Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • The ability to motivate oneself
  • The ability to work autonomously
  • The general management of one’s own work to time limits
  • A flexible and adaptable mind able to face new situations
  • The ability to think creatively, self-critically and independently

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: IMPROVISATION FOR CREATIVITY (QAA 1,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • Cultivate an entrepreneurial mind-set.
  • Recognize limitations of entrepreneurial thinking (what holds one back).
  • Practice improvisation for idea generation and creativity.

Overview:

This series of three short improvisational exercises offers students the opportunity to identify personal limitations to idea generation and reflect on situations where creativity may have been stifled. Students will consider their personal abilities and reactions to their improvisational abilities, as well as approaches to incorporate improvisational thinking in entrepreneurial endeavours. The overall goal is to demonstrate how students can develop an entrepreneurial mind-set through improvisation. Such exercises are routinely used for developing improvisational actors as well as for pre-show warm- ups for the actors. This methodology was created in the 1960s and remains the standard by which individuals learn to improvise. Improvisation is an important component of the entrepreneurship method because idea generation and the ability to incorporate relevant, timely information are critical skills for developing new ventures that will not only survive but thrive.

Usage Suggestions 

These exercises work for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, or practitioner. It is particularly relevant for new venture creation courses, entrepreneurial creativity and/or leadership courses, entrepreneurship boot-camps, and workshops.

Activity:

Pre-Work Required by Students

The optional readings may be used for pre-work or post-work, depending on the audience (see ‘Theoretical Foundation in ‘References’).

Time Plan (1 hour)

This exercise can be extended to longer sessions so that students can begin brainstorming entrepreneurial ventures. For the purposes of an initial introduction to improvisation, this teaching note has been written so that the exercise requires at least 60 minutes.

Introduction 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes)

Begin the exercise by introducing the concept of improvisation: Ask students generally if they know what improvisation means. Opening questions for the discussion can include:

  • What does improvisation mean to you? 
  • Where have you seen improvisation? 
  • Has anyone performed improvisation? Seen it performed?

Overview 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes)

Explain how the students will learn the basics of improvisation and see how they could apply it to entrepreneurship, in particular idea generation and creating new ventures. The instructor can show examples of comedy improvisation performance (either live or through video clips from YouTube. Some good short examples include scenes from the ABC show Whose Line Is It Anyway? An example clip can be found at http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v5Qd8bvNW9_h4).

After sharing an example, discuss how performing improvisation can be learned: there are lessons offered for comedy improvisation and improvisational acting performance in improv theatres worldwide. An established framework exists to learn how to improvise. For this class, improvisation equals thinking on your feet. They will now be “in” an improv classroom, and every improvisation theatre class begins with warm-ups. In order to think on their feet, they have to get up on their feet.

Warm-Up 1 0:15–0:20 (5 minutes)

  • Tell them to begin walking around the classroom and to observe every single object in the room.
  • Then tell them to point at objects as they walk past them.
  • As they point at each object they are to say what it is out loud – only they cannot call it what it actually is. They are to label it something it is not. And they are to do it quickly. Provide a quick example by pointing to an object in the room like the board and then say out loud “dog,” and then point at another object like the desk and call it “potato” or whatever comes to mind.
  • After one to two minutes of them walking and pointing and labeling out loud, ask them to stop and be silent wherever they are for a group discussion. When they stop, have them discuss how the experience of labeling objects was for them. Try to push them to explain what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief: 
  • How was this experience?
  • Did you find this exercise difficult to do? Why?

Summary of Warm-Up 1

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • How difficult it is to break away from known “answers”;
  • How frequently they can get stuck in known patterns of thinking;
  • The ease with which they start creating patterns with a known grouping (e.g. eggplant, cucumber, tomato, lettuce), which is a way to make the experience easier (get the “right” answer) as opposed to pushing and fostering creativity;
  • The need for students to want to be in control, rather than searching for newness or playing;
  • Feeling the sense of awkwardness in saying the “wrong” label out loud, but having others around doing a similar activity makes the exercise less awkward;
  • How easy it can be just to listen to others and follow their answers rather than coming up with their own new idea.

Warm-Up 2 0:20–0:25 (5 minutes)

  • Tell them to begin walking around the classroom again.
  • When they come up to another student, they are to point at another student and name an animal, any animal that comes to mind, e.g. two students face each other and one points at the other and says “horse.”
  • Then tell them that the student who has been pointed at and labelled with a type of animal has to make the sound of the animal. If they do not know what sound the animal makes, they are to make it up and make some sort of sound.
  • Then they switch, and the student who just produced the animal sound – in this example, the horse sounds – points at the first student and names an animal, e.g. “cat.” This student then makes the sounds of whatever animal he or she was given.
  • Once the interaction is completed, and both students in the pair have completed their animal sounds, they are to find new partners and repeat the warm-up exercise with two or three other students.
  • After two to three minutes of animal sounds, ask them to stop and be silent wherever they are for a group discussion. Have them discuss how the experience of making animal sounds was for them. Try to push them again to explain what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief:
  • How was this experience? Did you find this exercise difficult to do? Why? 

Summary of Warm-Up 2

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • Feeling a great sense of awkwardness – they are doing something they would normally be comfortable doing with children, but typically have never done in a classroom of adults or peers;
  • Not knowing the right “answer” or sound a particular animal makes, they would feel very frustrated, and then forget the instruction they were given to just make it up;
  • Once again, the ease with which they follow patterns – patterns offer a way to make the exercise “easier,” as they offer a means to come up with an answer or a label quickly rather than pushing creativity;
  • How difficult it is for them to have no control as to what they have to do, rather than stepping back, enjoying the ambiguity, and searching for newness or playing;
  • The fear they have of being “foolish” in a professional setting, how they do not want to be embarrassed by acting silly in front of others, and, in addition, the fear of feeling guilty, foolish, or rude for labelling others as certain types of animals with distinct connotations;
  • This fear leads to self-judging and/or editing before they label their peer with an animal or before making the corresponding animal sound.

Warm-Up 3 0:25–0:35 (10 minutes)

  • Tell them to form groups of four wherever they are in the room.
  • Then instruct them to play a game of word association, where anyone can go first, say a word, whatever word comes to mind.
  • The person to the left listens to the word and then says a word that comes to mind based on the word he or she just heard.
  • They continue in this way until you stop them, and they are to go as fast as they can (tell them to listen for further instruction).
  • Once they get started, let them go for a minute or so, and then very loudly instruct them to “Switch directions!”

After another one to two minutes of word association, ask them to stop and be silent. You can have them return to their seats at this point or have them stay where they are for the final group discussion. Now have them discuss how the word association experience was for them. Most will say this was easier to do, as they were in a group setting. So push them to explain what was happening rather than what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief: 

  • How was this experience? If this was easier than the last two warm- ups, why?
  • If you found this exercise more difficult than the last two, why?
  • What happened when you were told to change directions? Why did this happen?

Summary of Warm-Up 3

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • The ease again they experienced of getting into routines or patterns – how much they wanted to “control” the situation and outcomes;
  • How much they were trying to be clever, or funny, rather than just coming up with any word that came to mind and following the exercise;
  • Typically they do not enjoy the ambiguity and opportunity to play and explore newness;
  • Self- judging occurs again, they feel limited in the direction for the exercise, and what words they allow themselves to say owing to their need to feel included or pressure to continue established patterns rather than pushing creativity and undefined randomness;
  • Students typically are not listening to the last word they just heard, and instead they focus on the words that people two ahead of them in the exercise are saying, as this way they can plan their response (this is highlighted with the change directions instruction).

Discussion 0:35–1:00 (25 minutes)

Once the students return to their seats, have them form groups of three to four and discuss what might be preventing their idea generation efforts related to initial new venture concepts. They should explore what holds them back when considering what they might do. Have them discuss the specific difficulties they experienced personally during the improvisation exercises and how they might get past these limitations to develop a more entrepreneurial mind-set. Have a member of each group report out one recommendation for fostering creativity through improvisation. A closing discussion should include how to incorporate improvisation in their idea generation practices.

Teaching Tips

It is important to keep the warm-up exercises moving fast. It might be helpful to tell the students before they begin the exercises that they will feel really uncomfortable, but feeling uncomfortable is the point of the exercise. In the debrief discussions, some students will genuinely enjoy the exercises and will say they found nothing in them difficult. Asking for a show of hands of those who found the exercise difficult to do first is often a better way to begin the debrief, before asking about how they found the experience (in case the students who enjoyed the exercises stifle the discussion). In warm- up 3 it is very helpful to move around the room encouraging groups to speed up their words so that there are no long pauses. It is important for them to think quickly and see how to come up with new ideas rather than thinking or planning and judging their ideas before they see where the new ideas can take them.

Skill Development:

Key Takeaways

  • How to incorporate improvisation to develop an entrepreneurial mind-set: being quick on your feet and adapting or reacting rather than planning and pre-judging.
  • Identifying and recognizing personal limitations to entrepreneurial thinking (why students are held back from creativity in idea generation, what their personal pitfalls are).
  • How to develop an entrepreneurial mind-set by incorporating tenets of fast and free thinking through improvisation for idea generation and creativity.

Resources:

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.118 - 124). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Attribution

  • These exercises are based on foundational exercises used in improvisational training, widely taught in improvisational theatre courses worldwide.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Spolin, V. 1959. Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Johnstone, K. 1999. Impro for Storytellers. New York: Routledge/Theatre Arts Books.
  • Hmieleski, K.M., and Corbett, A.C. 2008. The contrasting interaction effects of improvisational behaviour with entrepreneurial self-efficacy on new venture performance and entrepreneur work satisfaction. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(4), 482–96.
  • Neck, H.M. 2010. Idea generation. In B. Bygrave and A. Zacharakis (eds.), Portable MBA in Entrepreneurship (pp. 27–52). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Balachandra, L., and Wheeler, M. 2006. What negotiators can learn from improv comedy. Negotiation, 9, 1–3.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.118 - 124). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub, and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Lakshmi Balachandra.

Timelines (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • The learner will develop reflection techniques transferring this information into a group self development/ action plan
  • Experience of discovery through interactive learning processes including learning from failure.

Overview:

(small paragraph/ 2 -3 sentence)

The focus of this task is group reflection, understanding and learning from experience when faced with challenges.

Activity:

As a tutor you will need to prepare in advance to deliver this activity.

PREPERATION:

Depending on class size the activity timings is 2 hrs when working with 4-5 groups of learners. The exercise can be assessed or used as a reflection exercise within a group assignment. You will need to make sure the room is suitable with moving space and tables which can accommodate seating of each group. To deliver the session you will have a box of materials (listed in resources) prepared including laminated titles from 5 sections discussed below.

This activity is divided into 5 sections: -

  • Past – What have you done?
  • Barriers/Pathways – What barriers did you face/ what pathways did you experience?
  • Present – Where are you now?
  • You (Your Opportunity Unrealised) – What did you learn/ what opportunities did you miss?
  • Future – Action plan/ group self development looking forward

Each section is introduced in a timed sequence of 10 minutes per section/ 50 minutes. The group are tasked with creating a “time line” using materials and space provided. The timeline will be created based on group discussion and reflection after each of the sections. Each group will share their timeline, ideally one learner per topic.

Skill Development:

short – focus on reflection; review; feedback; learning

Opportunity to focus and reflect on group working, learning through reflection with chance to put this understanding into practice as the group work for assignment continues.

Resources:

  • String
  • Scissors
  • Selotape
  • Flip Chart
  • Paper
  • Newspaper
  • Post-its or similar sticky pads
  • Pens
  • Cardboard boxes 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Penny Matthews Coleg Llandrillo Enterprise Coordinator, Grwp Llandrillo Menai.

Using Externals to Create a Guest Lecture Series (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To bring 'real world' (industry; practitioner; client; customer) perspectives to your students
  • To identify 'real world' problems and issues that the industry/sector faces and engage your students learning, knowledge and professional understanding to address these, anchored by practicalities of professional practice/industry constraints

Overview:

By inviting a range of sector/industry experts into the lecture theatre, you create the opportunity for students to appreciate their learning within their professional context. This approach can be viewed as "one off" or offered as a full module/programme where each week experts, users, clients, or sector experts address your students to broaden their understanding and deepen their appreciation of professional practice.

Activity:

This activity requires preparation in advance to secure relevant speakers for your students. Personal contacts and professional networks often yield great opportunities to engage speakers however there are also professional speaking associations that you might be able to tap into. It is also useful to consider customer bodies, consumer groups, patient action groups and other sector or industry stakeholders however internal experts can also be found across faculty, and within your own, or neighbouring, institution.

The preparation (agreement and confirmation of the speaker brief) is key to the development of a guest lecture series, and typically if you have the opportunity to schedule a programme of inputs, you have the opportunity to expose the students to a wide range of perspectives.

Skill Development:

A deep appreciation of their learning/skill development across the full programme of study can be achieved through the guest speakers however it is also possible for a guest lecture series not to create the deep learning that you would seek. It is therefore important to consider how you wish your students to reflect upon what they have heard and build deep connections to their wider learning.

There are opportunities to deepen the learning gained by guest speakers through regular reflection and also through assessment of their learning. This can be achieved through ETC: TOOL Reflective learning Diary or drawing upon the reflective models (Gibb1988; Driscoll 2000) to support your classroom debriefing.

Within a series of guest speakers it is important to ensure that there is reflection time without the externals present which allows you to connect up the inputs, critique and question what has been presented.

Resources:

Planning – it can be helpful to create an individual brief for your speakers that outlines the key logistics (time; length; location; travel; expenses if offered) and indicates what is expected in terms of

  • Approach (time; questions)
  • The general module/programme/ outcomes and purpose
  • The specific elements you are seeking to explore
  • Details of the audience – year; background; experience; interests;
  • Why you asked them (what they offer to your students)

This is often best undertaken through the development of a shared understanding/discussion, followed up by written confirmation.

Additional ETC resources include:

Guest Speaker Guidance – to support the development of individual sessions

Reflective Learning Diary – as a potential assessment method for a full programme of speakers

References:

For reflection:

Gibb's reflective cycle: from Gibbs, G (1988) "Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods"

Atkins and Murphy Model from Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard 8(39) 49-56 Driscoll, J (2000) Practising Clinical Supervision Edinburgh Bailliere Tindall

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

Workshop: How to Speak in Public (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with an understanding of the techniques behind effective public speaking, presentation and communication.
  • To provide students with practical opportunities to develop their public speaking and communication skills.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the importance of public speaking and communication skills to their own lives and careers.
  • To provide students with opportunities to reflect on how to employ communication strategies, in a variety of contexts.

Overview:

Skills in public speaking, public presentation, and communication of any form are essential for any student: both for success in their academic pursuits,and for their future careers. Such environments are also ones with can be a cause of stress to many students, and an impediment to their progress. For those who master these skills however, they are often able to quickly reach the head of the pack. 

'How to Speak in Public' is a presentation / workshop which can be delivered to a group of any size, and tailored to ensure its relevancy to any audience. It is designed specifically to endow students with a greater understanding of why skills in public speaking, presentation and communication are so importantto them, and to equip them with strategies and practical skills to be more effective communicators in the future. This is inclusive of structuring presentations, integrating tools and resources into them, effective delivery techniques, managing nerves and dealing with questions.

The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, but inclusive of ample opportunities for extension, through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, and could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. It was originally developed through the HEFCW funded pan-Wales Enterprise Support Programme. Lesson plans and AV presentations for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the 'ZONE Enterprise Hub' webpages listed in the references at the end of this document. 

Activity:

Slide Show Title Page

(See resources / references for materials to accompany the delivery of this activity).

Preparation

  • For the learners, preparation for this activity is not essential, but you might want to recommend prior research into presentation skills, or time the activity to correspond with an upcoming presentation the students are due to deliver. For teachers, using the materials provided here, preparation time is minimal, other than familiarising yourself with the presentation content, ensuring all media accompanying the presentation are working correctly, and that the learning environment has the appropriate AV equipment.

Activity Part 1: Introduction

  • Introduce class to the theme of the session, and the elements to be covered.
  • Discuss with students why these skills are important, and where they are likely to be used in the future.

Activity Part 2: Structure

  • The importance of a well-structured presentation is discussed, inclusive of; knowing your objective when communicating; managing audience expectations; ensuring adequate knowledge of your subject and identifying an appropriate narrative.
  • At this stage, students are presented with a variety of public speaking scenarios, and for different scenarios have to discuss and identify both the objective of the communication, and the most appropriate narratives to employ to meet that objective. There is opportunity for debate here, regarding the conclusions drawn.

Activity Part 2: Tools

  • Tools and resources that can bolster a presentation are discussed at this stage. Various examples are offered to the group, and the audience are invited to offer further examples of their own.
  • When to integrate tools into delivery, and when to avoid it is discussed.
  • At this stage, the examples from part 2 are re-introduced to the group, and the appropriate tools to support the narratives and objectives identified are discussed.
  • (If desired, you may wish to perform a demonstration at this stage, to demonstrate the efficacy of tools when used well. For example, in past deliveries of this presentation, non-science students have been introduced to the mathematical relationship between force, pressure and area, first descriptively, then formulaically, and finally with a volunteer being invited to the front of the class to sit on a chair of nails!)

Activity Part 3: Delivery 

  • The techniques behind effectively delivery when speaking in public are discussed at this stage, inclusive of; speaking with passion and enthusiasm, controlling the speed of speech, using the appropriate language and tone, and using body language to best effect.
  • Examples are offered and discussed on each of the points noted above.
  • At this stage, student practice these skills with several activities. To practice controlling the speed of speech, students are given a transcript which they time one another reading aloud. They then watch a film of the transcript being read aloud (at a clear and steady pace) and repeat the activity aiming to amend their pace appropriately. To consider the importance of using the right language in communication, students are asked to consider how they would describe their programme of study to; a) a five year old, b) an academic, c) a grandparent. Students to this in groups, and the reasons for their decisions are discussed and debated.

Activity Part 4: Nerves

  • The reasons why nerves may arise are discussed amongst the group.
  • Measures and coping strategies to control nerves are suggested and discussed (including practice, preparation, release of nervous energy etc.).
  • (You may wish to use your own presentation as an example of how such strategies allow you to present, without being impeded by nerves).

Activity Part 5: Questions

  • Fielding questions is discussed. The group are asked to reflect on what a questioner wants, when asking their question, and strategies for various scenarios are suggested. 
  • If and how the presentation skills covered in the session can be applied to a Q and A session are also discussed.

Activity Part 6: Conclusion

  • The key themes covered by the session are re-capped.
  • If desired, you may wish to field any questions from the audience at this point.

Post-Activity

Following this activity, students may be set a presentation to deliver (as individuals or as groups), or they may be set further questions for reflection and investigation. General questions on presentation, communication and public speaking which have been set to such groups include;

  1. How would you define public speaking?
  2. How many different public speaking environments will you encounter as a student?
  3. Can you find examples of both good and bad public speeches, the impacts of which have changed the course of history; for individuals, for organisations and for nations?
  4. Who are the teachers, speakers and presenters that have made a positive impact on you? What common traits do they possess?
  5. What are the benefits of a structure / narrative to a presentation?
  6. How will enhanced skills in public speaking benefit you in your future life and career?
  7. Is the ability to speak in public more or less important today than it was in the past?

Equally, you may wish to set such questions prior to the session, and debate them after the session. 

Skill Development:

  • Following this session students should have a much greater understanding of the importance of skills in public speaking, presentation and communication, their relevance to their own studies and careers, and a greater understanding of how to develop and nurture those skills in themselves.
  • For these skills to be consolidated, the session must be supported by opportunities to further discuss, explore, and importantly, practice these techniques, by presenting in a wide variety on environments and contexts.

Resources:

  • Lesson plans and PowerPoint presentations to accompany this activity can be downloaded via > https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11 or copies of slides can be downloaded here > How To Speak In Public [PDF]
  • A film of this session being delivered to an audience of art, media and design students at the Creative Futures Conference, March 2015 can be viewed via > https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA
  • An extension of activity connected to this workshop can be found in the How To Guide 'One Topic Three Audiences.'
  • For Case Examples of the workshop in action, see 'Communication, Media, Film and Cultural Studies', and 'Engineering.'

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA. [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236).
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148).
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

Author:

  • Originally produced at Glyndwr University, as an Entrepreneurial Effectiveness (EE) Session, for the Enterprise Support Programme (ESP), funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales.

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Stimulating Creative Thinking: Magic Paper (QAA 1)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation

Objective:

  • To stimulate creative and lateral thinking
  • To encourage creative thoughts and behaviour
  • To develop problem conceptualisation, and problem solving capacity

Overview:

Could you cut a hole in a piece of A4 paper, large enough that you could climb all the way through, without breaking the paper?!

This is a simple activity suitable for groups of any size or ability.

Taking approximately 5 minutes to complete, it encourages learners find a solution to an unfamiliar problem. The problem can only be solved through novel and creative solutions.

The activity serves to stimulate students’ creative thinking and problem solving capabilities, and serves as a light-hearted ice breaker / introduction.

Activity:

1.Provide each student with a single piece of A4 Paper, and a pair of scissors.

2.Challenge students to ‘Cut a hole in the piece of, large enough to climb all the way through, without breaking the paper!’

3.Tell students they have 5 minutes to complete the challenge. You may invite students to work individually, in pairs, or in small groups to do this. (Many students will begin by cutting a circular hole in the rectangular sheet of paper, before realising this is far too small to be a plausible option. You may wish to provide students with extra paper so they can conduct a number of trails. Re-assure students that the challenge is entirely possible, and that it is not a trick question. If anyone completes the challenge quickly, ask them not to reveal their solution to the class until the time is up. If the group are looking for clues, suggest ‘snowflakes and decorations we used to make as children’).

4.When 5 minutes have passed, invite students to stop working, and invite them to attempt to climb through their paper! (Usually, you will find that at least one team have come up with a solution).

5.If no team have successfully completed the challenge, demonstrate a solution to the class (solution outlined below). Invite a small group of student to all climb through the hole simultaneously!

Solution

Figure 1. Challenge Solution

  • To solve the challenge, fold the A4 paper in half along its length (as indicated by the blue perforated line on the diagram).
  • Use the scissors to cut the paper with a comb effect, starting from the centre of the paper and working towards its edge.
  • Make similar cuts, this time working from the edge towards the centre, in between the incisions previously made.
  • Make cuts along with fold line of the paper, with the exception of the edges to the extreme of the incisions.
  • (All cuts are indicated by red lines on the diagram).
  • Carefully unfold the paper, and a continuous, large ribbon is produced, comfortably large enough to climb through.
  • The closer together and deeper the cuts made are, the larger the hole will be when the paper is unfolded.
  • A film demonstrating this can be viewed here > https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jBUwH-TfqQ

Skill Development:

After this activity, students should be more attuned to looking for creative solutions to problems, and warmed up for any following creative / problem solving activity.

Resources:

  • A4 paper
  • Scissors

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

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Case Examples

Nurturing Enterprise Through Student Societies (QAA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide extra-curricular learning opportunities for animal studies students.
  • To provide networking opportunities between students, lecturers and industry professionals.
  • To provide animal studies students with opportunities to create and manage their own extra-curricular projects.
  • To provide animal studies students with opportunities to develop their business, finance, marketing and management skills.

Introduction:

Student clubs and societies can be a great means for students from any level or programme of study to gain invaluable enterprise skills. Through taking responsibility for a club a society, students are required to demonstrate effective team working, excellent management skills, excellent administrative skills and financial literacy, communication and marketing skills, and must have the ability to successfully devise, plan and deliver projects and activities to keep their members engaged.

Clubs and societies can be for students from any programme of study, run exclusively for students from a particular programme, and include students, alumni, staff and members of the general public.

For the small cohort of students studying towards a BSc in Animal Studies at Glyndwr University, forming a departmental society (Zoo Soc) was an ideal way to bring the cohort together, and provide a range of extra-curricular social and learning opportunities.

Activity:

In Spring 2013, students from the BSc (Hons) Animal Studies programme at Glyndwr University, approached Glyndwr University Students Guild regarding establishing 'Zoo Soc' at the institution.

The society was to cater primarily to students (at all levels of study) from the Animal Studies programme, but open to membership from staff, alumni, andstudents from any course with an interest in animals and zoology.

The students nominated a president, vice president, two secretaries and a treasurer to run the society, and promoted the new society to their peers, gaining enough support in the form of signatures to be constituted as a Students' Guild Society.

There after the students took responsibility for all aspects of Zoo Soc's management and administration. This was inclusive of promoting the society and its events, promoting society membership, conducting meetings of society members and officers, organising activities and events, and raising and managing funds. The Students Guild offered support to the students through all of these processes.

Zoo Soc's first event was a Pub Quiz, held at the University's student bar, and aimed at developing relationships between students from Glyndwr’s main campus, and its rural campus (situated approximately 20 miles away). The event was a success, and the revenue and new membership gained through the event went on to directly support future events, including trips to Zoo’s, Museums and other events.

Figure 1. Promotions poster for Zoo Soc's first event

Impact:

2 year after the society's establishment, approximately 100 students are engaging with the Zoo Soc and its events, which have continued to be delivered in a professional and financially sustainable way.

Learner outcome:

For all learners who have engaged with the society, there have been countless opportunities to network, increase their knowledge, and exchange and create ideas.

For those leading the society the outcomes have been far greater, developing a broad range of enterprising skills in the process, whilst directly supporting their academic subject knowledge.

Resources:

  • The support of your institutions Students' Union / Guild.

References:

Author:

www.macorcoran.com

With thanks to Glyndwr University Students Guild.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Bath Spa University: Applied Project

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action

This example features in 'Bath Spa University Careers - Embedding Enterprise and Employability in the Curriculum' - Download the full document HERE.

 

Introduction:

 

In the Year 2 core module (Darshana, Dharma and Dao: Philosophy in the Indian and Chinese Traditions) students undertake an ‘Applied Project’ assessment – demonstrating how they can apply their philosophical knowledge and understanding to ‘real-world’ settings, whilst developing many credible and practical skills.

 

Activity:

 

Students must choose from one of the following project briefs (or negotiate a different project brief with the module coordinator if they have an alternative idea):

  • Project Brief A: Application for research funding
  • Project Brief B: Position paper for a meeting of primary school governors, staff and parents
  • Project Brief C: Position paper for an ‘A’ level examination board
  • Project Brief D: Book proposal for a popular philosophy title
  • Project Brief E: Feature article for a magazine or colour supplement
  • Project Brief F: Prepare a pitch for a new set of resources/new campaign for a Not-for-Profit Organisation.

They are given detailed guidance for each project brief, including headings, structure and some suggested resources.

A separate seminar run by the linked Careers Consultant is timed in advance of the assessment deadline, to help students engage with the project by enhance their understanding of how academia can ‘connect’ to the outside world and to help them recognise the value of completing these projects in preparation for future employability. The session uses real-life job adverts/descriptions from a range of specific careers sectors / organisations / roles that align closely to these projects (e.g. academic, research, think tanks, charities, local authorities, teaching, journalism, publishing, media, marketing), but also helps students to develop but also helps students develop the techniques for recognising the skills gained in a wider ‘transferable’ sense, and how to articulate these via written and verbal means.

The added benefit is that students begin to get a sense of the complexity of graduate job descriptions / job titles and the element of ‘decoding’ that needs to take place – in comparison to what they have likely experienced so far for part-time / casual work this is often a shock to the system, so the earlier this can be introduced the better.

 

Impact:

 

The ‘translation’ of the curriculum in this way has resulted in some fantastic pieces of work and effectively brings together the inside world of academia with the outside world of work.

 

Learner Outcomes:

 

Feedback from two students who took the option to write a journalistic piece;

"The Applied Philosophical Project conducted within our course, Religions, Philosophies and Ethics, was a fantastic opportunity to apply religious and philosophical knowledge and research to a real life scenario. I chose to create an article in the house style of a popular newspaper's colour supplement. It was a new and challenging experience which tested my ability to construct a relevant and fascinating article, which could also be easily understood by the readership. This project allowed us all to be creative and, most importantly, transfer skills outside of university, which will be hugely beneficial for the future."

"I really enjoyed the variety provided by the Applied Philosophical Project, the opportunity to use humour to put my views across and at the same time test my ability to write in a journalistic style was a welcome innovation. The interesting choices of medium gave me a real insight into my personal preferences, something that could prove very useful in making future career decisions."

Graduate feedback;

"I very much enjoyed studying Philosophy and Ethics at Bath Spa
University. The modules I studied encourage all students to develop
their critical thinking skills and display open-mindedness. As someone
interested in pursuing a career within the education sector, I found
the Applied Project particularly valuable. As part of the task, I
prepared a paper proposing the introduction of Philosophy in the
primary curriculum."

 

References:

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Catherine Robinson, Kimberley Russell & David Jarman (Bath Spa University).

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

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If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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Case Examples

A Discussion in Social Enterprise (Healthcare) (QAA 3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To understand and be able to define Social Enterprise
  • To explore the business models used within Social Enterprise
  • To understand the cross-sector theories of Social Enterprise
  • Identity popular companies with the health sector and discuss their business models.

Overview:

This session starts with a short introduction and then allows groups of students to discuss and decide where in the cross sector diagram popular health service companies should be placed, based on publically available data. It's a great way to introduce social enterprise and the business models used to create social good through an interactive session and group working.

 

Activity: 

Introduction: Social enterprises use a wide variety of legal forms and these forms normally depend on the business model being employed by the enterprise. As these enterprises change and the mix of their business interests change we can see that a full spectrum of companies exist for most industry sectors. This session uses the UK health sector and popular organizations to understand how these alternate between being more mission focused (social) to more market focused (surplus generating). In this task we shall look at the UK Health Sector and key players within the industry:

  •  AstraZeneca
  • Boots
  • British Red Cross
  • BUPA
  • Cancer Research UK
  • GSK
  • NHS
  • Nuffield Health
  • St. John Ambulance

Sheets are provided with details of these companies (See resources below).  

The session is split into six parts:

  1. Provide a definition of Social Enterprise
  2. Present the Cross Sector Model
  3. Set the Criteria for Discussion and Selection
  4. Split the class into groups of 4-6 people
  5. Teams then discuss and place
  6. Class Discussion and Reflection

Criteria for Group Discussion and Selection

For each company we shall use only a limited set of information (to bring out key points during the session), and therefore we shall limit selection using

        1. Company Structure
          1. Strategic Intention
          2. Governance
        2. Financial
          1. Total Turnover
          2. Turnover dedicated to social impact
        3. Social Impact
          1. Interventions
        4. PR & Policy

 The group place the name of the company on the Cross Sector Venn diagram depending on their business models being employed:

  • Public Sector
  • Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Private Sector
  • More Than Profit
  • Third Sector
  • Non Profit
  • Multi-Stakeholder

The majority of the enterprises used in the session have multiple business models and as such overlap on the Venn diagram which generates discussion and debate within the group. This realisation that the social enterprise sector has to develop a highly profitable income stream and also a mission focused social business is at first controversial, especially in the Health sector, yet when applied to other sectors is easier to accept.

Skill Development:

This task requires listening and communication skills and also helps builds trust and connections across the pairings.  

Resources:

Prezi Presentation https://prezi.com/s2tpjmnayxh6/social-enterprise-cross-sector-theory/

Handout & Slides https://www.dropbox.com/s/qnclusq03oqvqli/Social%20Enterprise%20Cross%20Sector%20Theory.pptx?dl=0

Social Enterprise Definition: See DTI (2002) A Strategy for Social Enterprise, London: HM Treasury, p7.

Cross Sector Theory: Hybridisation (Nyssens, 2006:318) Leadbeater's Model (1997)

Social Enterprise Websites:

Health Sector Websites (Data used in Handouts)

 

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Dr. David Bozward (Senior Lecturer in Entrepreneurship, Worcester Business School, University of Worcester).

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf