Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • The capacity to express their own ideas orally, visually and in writing
  • Research skills
  • Communication and presentation skills
  • Time, planning and management skills
  • The ability to engage in constructive discussion in group situations and group- work skills
  • Independent learning and critical thinking
  • The ability to assess and understand their strengths and weaknesses and to take action to improve and enhance their capacities

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Run-around (QAA 3)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement

Objective:

  • To test subject-related knowledge and/or ability to make judgements, synthesize information and make decisions within a time-pressured environment.
  • To create a learning environment where learning from 'failure' is permissible (accepted and rewarded, as it can improve student outcomes (scores) if they are willing to adapt with new information or learn from observation / from the group decision making).

Overview:

Based on the 80's TV classic format "Runaround" this highly interactive task energises and tests the learner's ability to recall or synthesis information within a short time frame (15-30 seconds). This is an active "on-your-feet" activity, designed to get the whole group "running around" between potential answers for subject based quiz questions. It does require preparation (of quiz questions and answer "zone" markers such as A, B, C, D as well a consideration of the space/safety issues when working with a given number of students.

Activity

PREPARATION: As a tutor you will need to prepare a set of (subject based) multi-choice questions to ask the group as a whole. These can be factual or can draw upon their skills of synthesis and instinctive decision-making as you challenge students to apply knowledge and learning to new areas in order to answer the questions presented to them.

In addition you need to create 3 or 4 (depending upon the number of options of your multiple choice questions) letters (A-D) for the students to move towards. These can be chalked on the floor, but ideally are large letters stuck to the wall (rather than the floor to avoid slipping).

In addition a large visible timer can drama to each question, but you can use a watch or phone as a timer, or adjust time scales relating to the difficulty of the questions asked by just declaring "time up" as you judge the room to have "settled".

Task: as the tutor you will gather all the students into the middle of a large learning space and then invite them to move to the areas (A-D) in order to show their answer to the questions you are 'shouting out'* to them.

*Depending upon the room, and the learning support needs of the students it can be beneficial to have these questions and their answer-options on PowerPoint.

As the questions are asked, there is a short time for the individuals to decide which answer they support and move to the letter that represents their answer (so the students are "running around" to stand by the answer they feel is right). It is best conducted with 1 right option and the others being false, if close, answers.

Students must go to the area that they think is the correct answer – undertaking "the runaround". They are then given the chance to change their position if desired, in a further "runaround". The answer is then revealed with a full explanation. This active form of learning means that students are fully engaged in the learning process and increase what they remember due to the jeopardy and risk associated with this game. Emphasis is placed on engagement, not on “winning” and active revision takes place. A handout of the slides can be provided at the end of the session to promote further engagement and continue the learning, by promoting discussion and reflection after the task is completed.

By creating questions that might split the group or by releasing further information as they move, you build student confidence in their decision making (as they are allowed to move during the "decision time") and reducing the stress associated with risk of failure. It is also a way to support those who less confidence or understanding as they are not isolated within the group, but able to see the consensus of views and chose to follow the majority if they wish. It also allows those who appear to be' failing' to change their answer by moving to a different letter, if they see that the group members have selected a different answer.

FINAL NOTE: Of course the safety of students is paramount and this should only be done if it can be carried out safely with the number of students and if all students are in a position to actively engage or can be supported to do so.

Skill Development:

A key pedagogic note is that students feel quite happy about taking part because they get the chance to change their minds, without embarrassment whilst less confident students gain a sense of confidence in their own ability.

Confidence can be built by awarding team points rather than individual points as this encourages the group to invite those it fears as having the wrong answer to join them, within the time limit. However it is worth noting that individual marking option makes this particularly useful technique for revision or 'last class before the exam'.

Whilst this game is fast and furious it is designed to limit failing and support those who may expose a lack of understanding, as the majority response to the questions is always visible. It is therefore important to reflect upon this at the end of the task to ensure that the difficult (subject) questions are reviewed (especially those that the group got wrong) but also that the confidence in each other as knowing and supporting each other as team members.

Resources:

Preparation of multiple choice quiz questions

Large "answer zone" signs (A, B, C, D)

Optional: handout of questions and answers for post-activity individual reflection

References:

Inspiration: Runaround TV Show: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runaround_(UK_game_show)

Engaging Alumni for Real World Learning (QAA 2, 3, 4, 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

Effective engagement of Alumni seeks to support the students to become:

  • be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions
  • review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk.

Overview:

With the pre-arranged (and prolonged) support of alumni (now professionals) this approach of continued access to external professionals (ideally programme/course Alumni) is designed to prepare students to be able to engage with real clients and better enable them to respond proactively to change.

