Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Written and oral communication skills in a variety of contexts and modes
  • Skills of time planning and management
  • Group work skills

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Communication Icebreaker (Physical) (QAA 4,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives: 

  • Ice breaker (which builds a connection between pairs)
  • Participants will have to interact and adapt their communication skills to help their team member 
  • Participants will reflect and evaluate their performance as a pair
  • Improve communication and listening skills and to highlight the importance of trust when working in a team or pair

Overview: 

This physical task engages the whole person in supporting a colleague and ensuring their safety through good communication.  The activity can be used at any time during the session, however it is highly effective as and ice breaker.  It is a fun method to start participants communicating and is simple to deliver in an appropriate environment and can be adjusted depending upon group size, age etc. However health and safety is paramount and you must consider the appropriateness of the group and room for this challenge.

Activity:

You should initiative this activity by stressing the nature of the challenge and stressing that the safety of those involved is paramount.  You can also agree across the group that “stop” can be initiated by any member of the team by raising a hand if they don’t feel that it is safe to proceed.  This can be actioned by anyone and will not result in any penalties.

To run the task, gather the group outside the room and:

  1. Scatter furniture that can be used as obstacles but ensuring that safety is not compromised. 
  2. Put team members into pairs and should decide amongst them who is to be blindfolded first. 
  3. The sighted and blindfolded member should stand at one end of the room. 
  4. Aim of the task is for the sighted individual to guide their partner across the room and giving concise information to avoid the obstacles. 
  5. Once each team reaches the other side, the pairs are to swap roles 

It could also be possible to create a preferred route or course (as seen in horse show jumping) which they need to accomplish (if you didn’t wish to use obstacles for safety or mobility reasons) which would lead the pair to particular numbers/letters indicated on the wall.

Subject specialisms could also be tested by placing knowledge based answers on the walls and asking the pairs to walk to their answer through the course (see QAARunaround for details of how to do a multiple choice but don’t mix the games in play for safety reasons).

Skill Development: 

This task requires listening and communication skills and also helps builds trust and connections across the pairings.  However the skill development and improved future practice comes from evaluating performance across the group and understanding how and when particular techniques were effective and what lessons that provides for the future.  It is important to acknowledge fears and concerns, or frustrations between the pairings but keep the discussion to the general learning, rather than focusing upon particular experiences of individual pairings as the depth of learning will come from the lessons that can be applied in future group work or communication challenges.  These lessons include clear communication; agreeing ground rules for working together; recognising the need of feedback or support; understanding the importance of clear short messages within these circumstances etc.

Resources:

  • Blindfolds
  • Large room  - large, safe, open space
  • Items that can be used as obstacles which will act as safe barriers (not fall over; not hurt if walked into – no sharp edges)

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Engaging Alumni for Real World Learning (QAA 2, 3, 4, 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

Effective engagement of Alumni seeks to support the students to become:

  • be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions
  • review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk.

Overview:

With the pre-arranged (and prolonged) support of alumni (now professionals) this approach of continued access to external professionals (ideally programme/course Alumni) is designed to prepare students to be able to engage with real clients and better enable them to respond proactively to change.

Externals are invited to engage with the current student group as they undertake a task, using social media (facebook; twitter etc) an/or Skype. This creates either incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment or regular support or feedback on course work from externals.

Activity

This approach needs pre-agreement and commitment of externals (ideally Programme/course Alumni) who commit to short, but regular interaction through social media or Skype.

This activity can either be driven by a live brief or challenge identified by the external (higher level of engagement) or as comment and support to those undertaking the programme, through sharing expertise and current work experiences. If the students are working on a live brief or task given by the external, this high level of interactivity can mean that summative deadlines can changedand information updated, and the newsworthy or other high profile influences can be included throughout the module. (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni professional).

This engagement can be “managed” by the tutor – to pre-plan some ambiguity or pre-agreed change of brief/scope with the Alumni contact, or left open to allow access to externals as an organic relationship, where advice may be sought by the students or experience/daily practice shared by the Professional as they see fit.

In addition, any presentation /show case or final assignment submission can be shared with the external and their input made part of the summative or formative feedback (assessment strategy).

Note that the choice of social media will impact on the type of engagement between alumni and students, but ideally something that the Alumni member uses regularly will ensure more regular engagement. Even small inputs (as typically seen in social media such as Twitter) can guide student approach and ensure that they are able to ask private questions, and that other students can also learn from the mentor/alumni generic comments or insights.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the level and type of engagement, students can benefit from insights from a ‘typical day/week’ of a professional working in their area, or be pushed to develop their tolerance to ambiguity (through changing deadlines, or unexpected changes to the brief or additional information). This can build resilience in the students but there needs to be clear expectations of this relationship, as well as additional tutor support.

Students typically respond well to changes and additional insights from professional Alumni and can develop their understanding and judgement, in their chosen field, whilst gaining further insight regarding professional practice.

Students should be bought together to share their experience of virtually engaging with their Alumni contact and explore their emotional responses to the changing briefs or additional information. They need to explore, and develop strategies, for coping with ‘real world’ brief/challenges and exploringthis together, and sharing how they dealt with it, and could deal with it in the future, builds their confidence and resilience to change. Using reflective practice to consider the learning across the group can draw out a range of key lessons for preparing for future challenges.

Resources:

Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project or to commit to regular updating/comment for a pre-agreed period of time.

References:

Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).

Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)

Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)

Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) ‘When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes’, Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410

Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna, University of Wales, Trinity St David.

Production Line (QAA 4,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objectives:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • To explore and establish methods of production for a simple products
  • To understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation
  • Understanding processes and procedures
  • Replicating methods

Overview

This task focuses a group of people to organise themselves to set up a production line to exactly replicate an existing product as many times as possible in set amount of time. They are giveqaan the opportunity to reflect on and improve their approach twice to increase efficiency, quality and productivity. This gives participants and others the opportunity to see how their own and other behaviour, ideas, approach affects the development and outcome of the task and how by working together and reflecting and analysing a situation it can be adapted and improved going forward.

Activity:

This activity could take from 30 minutes to a couple of hours depending on how much review, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

Group gathers around a table with all the resources on it. There is a sample product : a booklet with 13 squares of paper 10cm x 10cm, secured with 2 staples in a x shape in the top left hand corner of the booklet.

The group is asked to put together a production line replicating this booklet. They will have 2 minutes to discuss how they think they could best do thisand to allocate roles. Then 3 minutes to put this into practice and produce as many booklets as possible. When the time is up the facilitator then countsand inspects the finished products, looking for quality and accuracy ie:

  • Correct number of sheets
  • Correct size
  • Cut lines are straight
  • There are 2 staples
  • Staples are in the right place
  • Staples are crossed correctly

The group then gets 2 minutes to discuss and review their methods, systems and procedures and come up with improvements or a different approach. They then get another 3 minutes on the production line to best their last score.

The above process is then repeated for a third time.

This could be done with any size group as long as there are sufficient facilitators to split into smaller groups. The optimum numbers in each group wouldbe between 6 and 10, however multiple groups could be working at the same time. They would have to work at the same time so as not to hear the discussion of other groups.

Skill Development:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Efficiency/Productivity
  • Quality Control
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

As has been described this task involves many different skills and objectives on all different levels and can be assessed and analysed either briefly or in great depth across some or all of the objectives. For example, if this is an exercise for managers or recruiters to assess staff skills and abilities it can be finished there at the end of the last count. However it can be extended further, so each team then breaks off with a facilitator to analyse what happened at each stage and why.

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the review and analysis go, who took the lead, someone different? How were news ideas taken on board.
  • What changed the next time, was there an improvement, if so why
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

For example : the focus could just be on the outcomes, ie the quality and quantity of the finished products. Often the first time, people are rushing and slapdash and may do quite a few but get a lot rejected, so need to slow down. Or get them all passed but do a small number, so need to speed up. So it's finding that balance between speed and quality/accuracy.

Or the focus can be on the review and reflection, how the method was changed or improved each time to give better results.

Or the focus can be on the team dynamics how they evolved through each stage, or on the leadership and management of the task and how that changed and fluctuated at each stage, how the balance of power shifted as the task went along.

Or it could very much focus on the individual, the role they played, how this evolved, how they felt, how they were affected by the different characters,how they affected other members in the group, positively or negatively what they would do differently next time.

Depending on whether the focus is on 1 or 2 of the objectives and skills or all of them, all of these and more angles can be identified and explored after the task.

Resources:

Large sheets of paper (A3 or larger, could use old newspapers) minimum of 60 sheets per team, pens, pencils, markers, rulers, scissors, staplers.

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Team Building Time Challenge (QAA 4,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Outside

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • Understanding the importance of careful research, discussion and planning
  • Listening to other members of the team
  • Research
  • Idea generation
  • Sales, persuasion techniques (as needed)

Overview

This exercise is a fantastic way to get people working together as they tackle up to 10 tasks in a given time frame. With limited information (on each other and the tasks presented) the group must navigate through the challenges in order to be the most successful group (back within the time frame; most tasks achieved; most accurate delivery of the tasks). Depending on the tasks selected, specific industry or sector knowledge can be tested as widerskills of background knowledge, research and creative thinking are required. Insist upon evidence of the achievements (photos on flip or camera phones) as well as delivery of objectives.

Activity : This activity needs a long session (such as 120 minutes) to complete, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

The groups of up to 6 people are sent out to complete > 10 tasks (usually 3 cryptic, 3 researched and 4 fun)

Examples of these could include:

  • To find an encryption or statue (or similar engraving) in the University Library
  • Two examples of their subject/discipline in practice (photographs or illustrations of)
  • Interview a relevant professional in the field
  • Find a particular journal article
  • How many people can you fit in a phone box
  • Share a message on social media as widely as possible

These tasks should be developed beforehand to suit the environment where the day is taking place. Ensure there are fun tasks involved and that everyone has a chance to engage by creating a range of challenges that involve the physical, mental, social aspects of your learners.

To manage this challenge effectively, if it important that you:

  • Give strict time frames and penalties for not meeting the time
  • Consider the health and safety aspects of all the challenges and adapt to suit your learners (by keeping everyone on campus; in 1 building; or keeping all the tasks within the 1 room etc as necessary).
  • Consider whether you wish to keep them all together as a team or are happy for individuals to split off to deliver tasks back to the group.

Practically it can also be helpful to give them a puzzle to solve before they can leave and a further one when they return. This means they are leaving at different times and they return to a final challenge, so that you can record time and award points.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the challenges you create, there is a wide range of transferable skills and knowledge base that you can test during this challenge. You can create tasks that draw upon their:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Route Planning
  • Research skills
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

It is important that you review the challenges and how the groups tackled the tasks in order to draw out the subject learning and these wider skills, before reviewing the wider team experience by exploring:

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who planned the route
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved
  • How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

Drawing out the team dynamics will allow the students to identify the lessons that they can take forward that will improve their future group work and learning experiences.

Ask if they started by sharing their knowledge and skill set or just started on the tasks (the most typical response) and whether they would do that again. Ask when, or if they ever start a task by reviewing when they have collectively or individually undertaken something similar and what was learnt that they could take forward.

Resources:

  • Prepared tasks – such as Two indoor puzzles/tasks
  • Research the area for tasks to complete
  • A flip phone or check if students have their own camera phone
  • Flip boards or wall space to show evidence
  • A prize
  • A timer or watch

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

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Case Examples

Student Mentoring (QAA 1, 2, 3, 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To support students' personal development
  • To support the development of students intra and extra-curricular projects and enterprises.
  • To provide students with opportunities to develop ideas, take actions and reflect on progress.
  • To assist students in identifying and exploiting networks and support available to them.

Introduction:

At Glyndwr University, every student and graduate is offered the support of a dedicated mentor to support them in their enterprising endeavours, facilitated through the University's ZONE Enterprise Hub (this mentoring has been both core funded by the institution, and supported through the pan-Wales HEFCW funded Enterprise Support Programme).

zone

Figure 1: ZONE Enterprise Hub at Glyndwr University

In the period July 2014 – July 2015, 158 such mentoring appointments were conducted, supporting the creation and development of 40 new businesses.

This mentoring takes many forms, and plays a vital role in students' development in a number of ways. This can range from supporting the development of clear and original ideas, to facilitating effective reflection and evaluation on progress, to providing specific contacts and information to address aproblem, or exploit an opportunity.

This mentoring has been delivered one-to-one, and one-to-many, sometimes as a standalone occurrence, and sometimes developing into relationships that persist for a considerable length of time.

Beneficiaries of this mentoring service have come from all programmes and levels of study, with enquiries ranging from looking to launch businesses, to requiring support with enterprising projects related to their academic study, to those looking for broader personal development.

The following is an indicative example of how the mentoring service has been utilised by one such student.

Activity:

Mentee - Animal Studies – Recent Graduate

Figure 1. The ZONE Enterprise Hub at Glyndwr University

A recent graduate from the University's BSc (Hons) Animal Studies Programme used the mentoring service, looking for support in starting up her own businesses, a pet sitting service for exotic animals.

The graduate had excellent subject knowledge, from her academic study and associated work experience, and had developed a business plan, but required support with the formalities of turning the idea into a real business.

Through conversation in the mentoring environment, the specific needs of the graduate were identified, allowing each of these needs to be addressed in turn. This was inclusive of providing web links and written information regarding business registration and tax obligations and introductions to businesssupport and professional advisors available within the area where her new business would be operating. All of these were sourced from ZONE Enterprise Hubs existing networks with various regional and national business support organisations.

Following the initial appointment, it proved impractical for the graduate to engage in further face-to-face appointments, but via social media engagement and email correspondence, additional support and development opportunities were shared and discussed.

Impact:

The graduate opted not to launch her business in the short term, but to pursue the full time, industry relevant employment she currently held. However, the mentoring intervention left her better equipped with knowledge and understanding of the actions required to start-up when the moment was right for her, and the post-mentoring continued engagement via email and social media platforms ensured that, as a direct result of mentoring, the graduate had numerous opportunities to engage in further personal and business development.

Resources:

For further examples of mentoring, see Education Studies and Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences and Environmental Studies.

References:

Zone Enterprise Hub. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at:

https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37%2522%2520target%253D%2522_blank%2522. [Accessed 24 August 2015].

Author:

With thanks to ZONE Enterprise Hub, Glyndwr University

 

Student Mentoring (QAA 1,2,3,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To support students' personal development
  • To support the development of students intra and extra-curricular projects and enterprises.
  • To provide students with opportunities to develop ideas, take actions and reflect on progress.
  • To assist students in identifying and exploiting networks and support available to them.

Introduction:

At Glyndwr University, every student and graduate is offered the support of a dedicated mentor to support them in their enterprising endeavours, facilitated through the University's ZONE Enterprise Hub (this mentoring has been both core funded by the institution, and supported through the pan-Wales HEFCW funded Enterprise Support Programme).

ZONE

Figure 1: ZONE Enterprise Hub at Glyndwr University

In the period July 2014 – July 2015, 158 such mentoring appointments were conducted, supporting the creation and development of 40 new businesses.

This mentoring takes many forms, and plays a vital role in students' development in a number of ways. This can range from supporting the development of clear and original ideas, to facilitating effective reflection and evaluation on progress, to providing specific contacts and information to address aproblem, or exploit an opportunity.

This mentoring has been delivered one-to-one, and one-to-many, sometimes as a standalone occurrence, and sometimes developing into relationships that persist for a considerable length of time.

Beneficiaries of this mentoring service have come from all programmes and levels of study, with enquiries ranging from looking to launch businesses, to requiring support with enterprising projects related to their academic study, to those looking for broader personal development.

The following is an indicative example of how the mentoring service has been utilised by one such student.

Activity:

Mentee – 2x MA Education Students

Figure 1. The ZONE Enterprise Hub at Glyndwr University

Two students of MA education programmes at Glyndwr University attending mentoring appointments, looking for support in developing a new social enterprise, offering a variety of youth services.

The students had extensive subject knowledge, and good business knowledge, gained from both their education and employment, however, both found the mentoring environment to be beneficial as a sounding board for ideas, as a place to stimulate reflection on progress and to plan and prioritise actions, and as a source of motivation as they progressed.

The mentoring relationship consisted of approximately fortnightly appointments over a period of a several months, interspersed by regular email correspondence, providing the students with regular opportunities to report on their progress, reflect on the actions they were taking, to goal set, and to remain motivated.

Once the students had achieved their primary goal of establishing their social enterprise, the intensity of this mentoring relationship was reduced, but through periodic email correspondence, opportunities for continued personal and professional development were promoted and discussed.

Impact:

The mentoring intervention allowed the students to make faster progress than would otherwise have been possible, maintaining their focus, not allowing themselves to dwell on arbitrary decisions, reflecting carefully on important decisions, and through discussion with one another and their mentor, finding effective solutions to problems as they arose.

Upon establishing their social enterprise, the students continued to progress their MA studies, whilst exploring various business opportunities.

Resources:

For further examples of mentoring, see Animal Studies and Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences and Environmental Studies

References:

Zone Enterprise Hub. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37%2522%2520target%253D%2522_blank%2522. [Accessed 24 August 2015].

Author:

With thanks to ZONE Enterprise Hub, Glyndwr University

Teaching the Teachers

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To successfully embed essential procedural knowledge.
  • To enliven a traditionally dry area of the curriculum.
  • To expose students to working within a high pressure, novel, real-world environment.
  • To develop students presentation and communication skills.
  • To develop students teamwork and interpersonal skills.
  • To develop students ability to communicate information effectively to diverse audiences.

Introduction:

In the first year of the Forensic Science undergraduate degree programme at Glyndwr University, students undertake a module in ‘Crime Scene Investigation.’ This module is a core module for all Forensic Science Students, and an elective module popular with students from various degree programmes including media, psychology and the humanities. Students studying this module have a broad range of career ambitions, including work within forensic science and associated services, the police force, criminology and criminal psychology, as well as many others looking to develop broader skills for future graduate level employment and self-employment.

A key part of the module is the learning of the rigorous practices and procedures that must be followed, for example, when handling evidence, or attending a scene of crime, something which can traditionally be one of the drier areas of the course. In working life, a forensic scientist is exposed to unpredictable and high pressure environments, is required to work with diverse teams, where clearly designated roles and effective decision making are essential, and will potentially be required to communicate complex and sensitive information in a number of settings to a diverse range of individuals. As such, we look to embed each of these skills into module delivery throughout the programme. Each of course, is also an enterprising behaviour, which will well equip students irrespective of their future career path.

To enliven this area of the module delivery, we partnered Science Discovery Centre Techniquest Glyndwr (who offer practical workshops on forensic science themes to high school students), and invited our students to train Techniquest Glyndwr’s presenters on various areas of procedural practice.

Activity:

The activity was delivered over a three hour period, with a group of approximately 20 students. Prior to the session, students had been made aware that the subject of the session would be procedural practice (something which had been covered in a traditional lecture format in previous weeks), and recommended key texts to read in preparation, but were given no further information regards the session’s content.

Upon arrival, students were told that in precisely 2 hours’ time, a group of professional educators from Techniquest Glyndwr would be attending, to receive training from the students themselves, on various aspects of procedure (handling evidence, attending a crime scene etc.).

Students were then instructed to organise themselves into small groups (of three to five individuals), select an aspect of procedure from those made available, and to prepare a 10 minute presentation on their chosen aspect. The students were encouraged to use the University library, phones, computers and other resources as they saw fit and report back to the classroom 15 minutes in advance of their presentations. A selection of props, and other presentation materials were provided for groups to use at their discretion.

Once two hours had passed, the students then each presented to their invited audience in turn, with groups observing one another, and fielding conducting a short Q and A at the end of their presentations. The presentation period was an hour in length.

Though the work was not summative, a formative assessment was made for each group.

Impact:

The activity, though simple to organise and deliver, served its purpose in both bringing to life an important, yet dry, area of the curriculum, and in developing the essential enterprise skills needed of the graduates. Though group presentations are often valuable in their own right, key elements that added to the impact of the exercise in this care were the fact that groups were presenting to an external audience, not only their peers, and that groups were given only 2 hours’ notice of the task, and so had to meet the challenge under a particular pressure.

Through its novelty it proved to serve as a strong aide memoir, and was able to support students in the completion of their summative assessed work on the themes covered too.

The activity also served to develop the relationship between the degree programme and the science discovery centre, leading to further opportunities for students to gain professional work experience thereafter.

Learner outcome:

When presented with the challenge, the initial response of the majority of students was one of trepidation, due to the unfamiliar situation into which they were being placed. However, the high pressure environment, novel circumstances, strict time constraints, and real-world context (with presentations being delivered to externals), served to focus the minds of the learners, with students remaining on task, focused, and coordinating responsibilities amongst their groups well.

Students came through their presentations successfully without exception, developing their communication skills and confidence in the process, and the activity ensured that the procedural knowledge was better remembered going forward.

After the activity had taken place, all students reflected that they had found the experience to be an enjoyable and worthwhile one.

Resources:

  • Access to appropriate materials for students to prepare a presentation (i.e. reference books, computers etc.).
  • Rooms with suitable space both for preparation, and group presentation.
  • An appropriate captive audience for students to present their work to.
  • For a step-by-step guide to this activity, see How To Guide ‘Teaching the Teachers.’

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Using A Card Sort To Stimulate Discussion And Consensus Building

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

 

  • The aim of this activity is to provide the group (students through to fellow tutors) with a task that challenges understanding and interpretations of key terms and learning outcomes.
  • At the end of the session the group will have individually and then collectively engaged with commonly used terms and uncovered areas of agreement as well as areas of disagreement.
  • The tutor/facilitator can then decide how to follow up the insights; do they focus on the agreement, disagreement or the process in order to explore “what next”?

 

Introduction:

 

At every level of education we use words like employability, enterprise or entrepreneurship and assume we all have a shared understanding of what such terms actually mean.

Whether this be Government, Policy makers, University Senior Managers, Faculty Leaders, Programme Directors, Module Leaders, Teachers and facilitators, Students and finally Employers, we all use words and assume that we all interpret them in similar ways.

Having worked for many years in this domain; I can assure you we all have distinct different interpretations that can create confusion and uncertainty in the beneficiaries of employability activities, programmes and modules.

Before you begin to plan any learning it is helpful to establish common understandings and interpretations.

 

Activity:

 

The activity employs a set of statements on the topic under investigation and these are presented as small cards. The group should be split into small sub groups of around 4-6. Each group is given a set of cards and asked to sort into those statements they strongly agree with; those they agree with; those they are ambivalent about, those they disagree with and finally those they strongly disagree with.

The facilitator/tutor should allow the group time to consider each card as and how they feel best for them. Some will spread cards across a table and collectively study each statement and gradually shuffle the cards under the headings above. Others will go through each statement on the card deck – one-by-one and discuss each statement as a table group. What is important is for the group to come up with a way that they are happy with for considering the statements and in each group only placing a card under a heading; when they have reached consensus – and not before. They should discuss and argue in order to uncover those areas of shared understanding and those where understandings differ. Too often we assume we all interpret terms and words in the same way; in fact we all have different understandings and in many teaching situations we require shared understandings in order that the learning is maximised.

Having allowed as much time as is possible, the facilitator should invite each table to share their decisions with the rest of the group. It is here that the facilitator can observe where the group has shared understandings across the whole group, and where there are different levels of understanding and interpretation.

It is then invariably interesting to quickly agree on those phrases, terms and statements that everybody agrees upon and to spend time on the cards with statements that have elicited quite different interpretations. Here because each sub group has achieved consensus; yet across the whole group differences have emerged; why have these emerged? Wider discussions can really encourage high levels of debate and discussion.

 

Impact:

 

I have used the employability card sort in a variety of contexts;

  • With students to ensure they understand what the terms employability means to them. This helped me tailor my teaching to their expectations when designing a programme that embedded employability activities.
  • With fellow tutors to ensure that as a teaching team we were all in agreement with what we were doing and why we were doing it.
  • With senior university leaders to ensure we had the policy and frameworks in place to enable embedding of employability.
  • With government policy makers to ensure that they could provide the political support for institutions to respond to the employability agenda.
  • With employers to uncover what skills and attributed they value and rate as key employability traits and behaviours etc.

Having created a set of cards it is relatively easy to rework to drill into understandings of other commonly used (and abused) E words, like enterprise or entrepreneurship.

 

Learner outcomes:

 

At the end of the session(s);

  • You will have a clear view on how the group understands the concepts, the terms used and the purpose of what you have planned.
  • You will have a clearer understanding of how to tailor your subsequent teaching (module design; programme design; policy framework etc.)

 

Resources:

 

(NB. Do not try this in a tiered lecture theatre)

 

References:

 

www.drsimonb.co.uk/

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Dr Simon Brown (Enterprise Education and Employability Consultant. Visiting Professor UWTSD / Head of Enterprise Development NCEE / Fellow EEUK).

Your Example Here

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

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If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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Case Examples

A Discussion in Social Enterprise (Healthcare) (QAA 3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To understand and be able to define Social Enterprise
  • To explore the business models used within Social Enterprise
  • To understand the cross-sector theories of Social Enterprise
  • Identity popular companies with the health sector and discuss their business models.

Overview:

This session starts with a short introduction and then allows groups of students to discuss and decide where in the cross sector diagram popular health service companies should be placed, based on publically available data. It's a great way to introduce social enterprise and the business models used to create social good through an interactive session and group working.

 

Activity: 

Introduction: Social enterprises use a wide variety of legal forms and these forms normally depend on the business model being employed by the enterprise. As these enterprises change and the mix of their business interests change we can see that a full spectrum of companies exist for most industry sectors. This session uses the UK health sector and popular organizations to understand how these alternate between being more mission focused (social) to more market focused (surplus generating). In this task we shall look at the UK Health Sector and key players within the industry:

  •  AstraZeneca
  • Boots
  • British Red Cross
  • BUPA
  • Cancer Research UK
  • GSK
  • NHS
  • Nuffield Health
  • St. John Ambulance

Sheets are provided with details of these companies (See resources below).  

The session is split into six parts:

  1. Provide a definition of Social Enterprise
  2. Present the Cross Sector Model
  3. Set the Criteria for Discussion and Selection
  4. Split the class into groups of 4-6 people
  5. Teams then discuss and place
  6. Class Discussion and Reflection

Criteria for Group Discussion and Selection

For each company we shall use only a limited set of information (to bring out key points during the session), and therefore we shall limit selection using

        1. Company Structure
          1. Strategic Intention
          2. Governance
        2. Financial
          1. Total Turnover
          2. Turnover dedicated to social impact
        3. Social Impact
          1. Interventions
        4. PR & Policy

 The group place the name of the company on the Cross Sector Venn diagram depending on their business models being employed:

  • Public Sector
  • Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Private Sector
  • More Than Profit
  • Third Sector
  • Non Profit
  • Multi-Stakeholder

The majority of the enterprises used in the session have multiple business models and as such overlap on the Venn diagram which generates discussion and debate within the group. This realisation that the social enterprise sector has to develop a highly profitable income stream and also a mission focused social business is at first controversial, especially in the Health sector, yet when applied to other sectors is easier to accept.

Skill Development:

This task requires listening and communication skills and also helps builds trust and connections across the pairings.  

Resources:

Prezi Presentation https://prezi.com/s2tpjmnayxh6/social-enterprise-cross-sector-theory/

Handout & Slides https://www.dropbox.com/s/qnclusq03oqvqli/Social%20Enterprise%20Cross%20Sector%20Theory.pptx?dl=0

Social Enterprise Definition: See DTI (2002) A Strategy for Social Enterprise, London: HM Treasury, p7.

Cross Sector Theory: Hybridisation (Nyssens, 2006:318) Leadbeater's Model (1997)

Social Enterprise Websites:

Health Sector Websites (Data used in Handouts)

 

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Dr. David Bozward (Senior Lecturer in Entrepreneurship, Worcester Business School, University of Worcester).

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales. It aims to provide inspiration, information and support to being your own boss!

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf