Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

Highlighting approaches and resources to keep your enterprise/entrepreneurship offer available

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Action Plan Template

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

 

  • Following this template, the learner will be able to organise priorities, identify goals (actions to achieve them, and constraints to achieving them), identify the help and support available to them, and set deadlines.

 

Overview:

 

This simple template allows learners to organise and prioritise the actions required to achieve a given goal; to identify all requirements to achieve each action; all constraints to achieving each action; to organise the help and support which relates to each action, and to set deadlines and monitor progress.

This is applicable to learners starting up their own businesses, and equally can support learners with all other projects and endeavours.

 

Activity:

 

Learners can complete and use the following basic template;

 

Goals Actions to Achieve these Goals Requirements Constraints Who or What Can Help Me Target Date for Action
EXAMPLE EXAMPLE EXAMPLE EXAMPLE EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
Branding Logo Time None Focus Groups 1st March
  Website Money      
  Business Cards        
           
Staff Employment Process Clear Information No idea where to start Matthew Draycott 1st June
  Understand Law     Local Authority Support  
  Payment Scheme        

 

Resources:

 

  • Print out of template
  • A pen

 

References:

 

 

                                                    

About the Author
This guide was produced by Matthew Draycott.

Reflective Learning Diary (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To reflect upon learning journey 
  • To acknowledge individual or team “learning gain” experienced over time (process; project; task; or period of learning/study)
  • To articulate skill development (soft skills) and personal insights (in team dynamics, personal progression or learning)
  • Option to support future development:
    to provide the opportunity to identify gaps in learning or development and create a personal action plan for personal development and future learning.

Overview:

This task provides an opportunity to reflect on the learning gained during particular tasks for activities (ideally should be of “medium” length, such as intense induction programmes, week long activities or longer learning ‘events’ (modules or years of study). This can be particularly effective in terms of drawing out “change” or learning gain as identified by the learner themselves. 

This approach provides an opportunity to reflect upon a wide range of individual development (including emotional development and confidence levels) as well as recognising improvement in the development of skills.  

Traditionally physical diaries were issued to encourage students to write regularly and informally, however the wide range of multi-media (through smart phones and tablets) also allows students to select their own format (s) or trial the use of a new media tool for this purpose (ideally agreed in advance with tutor to avoid IT issues in viewing).  A learning diary is therefore a tool of reflection which can take a variety of forms.  

Key considerations for the tutor include:

  • media (format options include: written essay or report; video diary; podcast; voice memos; photos/collage; or a combination of approaches) 
  • structure (open; templates; prompts or based on prescribed reflective models and frameworks, or those sourced by the student)
  • formalised base line (questionnaire or status review at the start, to review at the end)
  • inclusive of theory and wider reading (whilst some learning diaries are entirely “personal” and seek to draw out the development of softer skills and personal ‘learning gain’ others seek the inclusion of wider reading and theory development to evidence change and thought)
  • assessment (% within modules vary though typically it is used as part of an assessment strategy, though can stand alone when used to capture and review a full programme year or team task activity.)  

NB: Consideration of how to create “value” is key in determining the role/purpose of this approach within an assessment strategy or within a programme. Typically students value activities that the tutor places a value on, and their currency is marks/assessment.  However as diary is, by definition, a subjective view, and should reflect what the student has heard, learnt and reviewed, it is the student’s own analysis and insights that count, and clear marking parameters and guidance need to be provided to ensure clarity.

Activity:

Issuing this task should be done at the start of the activity that you wish the learners to reflect upon.  Ideally you encourage (or set) answering a range of open-ended questions, delighted to understand their initial position as they approach this learning/task.  This may include expanding upon their prior understanding or life experience, as relevant to this work.
Once the activities are being undertaken, reflective models can be issued or sourced by the students to support their thinking.  However you may wish to provide a set of reflective questions at regular intervals as prompts to their developing thinking.  

This activity can be highly prescriptive, with set timescales at which you expect stages of reflection to be completed (as relating to the task being undertaken) however it is also possible to make this an open task, where the approach and learning is with the student to design and undertake. This allows the learner to explore, source and select their own model for reflection and test its effectiveness as a tool for their development during the process.  This additional skills of research, evaluation and comparative analysis but risks diluting the quality of the reflection if the students place the emphasis upon critiquing models rather than the task itself and their personal learning.  It is therefore important that you reflect the emphasis you wish to seek within your assessment schedule.

To increase the synthesis, and the ability for personal and confidential reflection, you may wish to create a format in which the students regularly capture thoughts and feelings, but keep this as a personal document (diary, blog or video diary) from which the submission is created.  This synthesised version of their learning and reflections build an understanding of their personal development over time and allows for honest and uncensored self-reporting and reflection.  Again the structure/control of the format/questions can be loose and open (providing only sources and reference to guide) or highly prescriptive (working within a template or with specific tools/questions) to ensure that the key elements of learning (including emotional elements and confidence) are a required feature of the submission.

Skill Development:

Personal reflection is a tremendous skill, but is often difficult for students to develop, particularly during a period of study, with little or no external reference points or practical application.  It is therefore recommended that this is an assessed piece, so that the value of reflection is made clear.

It is therefore important that you, as the tutor, place importance upon the development of this skill and take class-time to consider what is meant by reflection practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning, what is meant by reflective practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning. 

It is also important to consider the formative as well summative assessment within this process, as reflective skills are improved through regular practice, and this form part of your regular teaching.  It is important that you ‘model’ a reflective approach with the students by including reflective questions onto your regular contact with them, and making reflection an explicit aspect of your activity/classroom debrief.  Making this explicit within your teaching will reinforce the student’s understanding of reflection as an activity to be repeated and practiced, as well as help them see how reflective questioning or models can deepen their understanding and build confidence in their abilities.

Resources:

Three stem questions (Borton T1970) were further developed by John Driscoll (1994, 2000, 2007)

  • What?
  • So what?
  • Now what?

 

References:

  • Burns, T and Sinfield, S (2012) “Essential Study Skills” Third Edition SAGE 
  • Gibb’s reflective cycle: from Gibbs, G (1988) “Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods” 
  • Atkins and Murphy Model from Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard 8(39) 49-56
  • Driscoll, J (2000) Practising Clinical Supervision Edinburgh BailliereTindall

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Capacity Planning (recognising business constraints) (QAA 3, 4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

  • To ensure that the business owner calculated and taken into consideration the factors that may place limits or constraints on the business productivity.
  • To give clearer picture of how the business will be managed on a day to day basis.
  • To show that capacity plan relates directly to business sales and cashflow forecasts.

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for the entrepreneur/ small business owner to estimate the capacity of their proposed business in the tables, then summarise this information and consider what measures they would take if they were not working to full capacity or if were working to overcapacity. 

Activity:

How many hours per week will you require to fulfil all the functions of the new business?

By reflecting on the business presented, does the entrepreneur/ small business owner already have some equipment, stock, staff, premises and how much total hours/time spent in service, production, preparation etc. that are/can be used in the business?

 

  1. how many hours will be spend making product, designing advertising leaflets, writing new menus, dealing with telephone enquiries, making sales, ordering stock, shopping, cleaning the premises etc.?
  2. Will the business requires additional staff either at the start or once sales increase, which would increase production demands?
  3. What is the most beneficial role for new staff to play?
  4. Choosing the right person for the right job is crucial in order to maximise the effects of the financial outlay on business profits?
  5. Estimating the right level of stock?
  6. Need investing money in lots of equipment?
  7. Do you need space in your business?

Once the entrepreneur/ small business owner have broadly identified the above issues, it’s advised that they conduct an in-depth capacity planning exercise analysis covering areas and sections as follows:

Time

  • Think about the hours of business you will operate (opening hours). Will this be 9-5 or will your hours be more flexible i.e. longer hours, evenings or weekends?
  • How many hours a week will be spent in production, design or ordering and controlling stock?
  • If you are making/manufacturing a product how many products can you make in a day?
  • How much time will be spent interacting with customers, selling and travelling?
  • Take into account the additional activities that will take up your time on top of production and sales.
  • At what point will you employ staff, work with a partner or subcontract?

 Staff

  • Decide if and when you will need to employ staff.  
  • Include information about their roles, necessary skills and experience, any training they may require, working hours and levels of pay.
  • Give details of any rota that you will be working to.
  • Include job descriptions and C.V.s in the appendix.

 Stock: Thinking about your stock levels:

  • How much cash can you afford to tie up in stock?
  • How quickly can your suppliers deliver?
  • How regularly will you need to re-order?
  • How frequently will you change/up-date your stock lines?
  • Will you stock high turnover / low profit items or high profit / slow turnover items?
  • Will you have any special storage requirements for stock e.g. temperature, valuables?
  • Will you require a license to store stock e.g. hazardous substances, livestock?

 Equipment

  • Is the equipment absolutely necessary?
  • What equipment will you require should you expand to provide further services?
  • Who will operate it and will they require training and/or a licence?
  • What insurance and maintenance will be required for the equipment?
  • Should you lease or purchase?
  • Have you got the space?

 Space

  • Are you going to work from home, will you expand to an office or unit?
  • Will you need space for storage of stock and equipment?
  • How will you secure/insure this space, do items require special conditions e.g. temperature, ventilation?
  • Will you need more space with an increase in staff?

Once the above capacity issues have been completed, it is only then that the operational aspect of running the business can be estimated. The owner will have to calculate whether the cost involved will increase production capacity sufficiently to meet demand and still make a profit or the other way round.  If operation costs are higher than at first anticipated, it may be that the new business owner needs to re-evaluate these costs. For example, consideration of renting items of equipment instead of buying, subcontracting production.  Time, equipment, space and stock are all linked together and dictate the production capacity of the business and also consider staffing. 

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Huda Mamoun (Senior Business Advisor, The Women's Organisation).

Developing a Personal Survival Budget (QAA 3,4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objectives:

  • To ensure the potential new business owner knows exactly how much income the business needs to sufficiently generate, in order to cover personal living costs to survive.  

  • To analyse how financial circumstances may change when becoming self-employed.

Overview:

When setting up a business, the first thing to do is work out exactly how much money the business needs to make to support the individual.  This ‘Personal Survival Budget’ activity is designed, so that the new business owner knows exactly how much money the business needs to make, in order  to support and cover personal expenditure.  This is critical to ensure that business and household expenses are kept separate and to support business decision making and planning.

Activity:

This takes approximately 20-30 mins to complete the template below.
1. First of all, remember that you are only calculating your personal expenditure, not any expenses the business may incur.
2. Ensure that you include all of the items that you have the responsibility to pay for in your household. If you have any other items of expenditure that do not appear on the list, include them in the ‘other’ box.
3. Secondly, remember that your financial circumstances will change when you become self-employed, as you will begin paying class two national insurance contributions monthly, and any benefits that you are currently entitled to, such as housing/council tax benefit, may reduce or stop. If you are not sure what benefits you may be entitled to, seek advice from a Welfare Rights Advisor.
4. Finally, the budget is based on your expenditure per month, so if there are bills that you pay weekly, quarterly, or annually, remember to divide them by the appropriate amount.

Items of Expenditure

Monthly £

 

Rent/ Mortgage

£

Council Tax

£

Water

£

Utilities (gas, electricity, water, oil, etc

£

Phone

£

Food

£

TV License

£

Home/ Life Insurance

£

Loan/ Credit cards/ personal debt repayments

£

Newspapers/ Magazines

£

Car Tax/ Insurance

£

NI Contributions

£

Saving Plans

£

Other

£

Total Expenditure

£

 

5. Now that you have established your average monthly expenditure, the next step is to identify any income that you may already have, or possibly claim for, to help meet this expenditure. Again remember that this is a monthly budget. Depending on your personal circumstances, you may receive some, all or none of the items below:

Estimated Income Outside Self-Employment

Monthly £

Income from family/partner - parents

£

Part-time job

£

Full-time job

£

Benefits

£

Other income

£

Total Income Outside Self-Employment

£

6. To give a new business the best chance of survival, it is best to minimise your drawings as much as possible in the first year to avoid getting into debt. For this reason we establish the minimum drawings that you could take form the business and ‘survive’. This is calculated by taking the total income (above) from the total expenditure . What remains will be the minimum amount that you could draw from the business per month in order to survive.

Minimum drawings calculation

Monthly £

Total expenditure

£

Total income outside self employment

£

Total expenditure less total income

£

NB. In some cases, your income may exceed your expenditure. This occurs when there is already enough income coming into the household to cover all the bills, and drawings from the business are not ‘necessary’. In this case it is best to set very low drawings to allow the business a healthy cash flow.

Skill Development:

  • Reflection

  • Financial analysis and budgeting

  • Rationalising

  • Decision making

Resources:

  • Flip Chart / Power point (if presenting in a group)

  • Calculator

  • Hand out the following template for the entrepreneur/ small business owner to complete (link)

 

Template to hand out to business owner / entrepreneur

To help estimate the minimum amount of monthly drawings that you need to take from the business to cover all your personal day to day living costs, please complete the tables below and add any other items of personal expenditure that may not be on the list.

 

Items of Expenditure

Monthly £

 

Rent/ Mortgage

£

Council Tax

£

Water

£

Utilities (gas, electricity, water, oil, etc

£

Phone

£

Food

£

TV License

£

Home/ Life Insurance

£

Loan/ Credit cards/ personal debt repayments

£

Newspapers/ Magazines

£

Car Tax/ Insurance

£

NI Contributions

£

Saving Plans

£

Other

£

Total Expenditure

£

 

 

In the table below please list any income outside self employment that you receive such as: Income from Partner/ Tax credits/ Child benefits/ House Keep

 

Estimated Income Outside Self-Employment

Monthly £

Income from family/partner - parents

£

Part-time job

£

Full-time job

£

Benefits

£

Other income

£

Total Income Outside Self-Employment

£

 

 

Minimum drawings calculation

Monthly £

Total expenditure

£

Total income outside self employment

£

Total expenditure less total income

£

 

This section highlights that you will need to draw a minimum of £_____ from the business to cover all personal day to day living costs.

 

References:

https://www.princes-trust.org.uk/help-for-young-people/tools-resources/business-tools/finance-advice

 

 

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Franchine Taylor (Senior Business Advisor at The Women's Organisation).

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

EEUK have provided a short guide to help you think through taking your institutional offer online

Support to help you (if you are running a budget or a team) as well to help you guide others (to provide resources for your clients, beneficiaries and business starts, including trading businesses) can be found on the FSB site 
This is kept up to date and is worth scrolling down to appreciate the breadth of topics/support.

in particular you might wish to read:

https://www.fsb.org.uk/resources-page/how-to-create-a-business-continuity-plan.html

Support your team to work at home: https://wonkhe.com/blogs/five-ways-to-wellbeing-when-working-from-home/