Externals are invited to engage with the current student group as they undertake a task, using social media (facebook; twitter etc) an/or Skype. This creates either incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment or regular support or feedback on course work from externals.

Activity

This approach needs pre-agreement and commitment of externals (ideally Programme/course Alumni) who commit to short, but regular interaction through social media or Skype.

This activity can either be driven by a live brief or challenge identified by the external (higher level of engagement) or as comment and support to those undertaking the programme, through sharing expertise and current work experiences. If the students are working on a live brief or task given by the external, this high level of interactivity can mean that summative deadlines can changedand information updated, and the newsworthy or other high profile influences can be included throughout the module. (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni professional).

This engagement can be “managed” by the tutor – to pre-plan some ambiguity or pre-agreed change of brief/scope with the Alumni contact, or left open to allow access to externals as an organic relationship, where advice may be sought by the students or experience/daily practice shared by the Professional as they see fit.

In addition, any presentation /show case or final assignment submission can be shared with the external and their input made part of the summative or formative feedback (assessment strategy).

Note that the choice of social media will impact on the type of engagement between alumni and students, but ideally something that the Alumni member uses regularly will ensure more regular engagement. Even small inputs (as typically seen in social media such as Twitter) can guide student approach and ensure that they are able to ask private questions, and that other students can also learn from the mentor/alumni generic comments or insights.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the level and type of engagement, students can benefit from insights from a ‘typical day/week’ of a professional working in their area, or be pushed to develop their tolerance to ambiguity (through changing deadlines, or unexpected changes to the brief or additional information). This can build resilience in the students but there needs to be clear expectations of this relationship, as well as additional tutor support.

Students typically respond well to changes and additional insights from professional Alumni and can develop their understanding and judgement, in their chosen field, whilst gaining further insight regarding professional practice.

Students should be bought together to share their experience of virtually engaging with their Alumni contact and explore their emotional responses to the changing briefs or additional information. They need to explore, and develop strategies, for coping with ‘real world’ brief/challenges and exploringthis together, and sharing how they dealt with it, and could deal with it in the future, builds their confidence and resilience to change. Using reflective practice to consider the learning across the group can draw out a range of key lessons for preparing for future challenges.

Resources:

Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project or to commit to regular updating/comment for a pre-agreed period of time.

References:

Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).

Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)

Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)

Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) ‘When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes’, Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410

Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna, University of Wales, Trinity St David.

Public Speaking Through Audience Identification (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To develop students communication skills.
  • To encourage students to understand context when communicating.
  • To encourage students to consider the real-world context for their subject area, and the skills they are developing.

Overview:

The ability to communicate your ideas clearly, confidently and effectively is essential in enterprise, and for any study and career a student may undertake. However, no to audiences are the same, and so, to be maximally impactful, no to pieces of communication should be the same either.

This simple activity can be run as a 5 minutes warm up or plenary to a session, or be expanded upon to fill a session in its own right. It works equally well with small or large groups, and requires no materials or preparation. It works well as a revision tool at the end of a lecture, topic, or module.

It encourages students to reflect on who their audience are whenever they're communicating, and to consider their language, tone, and points of reference to ensure that their message is understood as clearly as possible. It allows students to consider how their skills may be applied in a real world context, and to consider how their field connects with others.

Activity:

  • Provide students with a piece of information which they are required to communicate. This could be something general (for example, what they do at University), or something relevant to the prevailing context and subject matter (for example, the plot of Hamlet, how a car engine works, or how the European Union was formed).
  • Next, provide students with three hypothetical audiences which they must present this information to. The three audiences should be distinct from one another (for example, a 5 year old, a friend and a grandparent; a website developer, a graphic designer and a plumber; a British client, an American client and an Australian client).
  • Instruct students that they should prepare a mini-presentation (30 seconds – 1 minute) to communicate their piece of information to each of these hypothetical audiences. They can do this alone or in small groups, and make any notes if desired.
  • In completing this activity, the students are required to think about the language and reference points which will be familiar to each of their audiences, and how the key information can be communicated without anything becoming lost in translation.
  • Students can then present their mini-presentations to the group for feedback and discussion.

The activity can easily be extended in a number of ways;

  • The topic and / or audience can be kept a mystery from the audience, who have to guess what they are as the individual / group presents.
  • The students can select three audiences themselves, reflecting on likely audiences for the information being communicated.
  • The task can be used to consolidate key information students require, as a revision tool.
  • The students can produce full presentations for their hypothetic audiences (for example, a web designer's sales pitch to a customer, or an economist’s evaluation of the economy to a public radio audience). These can be presented, recorded, or even tested in a real-world environment.

Skill Development:

Students will enhance their communication and public speaking skills, with a greater understanding of the importance of meeting the needs of your audience. They will have a greater appreciation of how their subject area connects with others, and of how their subject area operates within a real world context.

Resources:

  • This activity forms part of the workshop outlined in How to Guide 'Workshop: How To Speak In Public'

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA. [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236).
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148). 
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Workshop: How to Speak in Public (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with an understanding of the techniques behind effective public speaking, presentation and communication.
  • To provide students with practical opportunities to develop their public speaking and communication skills.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the importance of public speaking and communication skills to their own lives and careers.
  • To provide students with opportunities to reflect on how to employ communication strategies, in a variety of contexts.

Overview:

Skills in public speaking, public presentation, and communication of any form are essential for any student: both for success in their academic pursuits,and for their future careers. Such environments are also ones with can be a cause of stress to many students, and an impediment to their progress. For those who master these skills however, they are often able to quickly reach the head of the pack. 

'How to Speak in Public' is a presentation / workshop which can be delivered to a group of any size, and tailored to ensure its relevancy to any audience. It is designed specifically to endow students with a greater understanding of why skills in public speaking, presentation and communication are so importantto them, and to equip them with strategies and practical skills to be more effective communicators in the future. This is inclusive of structuring presentations, integrating tools and resources into them, effective delivery techniques, managing nerves and dealing with questions.

The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, but inclusive of ample opportunities for extension, through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, and could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. It was originally developed through the HEFCW funded pan-Wales Enterprise Support Programme. Lesson plans and AV presentations for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the 'ZONE Enterprise Hub' webpages listed in the references at the end of this document. 

Activity:

Slide Show Title Page

(See resources / references for materials to accompany the delivery of this activity).

Preparation

  • For the learners, preparation for this activity is not essential, but you might want to recommend prior research into presentation skills, or time the activity to correspond with an upcoming presentation the students are due to deliver. For teachers, using the materials provided here, preparation time is minimal, other than familiarising yourself with the presentation content, ensuring all media accompanying the presentation are working correctly, and that the learning environment has the appropriate AV equipment.

Activity Part 1: Introduction

  • Introduce class to the theme of the session, and the elements to be covered.
  • Discuss with students why these skills are important, and where they are likely to be used in the future.

Activity Part 2: Structure

  • The importance of a well-structured presentation is discussed, inclusive of; knowing your objective when communicating; managing audience expectations; ensuring adequate knowledge of your subject and identifying an appropriate narrative.
  • At this stage, students are presented with a variety of public speaking scenarios, and for different scenarios have to discuss and identify both the objective of the communication, and the most appropriate narratives to employ to meet that objective. There is opportunity for debate here, regarding the conclusions drawn.

Activity Part 2: Tools

  • Tools and resources that can bolster a presentation are discussed at this stage. Various examples are offered to the group, and the audience are invited to offer further examples of their own.
  • When to integrate tools into delivery, and when to avoid it is discussed.
  • At this stage, the examples from part 2 are re-introduced to the group, and the appropriate tools to support the narratives and objectives identified are discussed.
  • (If desired, you may wish to perform a demonstration at this stage, to demonstrate the efficacy of tools when used well. For example, in past deliveries of this presentation, non-science students have been introduced to the mathematical relationship between force, pressure and area, first descriptively, then formulaically, and finally with a volunteer being invited to the front of the class to sit on a chair of nails!)

Activity Part 3: Delivery 

  • The techniques behind effectively delivery when speaking in public are discussed at this stage, inclusive of; speaking with passion and enthusiasm, controlling the speed of speech, using the appropriate language and tone, and using body language to best effect.
  • Examples are offered and discussed on each of the points noted above.
  • At this stage, student practice these skills with several activities. To practice controlling the speed of speech, students are given a transcript which they time one another reading aloud. They then watch a film of the transcript being read aloud (at a clear and steady pace) and repeat the activity aiming to amend their pace appropriately. To consider the importance of using the right language in communication, students are asked to consider how they would describe their programme of study to; a) a five year old, b) an academic, c) a grandparent. Students to this in groups, and the reasons for their decisions are discussed and debated.

Activity Part 4: Nerves

  • The reasons why nerves may arise are discussed amongst the group.
  • Measures and coping strategies to control nerves are suggested and discussed (including practice, preparation, release of nervous energy etc.).
  • (You may wish to use your own presentation as an example of how such strategies allow you to present, without being impeded by nerves).

Activity Part 5: Questions

  • Fielding questions is discussed. The group are asked to reflect on what a questioner wants, when asking their question, and strategies for various scenarios are suggested. 
  • If and how the presentation skills covered in the session can be applied to a Q and A session are also discussed.

Activity Part 6: Conclusion

  • The key themes covered by the session are re-capped.
  • If desired, you may wish to field any questions from the audience at this point.

Post-Activity

Following this activity, students may be set a presentation to deliver (as individuals or as groups), or they may be set further questions for reflection and investigation. General questions on presentation, communication and public speaking which have been set to such groups include;

  1. How would you define public speaking?
  2. How many different public speaking environments will you encounter as a student?
  3. Can you find examples of both good and bad public speeches, the impacts of which have changed the course of history; for individuals, for organisations and for nations?
  4. Who are the teachers, speakers and presenters that have made a positive impact on you? What common traits do they possess?
  5. What are the benefits of a structure / narrative to a presentation?
  6. How will enhanced skills in public speaking benefit you in your future life and career?
  7. Is the ability to speak in public more or less important today than it was in the past?

Equally, you may wish to set such questions prior to the session, and debate them after the session. 

Skill Development:

  • Following this session students should have a much greater understanding of the importance of skills in public speaking, presentation and communication, their relevance to their own studies and careers, and a greater understanding of how to develop and nurture those skills in themselves.
  • For these skills to be consolidated, the session must be supported by opportunities to further discuss, explore, and importantly, practice these techniques, by presenting in a wide variety on environments and contexts.

Resources:

  • Lesson plans and PowerPoint presentations to accompany this activity can be downloaded via > https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11 or copies of slides can be downloaded here > How To Speak In Public [PDF]
  • A film of this session being delivered to an audience of art, media and design students at the Creative Futures Conference, March 2015 can be viewed via > https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA
  • An extension of activity connected to this workshop can be found in the How To Guide 'One Topic Three Audiences.'
  • For Case Examples of the workshop in action, see 'Communication, Media, Film and Cultural Studies', and 'Engineering.'

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA. [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236).
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148).
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

Author:

  • Originally produced at Glyndwr University, as an Entrepreneurial Effectiveness (EE) Session, for the Enterprise Support Programme (ESP), funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales.

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Workshop: Being Heard (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the principles behind effective communication.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the importance of a personal brand, and how a personal brand is developed.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of how communication strategies and brand apply to individuals and businesses in a social media context.
  • To provide students with the ability to utilise social media to generate opportunities for themselves and their enterprises. 

Overview:

'Being Heard' is a presentation which can be delivered to a group of any size, and tailored to ensure its relevancy to any audience. 

The ability to communicate effectively through social media is becoming of increasing importance, to individuals and to businesses. Those who master it, are able to generate more leads, find more opportunities, and get their message heard more clearly, than those who don't. Though social media itself is anew phenomenon, many of the principles behind its effective usage are not: clear communication skills, and a strong brand identity, lie at the heart of it. 

Being Heard is a workshop which to introduce students to these themes, discussing the importance of social media as a communication tool, exploring communication strategies and effective branding, and investigating cases where these have been put to effective use within a social media context.

The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, with ample opportunities for extension, and through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. The AV presentation for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the 'ZONE Enterprise Hub' webpages listed in the resources and references at the end of this document. 

Activity:

(See Resources / References for materials to accompany the delivery of this activity).

Activity Part 1: Introduction

  • The themes of the workshop are introduced to the audience.
  • The group share which social media platforms they use, what their aims and objectives are with using each, and fi they have ever reflected on how to use these platforms to greatest effect.

Activity Part 2: Communication

  • The group explore principles behind effective communication (I any arena), namely; presentation structure, the use of tools, and powerful delivery.
  • Here, the group explore how they would structure presentations on various themes, how tools (pictures, videos etc.) could make this delivery more effective, and how the use language and tone impact on information being communicated.
  • This section follows the format of the workshop 'How to Speak in Public', a guide and resources for which, can be found in the 'Resources / References' section of this document.

Activity Part 2: Personal Brand

  • Students are presented with the logos of various companies, and discuss the words and feelings which a brought to mind when they see each.
  • They discuss what the reasons for these are, and the actions companies have taken to bring them about.
  • Next the process is repeated with individuals (as opposed to companies) and the same questions are explored.
  • Students reflect of the words and feeling they would wish to be brought to mind when their name was heard (and their objectives in wanting these associations). They reflect on the actions they could take to bring about these associations. 

Activity Part 3: Social Media

  • Students discuss how each of the points discussed in communication and branding applies within a social media context.
  • Real world case studies are explored, seeing how individual social media posts, series of posts, and users' platforms as a whole, adopt the above to great effect.
  • You may wish to include your own case studies in this section, to ensure the workshop is up-to-date and maximally relevant to the audience. 

Activity Part 4: Conclusion

  • The main themes of the workshop are re-capped.
  • Students are invited to share a post regarding their experience of the workshop, via their own social media channels.
  • You may wish to recommend a specific hash tag for students to include in this post. 

Skill Development:

  • Students will have greater awareness of the importance of strong communication skills and a well-developed personal brand, and a better understanding of how to achieve these.
  • They will understand how these themes relate to social media, how social media can be used advantageously, and how this related to their own studies, careers and endeavours. 

Resources:

  • Copies of the slides which accompany this presentation can be downloaded here ? Being Heard [PDF]
  • For a How To Guide expanding upon the communication elements explored in Being Heard, see 'Workshop: How to Speak in Public.'

References:

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

A Compendium of Pedagogies: THE USE OF HOT SEATS (QAA 5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Participants gain confidence in responding to questioning under pressure. They may importantly also learn that they need to ‘act’ differently with different stakeholders. They learn quickly to adapt to others’ point of view.

Overview:

This is a group exercise. Members of the group in turn are put in the ‘Hot Seat’ to respond to intensive questioning from other group members. Traditionally, this ‘Hot Seating’ technique is used by actors to help them identify with the character they are playing. It is used in entrepreneurship education to enable participants to get inside the culture and values of stakeholders with whom they might have to deal. But it can also be used for intensive questioning of an individual’s own personal aims, objectives and plans including business plans. Other participant’s (the group) act as interrogators in this exercise; note: it can be useful to agree ground rules as what is appropriate in terms of questioning and approach within this task.

Activity:

The hot seat itself is in the middle of a semi-circle of chairs. The person in the ‘Hot Seat’ can be himself/herself or represent a client or stakeholder. Dependent upon the role, questions fired rapidly may relate to personal issues; business/organisational problems or community activities (part of ground rules).

Example Hot Seat: Business/plan/idea

The individual is surrounded by those role playing different stakeholders which the plan might need to convince. The aim is to create recognition that the plan will be seen very differently by very different stakeholders. Interrogators may, for example, play the roles of bankers, venture capitalists, family, local government officials offering grants; a potential large customer who will be judging whether to include the client on a buying list or a major potential supplier who may be asked for credit.

Other participants can then be similarly hot seated. At the end of the hot seating there can be a review of what has been learned about the business plan as a relationship management instrument and how it might be best developed to meet different needs.

Example Hot Seat: different stakeholders
Using the same focus of the business plan; hot seater’s, in turn, can be asked to play the roles of different stakeholders, as above, and are quizzed about what they are looking for and why?

Example Hot Seating: on a problem
The technique can be used to role-play individuals from a case study with the aim of creating lively personalised discussion of major points for learningfrom the case. It can also be used to focus discussion on how to deal with a particular problem set out in a simple brief.

Skill Development:

This is an exercise in thinking and responding under pressure. It also is designed to stimulate understanding of relationship management and the value ofthinking empathetically. It can be used to throw light on the ‘organisational cultures’ of different stakeholders that make them see the same things in different ways.

Resources

A Compendium of Pedagogies for Teaching Entrepreneurship. Professor Alan Gibb and Professor Alison Price - Download (PDF) 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Allan Gibb and Professor Alison Price .

Reflection on Values (QAA 5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

To understand the importance of values and explore how are values affect us and our decision making

To recognise our own values

To recognise the difference in people's values

Overview:

This session can be run by working with learners remotely (through a learning log or diary – see QAAreflectivediary) or in a group discussion in order to explore individual values. It can be useful to help groups explore their approaches and the values that underpin them.

Activity

This activity takes no more than thirty minutes to deliver in a group setting and needs few resources (have a prepared Flip chart replicating the grid with enough columns to suit the numbers in the group). However if delivered as a prompt within a reflective diary or personal learning document, this task and its outcome can be revisited throughout the learning process.

As a group task:

Ask each individual to take some time to read a list of values and decide which are the most important 5 values.

Once these values have been identified, they are asked to rank them by placing them in order of importance ie 1 being the most important. When they have all finished ask them to go behind the flip chart one at a time and put their scores in the grid when they have all sat down turn the flip chart around to group to discuss the range of findings.

Typically no two sets are the same, indicating the range across the group and ask them to discuss the diversity that they see.

Feedback and discussion should not now be task focused (particularly as values can be deeply held and discussions can be wide ranging at this point) but focused upon how to work together if the values are very different.

Please choose your top five values numbering your selection in order of importance 1 being the top and 5 being the lower value.

List of Values can be generic, task or profession focused or related to group work (see below)

Values listed could include:

  • Wealth
  • Peace
  • Environmental Protection
  • Human rights
  • Animal rights
  • Respect for all religions
  • Health
  • Family
  • Friends
  • Culture
  • Arts

Amend: it may be possible to alter this generic list to make reference to issues or debates within your sector/industry or a potential profession. This may require some research or background reading by the students which may impact upon scheduling this task to the following week after the issues have been announced.

Amend 2: Reflective Group work task

It may also be useful in developing communication skills for group work to alter these values to key elements of group work and ask the group to explore these elements and explore what is important to those working in the group and how best to work together, where there are recognised differences. These could include:

  • group harmony
  • time keeping
  • task compliance
  • client satisfaction
  • leadership
  • consensus building
  • deadlines
  • delivery
  • high quality
  • respect for the individual
  • satisfactory outcome
  • professional expertise
  • business like attitude
  • creativity

Skill Development:

This is great exercise for getting people to appreciate how diverse we all are and we should be aware of that when working with others. It is important to ensure that respect for all participants is maintained throughout and it can be helpful to create ground rules at the start of the discussion; however it is also important to build the skills of active listening and build confidence in expressing emotions or strong feelings. It may be helpful to reflect with a colleague on this task, and the group undertaking it, if you wish to be prepared for the range of observations and discussions that may stem from the group.

Group discussions should conclude with consideration of how to take this learning forward into future activities and tasks, whilst individuals can be prompted in their learning diaries or personal reflective logs to explore their emotions in relation to these issues.

As one of the more fundamental elements of communication and improving interpersonal skills, it is important that, as a facilitator, you are able to draw out the learning from this task, rather than allow the merits inherent within each of the values/topics to dominate the discussions.

Resources:

  • Paper
  • Felt Tip Pens
  • Flip Chart

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

Team Work and Creative Thinking: Egg Challenge (QAA 1,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • To encourage students to work effectively in teams.
  • To develop students' abilities to delegate tasks, make decisions quickly, and deliver results under pressure.
  • To develop students creative thinking and problem solving skills.

Overview:

The Egg Challenge is a fun activity, ideal to stimulate effective team working, creativity and effective problem solving with any group.

Split into small groups, learners are each given a real, raw egg, and a simple challenge: to prevent the egg from breaking when dropped from a height of 2 metres!

To assist them, students are given a small number of resources, and set against the clock to complete the challenge.

The activity works well as an ice-breaker, or as the introduction to a larger topic. It takes approximately 20 – 30 minutes to complete.

N.B. This activity uses raw eggs, and will not be suitable for learners will egg allergies.

Activity:

 

  1. Organise the group into small teams (2 – 3 per team is ideal)
  2. Provide each team with a raw egg (stress that the egg is raw, and should be handles carefully!)
  3. Instruct teams that their eggs will soon be dropped from a height of 2m, and their challenge will be to prevent their egg from breaking. (You may wish to drop eggs from a different height, based on accessibility, and the space available. For example, if safe and appropriate, you may wish to drop eggs from an upstairs window, or in a stair well, to provide a considerable height. The higher the eggs are dropped from, the more exciting the challenge becomes!)
  4. Inform teams that to complete the challenge, they will be given a set of materials (2x pieces of A4 paper, 4x drinking straws, 1m of string, 1x balloon and a role of sticky tape).
  5. Using these, and only these materials, they must construct something around their egg, to protect it as it as drops.
  6. Instruct the group that successful teams will be those whose eggs survive without a crack, and that they have 20 minutes to complete their constructions!
  7. As groups work, ensure all stick to the rules that have been set, and provide regular time checks. (You may wish to play fast-paced music in the background as students' work, to add additional energy and tension to the task).
  8. To add an element of silliness, you may wish to encourage teams to come up with team names (egg puns always prove popular), or provide felt-tips for teams to draw character faces on their eggs!
  9. When time is up, instruct all groups to pass their constructions (eggs included) to the testing area. (In view of the whole class, set up an appropriate area for testing. You may wish to ensure the floor is appropriately covered to cater for any mess if eggs break!)
  10. One by one, invite teams to explain to the group the reasoning behind their designs, before dropping their constructions from a height.
  11. Retrieve the egg, and announce to the group whether the team have been successful, inviting applause.
  12. Finish the session by inviting students to identify the skills they have developed through the activity, and how these apply to their academic and business practice. What was the difference between successful and unsuccessful teams? (Team work? Build Quality? Etc.).

 

Challenge Solution

There are numerous ways of successfully completing this challenge. Design ideas include;

  • Using the paper to make a parachute
  • Shedding the paper and using as padding
  • Using the balloon as cushioning
  • Constructing a basket for the egg using straws.

Successful designs tend to be those where weight is well balanced, where the egg resides near the centre of the construction, and where there is no way of the egg making direct contact with the floor on impact!

Skill Development:

After this activity, students will have a greater appreciation of how they work as teams, and how well they can perform in completing a time-limited challenge as a team under pressure. They will have stimulated their creative and problem solving capacities, and be better equipped for creative thinking, team-working, and problem solving based activities going forward.

Resources:

For each team;

  • 2x pieces of A4 paper
  • 1m of string
  • 4x drinking straws
  • 1x balloon
  • 1x roll of sticky tape
  • (Additional items may be added if desired to make the challenge harder / easier)

For the facilitator;

  • A bin bag / floor covering for the testing area (just in case!)
  • A step or footstool (if required).

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

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If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


A model for an Interdisciplinary intrapreneurship-entrepreneurship module (QAA2,3,4,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will understand the importance of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behaviour in the context of their subject area
  • Will engage with subjects outside their discipline to pitch for and explore ideas and concepts
  • To reflect and draw personal conclusions about their capacities and capabilities for entrepreneurial behaviour
  • To research and persuade others of the feasibility and viability of their ideas
  • To conclude with a ‘live’ opportunity which they can research and develop further through a research project/dissertation, employment or a new business venture

Overview: 

This type of module is appropriate on applied courses, or courses ‘with enterprise’. It is especially valuable where students from a range of disciplines are taught together, invited to ‘bring their discipline and interests with them’ (of course, discipline and interests are not always/often synonymous, and this approach helps with that!)

Activity: 

Students engage in a shared first lecture, setting the context for the module, discussing, and responding to individual learner expectations, and an introduction to innovation, delivered by an inventor, which asks the students to invest in one of a series of inventions, based on a case study of each in practice. They are encouraged to reflect on their choice, and in particular the reasons why they feel that their chosen option represents most value.

In week 2 students return to their own discipline (or choose an area of interest based on the available disciplines) and a session is led by academics and industry guests/entrepreneurs focussing on ‘the current and future trends in the XYZ industry’. This tends to be ‘products for users in Science and Engineering’ subjects (e.g. pets and children), and ‘approaches’ in other subjects (e.g. social and online media). 

Week 3 is a facilitated session in which students join interdisciplinary groups (formulated with as wide a variety of disciplines as possible (e.g. 1xcomputing science, 1xbiology, 1xmarketing and management) and share their findings from the previous week to identify areas of shared interest and the skills each member can contribute.

The remainder of the sessions are built around convincing the module assessors, and industry/entrepreneurs that your emerging idea is worth spending more time, money and effort on developing, and that individual students have the appropriate skills and motivations to deliver on the opportunity. The design of the remaining sessions is aimed at students achieving this objective. Remaining module content and tools can be designed together with the students, using flipped classroom, online resources, and update meetings alongside taught lecture material.

Skill Development: 

The confidence gained by the students is seen as they engage with each other and with externals (industry experts).  They are exposed to entrepreneurship through opportunity spotting and evaluation, and through building their reflective and persuasive/selling skills.  By working in teams they are building collaborative approaches to problem solving and task completion.

Resources: 

Planned engagement – including engagement of academics, entrepreneurs and industry partners in each discipline where a student originates.

Time to coach groups individually, access to mentors or online interaction.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

SWOT Analysis (QAA 2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

• Understand the use of a SWOT Analysis
• Complete a SWOT Analysis for a business


Overview:

The activity is designed to assist the entrepreneur/ small business owner to create a SWOT Analysis for their business. This is normally completed before the business starts, however review and examination (re-completing a SWOT Analysis) throughout the life of the business is recommended, especially to support any major decision making.
This activity can be completed by anyone/group who wants to understand what a SWOT Analysis is.

Firstly, what is a SWOT & how is it used?

A successful business considers the wider environment in which it operates.  In the business planning process, the SWOT analysis provides a framework to consider the strengths and weaknesses of the internal aspects of your business; and the opportunities and threats of the environment in which you are operating.

For example, your business planning should consider factors such as:

  •  The state of the economy [local/regional/national] and how growth and decline are likely to affect your sales business
  •  Changes in legislation that could support or create a burden for your business
  •  Social trends that may have an impact on market size or consumer choice
  •  Political pressures for or against your business activity

Carrying out a thorough SWOT helps you to plan to maximise strengths, take opportunities to meet customer needs and develop the business.  It also allows you to develop ways of overcoming any weaknesses, and removing or being prepared for potential threats.

Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths and weaknesses are issues that already exist and are internal to the business. 

Examples of common strengths and weaknesses include:
Strengths: You as the entrepreneur
 Relevant experience e.g. 5 years working in retail/with children
 Transferable or life skills such as being a good organiser / time manager etc.
 Skills that are directly related to the business such as design skills, customer service, financial management skills
Strengths: Your business
 A good location, convenient and accessible to customers
 Highly level of expertise in staff team
 Confirmed orders for your product / service
Weaknesses: You
 Inexperienced at running your own business
 Additional training / accreditation required e.g. hygiene certificate
 Limited selling skills
Weaknesses: Your business
 Need to borrow funds to set up
 Waste in business operations
 Working from home, with limited space to work and danger of becoming isolated

Opportunities and Threats
These are external issues that your business may face, consider what could happen?
Opportunities
 Fulfil some needs of customers which you know at this stage are not  being met e.g. a delivery service to busy or housebound customers
 Offer something different (compared to who you know to be probable competition) or something better e.g. beauty services for men / a luxury product range
 Possible changes in the business environment or market place e.g. increase in mobile phone market creates growth in accessories
 Access certain support – if your business is in a regeneration area, for example
 Changes in the law which might affect your business operations, such as changes in licensing laws
Threats
 Increasing cost of borrowing
 Emerging competition using your ideas
 Personal illness may affect running of the business
 Technological advances making your equipment or methods outdated
 Changes or reductions in government spending
 Disagreements between partners

Sample SWOT Analysis:
 
1. For a domestic cleaning business:

 Strengths:

  • Knowledge of sector
  • Contacts within referral agencies.
  • Health safety, COSHH, customer care.
  • Business qualifications and experience

Weaknesses:

  • Sickness / holiday pay
  • Competition.
  • New to self employment.
  • Need accounting support.

Opportunities:

  • The elderly population in the UK and in local area is continuing to grow.
  • Social Services benefits will be transferred to clients who can decide on how to spend this funding to support their needs.

 Threats:

  • Care agencies offering domestic help in addition to normal services.
  • Cleaning agencies already in area. 
  • One sole trader already offering domestic cleans aimed at older people.
  • Lower than average domestic income within the Borough.


Activity:

If you are working with an individual or group who is going to set up their own business, invite them to complete a SWOT Analysis for their business.

If the individuals are not considering setting up their own business, then ask the group to complete a SWOT Analysis on a famous company. A favourite is to chose well known brands such as McDonalds, what are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities & threats for them, but specific sector specialists can be chosen.

Another exercise is to consider what a SWOT would have looked like when designing a product. For this exercise, split the groups into 4-6 people. Ask them to think back to when they owned a CD player or depending on their age, a Walkman or even record player.
Ask them to imagine that they have invented the ipod and need to outline its strengths and weaknesses to their shareholders.

Give each of them a piece of flip chart, draw a cross and mark an S, W ,O, T (one in each of the quadrants) and work on each section together as a group.
Ask them to ask themselves, What are the Strengths of the IPOD – How is it a better product that the CD player? What are the weaknesses of the product?
Looking at the wider environment, what opportunities has the iPOD got to develop and finally what are the weaknesses.

The session should take no more than 30 minutes and around the same if they are to report their findings back to the group.

 
Skill Development:

Completing a SWOT Analysis helps individuals to consider both internal and external factors. To complete the exercise, the group will need to use a number of skills including – research, audit, evaluation, discussion, debate, negotiation & presentation.


 
Resources:
• Post-its or similar sticky pads
• Pens 
• Papers/pads
• Flip charts 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Marsden (Programme Manager, The Women's Organisation).

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Cases Studies of Good Practice

can be found in Higher Education Academy booklet (2014) Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education Case Studies and includes an example from Liverpool John Moores University School of Humanities and Social Science.

Here be dragons?: Enterprising graduates in the Humanities

This report is based upon interviews with graduates from a range of humanities subjects who are currently running their own businesses. It is not intended to be a guide to teaching business skills to humanities students, but aims to demonstrate to lecturers, tutors, careers advisors and others that humanities degree students acquire a huge range of skills and attributes which will equip them to run successful businesses when they graduate. See HEA for more information: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resources/detail/evidencenet/Here_be_dragons

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf