider.

  • Possible new markets for this technique
  • Extensions of the product offer
  • Development of the technique (to reduce cost; improve speed and safety on a commercial scale)

And invited to research the company and approach during the week, for discussion at the next practical. This allowed for additional market research to be included in their proposed approach and their understanding of the market-use of their skills be deepened.

Impact

The impact was significant as this ‘revision’ model was enlivened by the real-world examples and discussions that then naturally occurred between the teams and across the group. Quick research (from smart phones and tablets) within the groups allowed for ideas to be developed or dismissed and extensions of thinking develop from undertaking the process.

The impact was beneficial in terms of the commercial understanding of the students, but also improved their interest and retention of this module.

Learner Outcome

The outcomes for the students saw the revision of their practical skills firmly anchored in the ‘real-world’. For final year students, this learning supported the transition out of the University and into first jobs and felt very relevant. All the students responded well to the new information and absorbed the additional task within the traditional time allowed.

Resources

Lab practical – undertaken in lab with pre-drafted method and notes – supported by the creation of individual vignettes relating to the commercial or practical use of each technique.

This are created through research (desk) as well as through contacts with business and industry (local companies using the approaches and techniques).

Student Mentoring

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To support students’ personal development
  • To support the development of students intra and extra-curricular projects and enterprises.
  • To provide students with opportunities to develop ideas, take actions and reflect on progress.
  • To assist students in identifying and exploiting networks and support available to them.

Introduction:

At Glyndwr University, every student and graduate is offered the support of a dedicated mentor to support them in their enterprising endeavours, facilitated through the University’s ZONE Enterprise Hub (this mentoring has been both core funded by the institution, and supported through the pan-Wales HEFCW funded Enterprise Support Programme).

zone

Figure 1: ZONE Enterprise Hub at Glyndwr University

In the period July 2014 – July 2015, 158 such mentoring appointments were conducted, supporting the creation and development of 40 new businesses.

This mentoring takes many forms, and plays a vital role in students’ development in a number of ways. This can range from supporting the development of clear and original ideas, to facilitating effective reflection and evaluation on progress, to providing specific contacts and information to address a problem, or exploit an opportunity.

This mentoring has been delivered one-to-one, and one-to-many, sometimes as a standalone occurrence, and sometimes developing into relationships that persist for a considerable length of time.

Beneficiaries of this mentoring service have come from all programmes and levels of study, with enquiries ranging from looking to launch businesses, to requiring support with enterprising projects related to their academic study, to those looking for broader personal development.

The following is an indicative example of how the mentoring service has been utilised by one such student.

Activity:

Mentee – BSc (Hons) Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies Student

A mature student and fresher of the Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies Undergraduate Programme at Glyndwr University utilised the mentoring service available through ZONE Enterprise Hub, looking for support for an enterprising extra-curricular project.

The student desired to sell free-range eggs and organic vegetables to students at the University. The student had good contacts with the local community of growers and suppliers, had a small holding of his own, and a vast amount of experience in growing and supplying organic produce.

However, as a fresher, the student had no links or contacts with staff or students at the institution, and no experience of marketing to a student audience.

The mentor, in virtue to ZONE Enterprise Hub’s relationship with staff and students at the University, was able to support the students in addressing these issues. This was inclusive of providing contact information and introductions to key internal stakeholders at the University (for example, the manager required to grant permission to sell produce on campus, the manager responsible for the University’s green policies, the marketing department, the President of the Students Guild etc.), and brainstorming ideas for promoting the sale of produce to the University community (via social media, student / staff newsletters, poster campaigns etc.).

The mentor and student met periodically over a period of several months, to discuss progress, and solutions to specific problems as they arose. The mentor was able to draw on their personal experience of similar project which had run at the University in the past, to advise the student as to the courses of action they may consider taking.

Impact:

The student is now selling free-range eggs and organic vegetables on a weekly basis from the main University campus. Regular news bulletins regarding the sales are posted to staff and students, and changes to the promotional strategy are made on a trial and error basis to ensure continuous improvement in awareness and sales.

Through the connections established by the mentor, the student was able to engage with a number of students with similar interests, able to offer support not only in the promotion and selling of produce, but also in the growing of vegetables for sale.

Resources:

For more examples of mentoring, see case examples in Education Studies and Veterinary Nursing.

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Idea Generation: New (product/service) Development (Group Ideation)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any, Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action

Objective

  • To reflect upon learning journey
  • To acknowledge individual or team "learning gain" experienced over time (process; project; task; or period of learning/study)
  • To articulate skill development (soft skills) and personal insights (in team dynamics, personal progression or learning)
  • Option to support future development: to provide the opportunity to identify gaps in learning or development and create a personal action plan for personal development and future learning.

Overview

This task provides an opportunity to reflect on the learning gained during particular tasks for activities (ideally should be of "medium" length, such as intense induction programmes, week long activities or longer learning 'events' (modules or years of study). This can be particularly effective in terms of drawing out "change" or learning gain as identified by the learner themselves.

This approach provides an opportunity to reflect upon a wide range of individual development (including emotional development and confidence levels) as well as recognising improvement in the development of skills.

Traditionally physical diaries were issued to encourage students to write regularly and informally, however the wide range of multi-media (through smart phones and tablets) also allows students to select their own format (s) or trial the use of a new media tool for this purpose (ideally agreed in advance with tutor to avoid IT issues in viewing).

A learning diary is therefore a tool of reflection which can take a variety of forms.

Key considerations for the tutor include:

  • media (format options include: written essay or report; video diary; podcast; voice memos; photos/collage; or a combination of approaches)
  • structure (open; templates; prompts or based on prescribed reflective models and frameworks, or those sourced by the student)
  • formalised base line (questionnaire or status review at the start, to review at the end)
  • inclusive of theory and wider reading (whilst some learning diaries are entirely "personal" and seek to draw out the development of softer skills and personal 'learning gain' others seek the inclusion of wider reading and theory development to evidence change and thought)
  • assessment (% within modules vary though typically it is used as part of an assessment strategy, though can stand alone when used to capture and review a full programme year or team task activity.)

NB: Consideration of how to create "value" is key in determining the role/purpose of this approach within an assessment strategy or within a programme. Typically students value activities that the tutor places a value on, and their currency is marks/assessment. However as diary is, by definition, a subjective view, and should reflect what the student has heard, learnt and reviewed, it is the student's own analysis and insights that count, and clear marking parameters and guidance need to be provided to ensure clarity.

Activity

Issuing this task should be done at the start of the activity that you wish the learners to reflect upon. Ideally you encourage (or set) answering a range of open-ended questions, delighted to understand their initial position as they approach this learning/task. This may include expanding upon their prior understanding or life experience, as relevant to this work.

Once the activities are being undertaken, reflective models can be issued or sourced by the students to support their thinking. However you may wish to provide a set of reflective questions at regular intervals as prompts to their developing thinking.

This activity can be highly prescriptive, with set timescales at which you expect stages of reflection to be completed (as relating to the task being undertaken) however it is also possible to make this an open task, where the approach and learning is with the student to design and undertake. This allows the learner to explore, source and select their own model for reflection and test its effectiveness as a tool for their development during the process. This additional skills of research, evaluation and comparative analysis but risks diluting the quality of the reflection if the students place the emphasis upon critiquing models rather than the task itself and their personal learning. It is therefore important that you reflect the emphasis you wish to seek within your assessment schedule.

To increase the synthesis, and the ability for personal and confidential reflection, you may wish to create a format in which the students regularly capture thoughts and feelings, but keep this as a personal document (diary, blog or video diary) from which the submission is created. This synthesised version of their learning and reflections build an understanding of their personal development over time and allows for honest and uncensored self-reporting and reflection. Again the structure/control of the format/questions can be loose and open (providing only sources and reference to guide) or highly prescriptive (working within a template or with specific tools/questions) to ensure that the key elements of learning (including emotional elements and confidence) are a required feature of the submission.

Skill Development

Personal reflection is a tremendous skill, but is often difficult for students to develop, particularly during a period of study, with little or no external reference points or practical application. It is therefore recommended that this is an assessed piece, so that the value of reflection is made clear. It is therefore important that you, as the tutor, place importance upon the development of this skill and take class-time to consider what is meant by reflection practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning.what is meant by reflective practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning. It is also important to consider the formative as well summative assessment within this process, as reflective skills are improved through regular practice, and this form part of your regular teaching. It is important that you 'model' a reflective approach with the students by including reflective questions onto your regular contact with them, and making reflection an explicit aspect of your activity/classroom debrief. Making this explicit within your teaching will reinforce the student's understanding of reflection as an activity to repeated and practiced, as well as help them see how reflective questioning or models can deepen their understanding, and build confidence in their abilities.

Resources

Three stem questions (Borton T 1970) were further developed by John Driscoll (1994, 2000, 2007)

  • What?
  • So what?
  • Now what?
  • Driscoll Reflective Questions (2000) - Download (PDF | 843KB)
  • Gibbs's reflective Cycle - Download (PDF | 843KB)
  • Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) - Download (PDF | 843KB)
  • Task template for individual (adapted from Reflective Learning Diary Template sourced from Burns, T and Sinfield, S (2012) "Essential Study Skills" Third Edition SAGE (photocopiable; printable) - Download (PDF | 843KB)

References

  • Burns, T and Sinfield, S (2012) "Essential Study Skills" Third Edition SAGE
  • Gibb's reflective cycle: from Gibbs, G (1988) "Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods"
  • Atkins and Murphy Model from Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard 8(39) 49-56
  • Driscoll, J (2000) Practising Clinical Supervision Edinburgh Bailliere Tindall

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Peter Brown (University of South Wales). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- peter.brown@southwales.ac.uk.

Business Idea Competition: Stimulating and Supporting Entrepreneurship in the Highlands and Islands (QAA1234567)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To stimulate entrepreneurial effectiveness (QAA 2012) cross campus
  • To demonstrate entrepreneurial practice across the region
  • To promote creative thinking, problem solving and wider entrepreneurial skills

Introduction: 

Each year an institution and region wide Business Idea Competition is run as a broad tool to stimulate and support entrepreneurship in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. The competition promotes creative thinking and problem solving for learners at all stages of the learning journey including upon graduation. Our institution comprises a network of tertiary colleges and research centres, spread across the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. The competition was devised and is organised by Create, an Enterprise and Innovation Learning centre based within Inverness College UHI and delivered across the university and all partner institutions including the surrounding Highlands and Islands community (subject to T&Cs).

Activity: 

The competition is supported across campus to significantly raise ‘Enterprise Awareness’ (via induction, workshops, talks, e-comms), develop ‘Entrepreneurial Mindset’ (through intensive engagement and support to submit entries to the competition with learners from all faculties) and for some students (who progress in the competition and beyond) to start to develop their ‘Entrepreneurial Capabilities’. We have examples of this being delivered as an extra curricula workshop/activity and within the curriculum as a tool to aid experiential learning.

The competition opens in August each year and is promoted widely across the university, all colleges and research centres and in the local community.  Lecture ‘shouts’ and workshops have proven to be the most effective technique to engage the broadest range of staff and learners.  Short films are included on our website to give tips on entering. 

Online entries seek information on an idea, inspiration, resources, next steps rather than a business plan. It was inspired by the culturally popular ‘Dragons Den’ but was dubbed the friendly ‘Highland Dragons Den’. Plenty of support is provided for developing application, pitching and presenting.  Independent and experienced judges are engaged each year and relevant follow-up support and advice is offered to all entrants. For winning entrants, start-up support is offered in addition to cash prizes.

Impact: 

CREATE has worked closely with regional partners and the business community to ensure the competition reaches the maximum potential budding entrepreneurs across the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.  The competition was launched in 2006 with 27 entrants and has grown significantly to 150 entrants in 2014 representing all industry sectors and parts of the region.  Subsequent business start-ups in both the commercial and social sector have proved to be a recognised economic benefit to the region.  

In addition to business start-up, it is considered that the competition also has two key impacts: it significantly enhances ‘Enterprise Awareness’ across curricula areas (both academic/careers staff and students); and helps to encourage stronger working relationships with local business and enterprise support organisations.

Learner outcome: 

This activity shows how education ‘for’ enterprise can successfully engage a wide range of students, staff and members of the community both within and outside the curriculum. Over the years, more teaching and career staff are building in this opportunity as an awareness raising and experiential tool for learners at all levels. Those who participate, are extremely positive about the experience and can articulate evidence of creative thinking, opportunity spotting, and business awareness and, for those who proceed in the competition, they are able to develop their presentation, commercial awareness and network building skills. They talk of an increase in confidence and greater awareness of ‘know who’ and ‘be known’. Through CPD sessions, more academic staff now have the confidence to introduce these concepts and encourage learners to try this opportunity ‘to make something happen’ which adds to a student’s experience of how it ‘feels’ to be enterprising, which is very much in tune with the philosophy of enterprise education.

For 2015/6, we are extending the competition to early stage start-ups as we find many entrepreneurs start to test their idea earlier each year and still benefit from this type of engagement and encouragement.

Resources: 

Partnership: A critical success factor for this type of region wide initiative is partnership working.  Within the institution, we engage with Deans, Faculty and Subject Leaders as well as Careers and Student Services areas. 

Externally, this initiative has helped to build strong working partnerships which have grown year on year with local enterprise support organisations (Business Gateway, Prince’s Trust Youth Business Scotland, HISEZ, FirstPort and SIE) together with an extensive range of regional businesses (large corporates and SMEs) who wish to be associated with helping to build a vibrant entrepreneurial culture.

Funding: The activity has been substantially funded by institutional funding with support in the early years from the local enterprise agency, latterly EU funding sources and local council funds. All prizes (£8,000 in 2015) are sourced via sponsorship from local business and enterprise support organisations which CREATE attracts each year.

References:

http://www.createhighland.com/

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

New Applications for Lab Practice (QAA 1,2)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation

Objective

  • To practice key techniques in the lab
  • To apply experimental practice to ‘real world’ environment
  • To explore for new opportunities and applications of key skills in new settings and commercial environments

Introduction

This ‘revamp’ of pre-existing module has been highly successful in broadening the students approach and experience of the ‘real world’ application, without requiring revalidation of the module objectives. The traditional approach of weekly lab-practicals was typically delivered with a method sheet and work plan for the students to follow in order to refresh their practical lab skills. Additional information relating to the application of these techniques within local small businesses or as global opportunities for new markets, has refreshed the programme and created opportunities for idea creation and evaluation.

Activity

This final year module was traditionally offered to refresh lab techniques and reinforce key methods. In order to deepen the skill development, it was possible to find a ‘real-world’ application of each technique and provide a small vignette about each company using this approach. Details were provided regarding the potential market, income stream and how this process added value, together with the traditional lab/method outline. During their practical work student groups were encouraged to consider.

  • Possible new markets for this technique
  • Extensions of the product offer
  • Development of the technique (to reduce cost; improve speed and safety on a commercial scale)

And invited to research the company and approach during the week, for discussion at the next practical. This allowed for additional market research to be included in their proposed approach and their understanding of the market-use of their skills be deepened.

Impact

The impact was significant as this ‘revision’ model was enlivened by the real-world examples and discussions that then naturally occurred between the teams and across the group. Quick research (from smart phones and tablets) within the groups allowed for ideas to be developed or dismissed and extensions of thinking develop from undertaking the process.

The impact was beneficial in terms of the commercial understanding of the students, but also improved their interest and retention of this module.

Learner Outcome

The outcomes for the students saw the revision of their practical skills firmly anchored in the ‘real-world’. For final year students, this learning supported the transition out of the University and into first jobs and felt very relevant. All the students responded well to the new information and absorbed the additional task within the traditional time allowed.

Resources

Lab practical – undertaken in lab with pre-drafted method and notes – supported by the creation of individual vignettes relating to the commercial or practical use of each technique.

This are created through research (desk) as well as through contacts with business and industry (local companies using the approaches and techniques).

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price (Enterprise Evolution).

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Case Studies:

Can be found in Higher Education Academy booklet (2014) Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education Case Studies

This HEA case study describes the module Enterprise and Employability, a taught Environmental Sciences module at the University of Ulster.

Enterprise Educators UK (EEUK) publish case studies that demonstrate the impact of their enterprise and entrepreneurship education from their members, including "Formation Zone" from Plymouth University.

Enterprise, Skills and Entrepreneurship Resource Pack

was developed through the HEA GEES Subject Centre project run in 2005. It is a collection of information, ideas, examples of practice and case studies which is intended to provide a starting point for those interested in including elements of enterprise/entrepreneurship within their modules or courses in geography, earth or environmental sciences. It can be found through the HEA website
https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resource/enterprise-skills-and-entrepreneurship-resource-pack

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf