Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Ability to identify, investigate, analyse and formulate solutions to problems
  • Effective communication skills and other interpersonal skills
  • Capacity for self-reflection

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Communication and Creativity Icebreaker (QAA 1,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The participants will interact and have to use thinking and describing skills
  • To generate enthusiasm and motivation in Idea generation
  • Build confidence in communication 

Overview:

This icebreaker/ energiser can be done at any time, it is ideal to be done the beginning of the training session to get everyone communicating and thinking in a fun/ positive way. This can be done with groups of any age, any level and can be used as an entirely generic activity which builds skills, or the task can be tailored by the tutor to build confidence in topic/programme area.

Activity:

This activity is fun and excellent exercise to get to know one another or to energise a team.It doesn’t take up a lot of time and requires a few simple materials (a pen and piece of paper for each participant).
Steps:

  1. The group facilitator will ask each individual to write down on a piece of paper a positive word for every letter in their (First Name) to describe themselves in a positive way.
  2. Once complete, the trainer should ask participants to swap answers with the person sitting next to them and ask them to read out each other’s positive words that they used from each letter in their first name to describe themselves.

AMENDS  This generic task can be focused upon subject or sector/industry activities rather than individuals.  Each person could take (at random or prescribed) the name of a competitor in the market, or a product that they are exploring – or even create a new product name for a specific target market/to address a specific need and indicate its qualities through its name.

Such an activity creates positive word for every letter in their first name in relation to the organisation they work for/ wish to work for / or a new product or idea - in order to describe the company culture/ mission or values, in order to reinforce these values and positives and help with retention.

This exercise will encourage communication, creativity, motivation and enthusiasm among the participants, whilst also improving retention of ideas.  It will also encourage teamwork as interacting with the other team members is necessary and can be deepened in more complex game play that might require more knowledge or research.

Skill Development:

This fun exercise is built upon ground rules of positivity and develops effective individual and team work as well as create a positive experience of communication.  The engagement in this task can be deepened through reflective feedback which explores the emotions inherent in undertaking a creative, time pressured task which involves presentation skills.  Exploring this with the group and seeking “lessons learnt” for future presentation and creative thinking tasks.  Explore blockages and tensions with the groups and how they were overcome in order to deliver.  It can also be useful to draw out the emotions of presenting, recognising that most people have an emotional response to presenting which they need to overcome to be effective.

Resources:

A sheet of paper and pen for every person.

Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: IMPROVISATION FOR CREATIVITY (QAA 1,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • Cultivate an entrepreneurial mind-set.
  • Recognize limitations of entrepreneurial thinking (what holds one back).
  • Practice improvisation for idea generation and creativity.

Overview:

This series of three short improvisational exercises offers students the opportunity to identify personal limitations to idea generation and reflect on situations where creativity may have been stifled. Students will consider their personal abilities and reactions to their improvisational abilities, as well as approaches to incorporate improvisational thinking in entrepreneurial endeavours. The overall goal is to demonstrate how students can develop an entrepreneurial mind-set through improvisation. Such exercises are routinely used for developing improvisational actors as well as for pre-show warm- ups for the actors. This methodology was created in the 1960s and remains the standard by which individuals learn to improvise. Improvisation is an important component of the entrepreneurship method because idea generation and the ability to incorporate relevant, timely information are critical skills for developing new ventures that will not only survive but thrive.

Usage Suggestions 

These exercises work for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, or practitioner. It is particularly relevant for new venture creation courses, entrepreneurial creativity and/or leadership courses, entrepreneurship boot-camps, and workshops.

Activity:

Pre-Work Required by Students

The optional readings may be used for pre-work or post-work, depending on the audience (see ‘Theoretical Foundation in ‘References’).

Time Plan (1 hour)

This exercise can be extended to longer sessions so that students can begin brainstorming entrepreneurial ventures. For the purposes of an initial introduction to improvisation, this teaching note has been written so that the exercise requires at least 60 minutes.

Introduction 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes)

Begin the exercise by introducing the concept of improvisation: Ask students generally if they know what improvisation means. Opening questions for the discussion can include:

  • What does improvisation mean to you? 
  • Where have you seen improvisation? 
  • Has anyone performed improvisation? Seen it performed?

Overview 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes)

Explain how the students will learn the basics of improvisation and see how they could apply it to entrepreneurship, in particular idea generation and creating new ventures. The instructor can show examples of comedy improvisation performance (either live or through video clips from YouTube. Some good short examples include scenes from the ABC show Whose Line Is It Anyway? An example clip can be found at http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v5Qd8bvNW9_h4).

After sharing an example, discuss how performing improvisation can be learned: there are lessons offered for comedy improvisation and improvisational acting performance in improv theatres worldwide. An established framework exists to learn how to improvise. For this class, improvisation equals thinking on your feet. They will now be “in” an improv classroom, and every improvisation theatre class begins with warm-ups. In order to think on their feet, they have to get up on their feet.

Warm-Up 1 0:15–0:20 (5 minutes)

  • Tell them to begin walking around the classroom and to observe every single object in the room.
  • Then tell them to point at objects as they walk past them.
  • As they point at each object they are to say what it is out loud – only they cannot call it what it actually is. They are to label it something it is not. And they are to do it quickly. Provide a quick example by pointing to an object in the room like the board and then say out loud “dog,” and then point at another object like the desk and call it “potato” or whatever comes to mind.
  • After one to two minutes of them walking and pointing and labeling out loud, ask them to stop and be silent wherever they are for a group discussion. When they stop, have them discuss how the experience of labeling objects was for them. Try to push them to explain what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief: 
  • How was this experience?
  • Did you find this exercise difficult to do? Why?

Summary of Warm-Up 1

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • How difficult it is to break away from known “answers”;
  • How frequently they can get stuck in known patterns of thinking;
  • The ease with which they start creating patterns with a known grouping (e.g. eggplant, cucumber, tomato, lettuce), which is a way to make the experience easier (get the “right” answer) as opposed to pushing and fostering creativity;
  • The need for students to want to be in control, rather than searching for newness or playing;
  • Feeling the sense of awkwardness in saying the “wrong” label out loud, but having others around doing a similar activity makes the exercise less awkward;
  • How easy it can be just to listen to others and follow their answers rather than coming up with their own new idea.

Warm-Up 2 0:20–0:25 (5 minutes)

  • Tell them to begin walking around the classroom again.
  • When they come up to another student, they are to point at another student and name an animal, any animal that comes to mind, e.g. two students face each other and one points at the other and says “horse.”
  • Then tell them that the student who has been pointed at and labelled with a type of animal has to make the sound of the animal. If they do not know what sound the animal makes, they are to make it up and make some sort of sound.
  • Then they switch, and the student who just produced the animal sound – in this example, the horse sounds – points at the first student and names an animal, e.g. “cat.” This student then makes the sounds of whatever animal he or she was given.
  • Once the interaction is completed, and both students in the pair have completed their animal sounds, they are to find new partners and repeat the warm-up exercise with two or three other students.
  • After two to three minutes of animal sounds, ask them to stop and be silent wherever they are for a group discussion. Have them discuss how the experience of making animal sounds was for them. Try to push them again to explain what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief:
  • How was this experience? Did you find this exercise difficult to do? Why? 

Summary of Warm-Up 2

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • Feeling a great sense of awkwardness – they are doing something they would normally be comfortable doing with children, but typically have never done in a classroom of adults or peers;
  • Not knowing the right “answer” or sound a particular animal makes, they would feel very frustrated, and then forget the instruction they were given to just make it up;
  • Once again, the ease with which they follow patterns – patterns offer a way to make the exercise “easier,” as they offer a means to come up with an answer or a label quickly rather than pushing creativity;
  • How difficult it is for them to have no control as to what they have to do, rather than stepping back, enjoying the ambiguity, and searching for newness or playing;
  • The fear they have of being “foolish” in a professional setting, how they do not want to be embarrassed by acting silly in front of others, and, in addition, the fear of feeling guilty, foolish, or rude for labelling others as certain types of animals with distinct connotations;
  • This fear leads to self-judging and/or editing before they label their peer with an animal or before making the corresponding animal sound.

Warm-Up 3 0:25–0:35 (10 minutes)

  • Tell them to form groups of four wherever they are in the room.
  • Then instruct them to play a game of word association, where anyone can go first, say a word, whatever word comes to mind.
  • The person to the left listens to the word and then says a word that comes to mind based on the word he or she just heard.
  • They continue in this way until you stop them, and they are to go as fast as they can (tell them to listen for further instruction).
  • Once they get started, let them go for a minute or so, and then very loudly instruct them to “Switch directions!”

After another one to two minutes of word association, ask them to stop and be silent. You can have them return to their seats at this point or have them stay where they are for the final group discussion. Now have them discuss how the word association experience was for them. Most will say this was easier to do, as they were in a group setting. So push them to explain what was happening rather than what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief: 

  • How was this experience? If this was easier than the last two warm- ups, why?
  • If you found this exercise more difficult than the last two, why?
  • What happened when you were told to change directions? Why did this happen?

Summary of Warm-Up 3

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • The ease again they experienced of getting into routines or patterns – how much they wanted to “control” the situation and outcomes;
  • How much they were trying to be clever, or funny, rather than just coming up with any word that came to mind and following the exercise;
  • Typically they do not enjoy the ambiguity and opportunity to play and explore newness;
  • Self- judging occurs again, they feel limited in the direction for the exercise, and what words they allow themselves to say owing to their need to feel included or pressure to continue established patterns rather than pushing creativity and undefined randomness;
  • Students typically are not listening to the last word they just heard, and instead they focus on the words that people two ahead of them in the exercise are saying, as this way they can plan their response (this is highlighted with the change directions instruction).

Discussion 0:35–1:00 (25 minutes)

Once the students return to their seats, have them form groups of three to four and discuss what might be preventing their idea generation efforts related to initial new venture concepts. They should explore what holds them back when considering what they might do. Have them discuss the specific difficulties they experienced personally during the improvisation exercises and how they might get past these limitations to develop a more entrepreneurial mind-set. Have a member of each group report out one recommendation for fostering creativity through improvisation. A closing discussion should include how to incorporate improvisation in their idea generation practices.

Teaching Tips

It is important to keep the warm-up exercises moving fast. It might be helpful to tell the students before they begin the exercises that they will feel really uncomfortable, but feeling uncomfortable is the point of the exercise. In the debrief discussions, some students will genuinely enjoy the exercises and will say they found nothing in them difficult. Asking for a show of hands of those who found the exercise difficult to do first is often a better way to begin the debrief, before asking about how they found the experience (in case the students who enjoyed the exercises stifle the discussion). In warm- up 3 it is very helpful to move around the room encouraging groups to speed up their words so that there are no long pauses. It is important for them to think quickly and see how to come up with new ideas rather than thinking or planning and judging their ideas before they see where the new ideas can take them.

Skill Development:

Key Takeaways

  • How to incorporate improvisation to develop an entrepreneurial mind-set: being quick on your feet and adapting or reacting rather than planning and pre-judging.
  • Identifying and recognizing personal limitations to entrepreneurial thinking (why students are held back from creativity in idea generation, what their personal pitfalls are).
  • How to develop an entrepreneurial mind-set by incorporating tenets of fast and free thinking through improvisation for idea generation and creativity.

Resources:

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.118 - 124). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Attribution

  • These exercises are based on foundational exercises used in improvisational training, widely taught in improvisational theatre courses worldwide.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Spolin, V. 1959. Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Johnstone, K. 1999. Impro for Storytellers. New York: Routledge/Theatre Arts Books.
  • Hmieleski, K.M., and Corbett, A.C. 2008. The contrasting interaction effects of improvisational behaviour with entrepreneurial self-efficacy on new venture performance and entrepreneur work satisfaction. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(4), 482–96.
  • Neck, H.M. 2010. Idea generation. In B. Bygrave and A. Zacharakis (eds.), Portable MBA in Entrepreneurship (pp. 27–52). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Balachandra, L., and Wheeler, M. 2006. What negotiators can learn from improv comedy. Negotiation, 9, 1–3.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.118 - 124). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub, and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Lakshmi Balachandra.

Workshop: How to Speak in Public (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with an understanding of the techniques behind effective public speaking, presentation and communication.
  • To provide students with practical opportunities to develop their public speaking and communication skills.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the importance of public speaking and communication skills to their own lives and careers.
  • To provide students with opportunities to reflect on how to employ communication strategies, in a variety of contexts.

Overview:

Skills in public speaking, public presentation, and communication of any form are essential for any student: both for success in their academic pursuits,and for their future careers. Such environments are also ones with can be a cause of stress to many students, and an impediment to their progress. For those who master these skills however, they are often able to quickly reach the head of the pack. 

'How to Speak in Public' is a presentation / workshop which can be delivered to a group of any size, and tailored to ensure its relevancy to any audience. It is designed specifically to endow students with a greater understanding of why skills in public speaking, presentation and communication are so importantto them, and to equip them with strategies and practical skills to be more effective communicators in the future. This is inclusive of structuring presentations, integrating tools and resources into them, effective delivery techniques, managing nerves and dealing with questions.

The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, but inclusive of ample opportunities for extension, through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, and could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. It was originally developed through the HEFCW funded pan-Wales Enterprise Support Programme. Lesson plans and AV presentations for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the 'ZONE Enterprise Hub' webpages listed in the references at the end of this document. 

Activity:

Slide Show Title Page

(See resources / references for materials to accompany the delivery of this activity).

Preparation

  • For the learners, preparation for this activity is not essential, but you might want to recommend prior research into presentation skills, or time the activity to correspond with an upcoming presentation the students are due to deliver. For teachers, using the materials provided here, preparation time is minimal, other than familiarising yourself with the presentation content, ensuring all media accompanying the presentation are working correctly, and that the learning environment has the appropriate AV equipment.

Activity Part 1: Introduction

  • Introduce class to the theme of the session, and the elements to be covered.
  • Discuss with students why these skills are important, and where they are likely to be used in the future.

Activity Part 2: Structure

  • The importance of a well-structured presentation is discussed, inclusive of; knowing your objective when communicating; managing audience expectations; ensuring adequate knowledge of your subject and identifying an appropriate narrative.
  • At this stage, students are presented with a variety of public speaking scenarios, and for different scenarios have to discuss and identify both the objective of the communication, and the most appropriate narratives to employ to meet that objective. There is opportunity for debate here, regarding the conclusions drawn.

Activity Part 2: Tools

  • Tools and resources that can bolster a presentation are discussed at this stage. Various examples are offered to the group, and the audience are invited to offer further examples of their own.
  • When to integrate tools into delivery, and when to avoid it is discussed.
  • At this stage, the examples from part 2 are re-introduced to the group, and the appropriate tools to support the narratives and objectives identified are discussed.
  • (If desired, you may wish to perform a demonstration at this stage, to demonstrate the efficacy of tools when used well. For example, in past deliveries of this presentation, non-science students have been introduced to the mathematical relationship between force, pressure and area, first descriptively, then formulaically, and finally with a volunteer being invited to the front of the class to sit on a chair of nails!)

Activity Part 3: Delivery 

  • The techniques behind effectively delivery when speaking in public are discussed at this stage, inclusive of; speaking with passion and enthusiasm, controlling the speed of speech, using the appropriate language and tone, and using body language to best effect.
  • Examples are offered and discussed on each of the points noted above.
  • At this stage, student practice these skills with several activities. To practice controlling the speed of speech, students are given a transcript which they time one another reading aloud. They then watch a film of the transcript being read aloud (at a clear and steady pace) and repeat the activity aiming to amend their pace appropriately. To consider the importance of using the right language in communication, students are asked to consider how they would describe their programme of study to; a) a five year old, b) an academic, c) a grandparent. Students to this in groups, and the reasons for their decisions are discussed and debated.

Activity Part 4: Nerves

  • The reasons why nerves may arise are discussed amongst the group.
  • Measures and coping strategies to control nerves are suggested and discussed (including practice, preparation, release of nervous energy etc.).
  • (You may wish to use your own presentation as an example of how such strategies allow you to present, without being impeded by nerves).

Activity Part 5: Questions

  • Fielding questions is discussed. The group are asked to reflect on what a questioner wants, when asking their question, and strategies for various scenarios are suggested. 
  • If and how the presentation skills covered in the session can be applied to a Q and A session are also discussed.

Activity Part 6: Conclusion

  • The key themes covered by the session are re-capped.
  • If desired, you may wish to field any questions from the audience at this point.

Post-Activity

Following this activity, students may be set a presentation to deliver (as individuals or as groups), or they may be set further questions for reflection and investigation. General questions on presentation, communication and public speaking which have been set to such groups include;

  1. How would you define public speaking?
  2. How many different public speaking environments will you encounter as a student?
  3. Can you find examples of both good and bad public speeches, the impacts of which have changed the course of history; for individuals, for organisations and for nations?
  4. Who are the teachers, speakers and presenters that have made a positive impact on you? What common traits do they possess?
  5. What are the benefits of a structure / narrative to a presentation?
  6. How will enhanced skills in public speaking benefit you in your future life and career?
  7. Is the ability to speak in public more or less important today than it was in the past?

Equally, you may wish to set such questions prior to the session, and debate them after the session. 

Skill Development:

  • Following this session students should have a much greater understanding of the importance of skills in public speaking, presentation and communication, their relevance to their own studies and careers, and a greater understanding of how to develop and nurture those skills in themselves.
  • For these skills to be consolidated, the session must be supported by opportunities to further discuss, explore, and importantly, practice these techniques, by presenting in a wide variety on environments and contexts.

Resources:

  • Lesson plans and PowerPoint presentations to accompany this activity can be downloaded via > https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11 or copies of slides can be downloaded here > How To Speak In Public [PDF]
  • A film of this session being delivered to an audience of art, media and design students at the Creative Futures Conference, March 2015 can be viewed via > https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA
  • An extension of activity connected to this workshop can be found in the How To Guide 'One Topic Three Audiences.'
  • For Case Examples of the workshop in action, see 'Communication, Media, Film and Cultural Studies', and 'Engineering.'

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA. [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236).
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148).
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

Author:

  • Originally produced at Glyndwr University, as an Entrepreneurial Effectiveness (EE) Session, for the Enterprise Support Programme (ESP), funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales.

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Developing Feedback Skills (Physical) (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To explore the need for feedback and support within the learning process
  • To understand the elements that support skill development and build confidence in execution

Overview:

This simple task is designed to help students understand the importance of effective support and feedback during any learning process, but particularly mastering a skill. This approach seeks to use a fun activity (standing on 1 leg) to demonstrate the importance of practice and guidance in achieving goals and improving performance. Reflection upon the learning experience seeks to provide lessons for future learning and illustrate how support, guidance and feedback can improve performance and experience.

Activity

This activity invites individuals to undertake the challenge to stand on one leg for the longest time. This challenge should be set by asking individuals to guess publicly how long they will be able to undertake this task.

(In a large group, you can ask everyone to keep their hands up if they feel that they stand on 1 leg for 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 15, etc until there are only a few left and ask them to state their time!)

Then demonstrate the task (or invite the person who had the most confidence in their ability to do it the longest) to undertake the task (*with the option to raise the arms from either side, at full stretch to meet above the head, hands palms-together).

Then invite each individual to think about what they need to improve the time they initially suggested - seek examples of

  • Research
  • Partnering or mentoring
  • Questioning/ scoping
  • Guidance
  • Practice
  • Advice
  • Expertise

that might be sought to help them – and give them time to improve their time through practice before testing the group / individuals in a timed test.

Once these have been identified, invite them to take the support they think they most need (a partner; a mentor; printed guidance) or to undertake research (using smart phones or lap tops) and be prepared to repeat the task in 10 mins. They can use this practice time in any way they consider effective to improving their performance.

Repeat the challenge and explore with the group who, if anyone, improved during the 10 mins practice and what helped their performance. Explore with the wider group what supported them and gave them confidence in the challenge.

Explore the issue of skill development as part of their reflective practice (See QAA5ReflectiveDiary) by outlining how they have improved upon skill development in the past (learning to drive; learning the piano; golf; swimming etc).

Skill Development:

Effective skill development is created through practice, repetition, guidance or mentoring. Exploring with your students how they developed their knowledge and understanding of the task, and what or who helped them will help identify these core themes. Explore how their research, partnering, mentoring, guidance, questioning, advice etc helped them and identify lessons for future skill development.

By broadening out the discussion to include wider examples of skill development (learning musical instruments; learning to drive; learning to swim etc) you can explore the role of effective feedback and also role models and mentors in their development.

Use this simple task to draw out examples from the group and collate the lessons that they can take forward into future learning.

Resources:

Prepared set of support as print outs – questions; advice; guidance (printed out to share or per person should they be required) – or on a slide to showparticular groups or individuals who are interested.

Suggested Questions

 

  1. Should you think you should have your eyes open or closed? Do you want a blindfold?
  2. Is it better to move quickly or slowly?
  3. Should you start quickly to get the task over with or start slow and risk running out of time?
  4. Would working with a partner (or partners) make you feel more secure, or distract you?
  5. Which bit of your body are you concentrating on?
  6. Would music help?
  7. Which leg should you use?
  8. What surface do you want to stand on?
  9. Are those the right shoes for this task?
  10. What will you do with your arms?
  11. Will you do your own timing?
  12. What muscles are you contracting?
  13. Would it help if you were getting feedback about how it looks during the task?
  14. Would you like to receive comment at the end?
  15. What research could you do before you tackle this task?
  16. Have you ever done this before? (where? When? How did it go? What did you learn?)
  17. Would it help to see it performed again?
  18. What are you thinking about whilst you do this?
  19. Do you want a practice run?
  20. Do you want to watch someone else learn to do this?
  21. Do you know about your vestibular system? This is a mechanism in your inner ear that tells you when you start wobbling, and how much and in which direction, and is your main tool in balancing. Becoming more sensitive to it will improve your balance greatly
  22. Are you using your core muscles?
  23. What are you looking at whilst you do this?
  24. Are you in the correct mental state for this timed challenge?
  25. Why is this task important to you? Why are you undertaking it?

 

Guidance: 3 stage approach

INTIAL ACTIONS

 

  1. Ask your partner to hold the watch and stand close by to catch you in case you start to fall.
  2. Decide which foot to lift (left foot if you're right-handed, right foot if you're left-handed)
  3. Place an object approx 1m in front of you on the floor (a candle; book;)

 

PREPARATION

4.Stand barefoot on a flat, hard surface, approx 1m back from your object.

5.Anchor your feet ('plant' your feet on the floor) and stand evenly, spreading your weight evenly across your body, and breath several times slowly to anchor yourself.

6.Before you start, shift your weight very subtly to your chosen foot, without lifting and then settle yourself in this position and breathe deeply again.

7.Think about your foot anchoring down in the soil, and lightly tense your core muscles in your body (core stability) to ensure you are stable.

8.Settle your vision onto an immovable object little way in front of you in the floor.

ACTIVITY:

9.Lift chosen foot about 6 inches off the floor, bending your knee at a 45-degree angle.

10.Breathe slowly throughout, keeping your focus on your immovable point in front of you.

If you feel wobbly, try bending the standing leg very slightly at the knee.

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

Communication Icebreaker Presentation Challenge (QAA 1,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

1.The group will be able to become comfortable with one another through humour and through the use of an Ice Breaker

2.Skills such as confidence talking in front of people will be used

3.Marketing and Selling skills will be used

Overview:

The aim of this Icebreaker is for everyone in the group to talk for one minute on a given subject. This is a great Icebreaker if your group will be using communication and talking as their main source of developing ideas throughout the rest of the session.

Subjects can range from something ridiculous like 'Why Chocolate Is A Vegetable' or 'Ten Uses For A Paperclip' to topics that are relevant to what you are working on in the session; 'Important Things To Consider When Planning An Event' (event management) or '10 components of manufacturing process' or 'safety lessons in lab work'.

You should choose the subjects based on what your needs and outcomes are. If you are using it to make participants more comfortable and relaxed, then go for a fun topic. If you are using it to get your participants brains active and ready, or in order to get a base line of their knowledge and understanding across the group, then choose a topic that is more challenging and stimulating and course/programme related.

Activity

How to play:

The facilitator announces the topic, and a member of the group is randomly selected to speak for one minute. Alternatively the topics could be in a hat, and members of the group draw their topic from there.

The person who is selected must take their topic and speak for one minute, or as long as they can last. Timing them on a stopwatch is a good idea, but this can make it more competitive. You could even offer prizes for those who last the full minute.

Continue to select people until everyone has had the chance to speak.

Skill Development:

The focus here is on getting the group to be comfortable talking and interacting with each other, especially if they don't know, or know very little about each other previous to the session.

After the Icebreaker the group could reflect on what they enjoyed and what they found difficult about the task, identifying areas of themselves that they can improve and work on in the future.

You can focus the knowledge/learning by drawing our key understanding of the topic as well as explore what was made memorable through effective presentation skills.

Resources:

  • Pre prepared topics on pieces of paper
  • A hat or receptacle to put the topics into
  • Buzzer or timer

References:

One Minute Please – Mental Health Icebreaker - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CxPZ65UeMg

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP ABi.

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If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Idea Generation: New (product/service) Development (Group Ideation)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any, Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action

Objective

  • To reflect upon learning journey
  • To acknowledge individual or team "learning gain" experienced over time (process; project; task; or period of learning/study)
  • To articulate skill development (soft skills) and personal insights (in team dynamics, personal progression or learning)
  • Option to support future development: to provide the opportunity to identify gaps in learning or development and create a personal action plan for personal development and future learning.

Overview

This task provides an opportunity to reflect on the learning gained during particular tasks for activities (ideally should be of "medium" length, such as intense induction programmes, week long activities or longer learning 'events' (modules or years of study). This can be particularly effective in terms of drawing out "change" or learning gain as identified by the learner themselves.

This approach provides an opportunity to reflect upon a wide range of individual development (including emotional development and confidence levels) as well as recognising improvement in the development of skills.

Traditionally physical diaries were issued to encourage students to write regularly and informally, however the wide range of multi-media (through smart phones and tablets) also allows students to select their own format (s) or trial the use of a new media tool for this purpose (ideally agreed in advance with tutor to avoid IT issues in viewing).

A learning diary is therefore a tool of reflection which can take a variety of forms.

Key considerations for the tutor include:

  • media (format options include: written essay or report; video diary; podcast; voice memos; photos/collage; or a combination of approaches)
  • structure (open; templates; prompts or based on prescribed reflective models and frameworks, or those sourced by the student)
  • formalised base line (questionnaire or status review at the start, to review at the end)
  • inclusive of theory and wider reading (whilst some learning diaries are entirely "personal" and seek to draw out the development of softer skills and personal 'learning gain' others seek the inclusion of wider reading and theory development to evidence change and thought)
  • assessment (% within modules vary though typically it is used as part of an assessment strategy, though can stand alone when used to capture and review a full programme year or team task activity.)

NB: Consideration of how to create "value" is key in determining the role/purpose of this approach within an assessment strategy or within a programme. Typically students value activities that the tutor places a value on, and their currency is marks/assessment. However as diary is, by definition, a subjective view, and should reflect what the student has heard, learnt and reviewed, it is the student's own analysis and insights that count, and clear marking parameters and guidance need to be provided to ensure clarity.

Activity

Issuing this task should be done at the start of the activity that you wish the learners to reflect upon. Ideally you encourage (or set) answering a range of open-ended questions, delighted to understand their initial position as they approach this learning/task. This may include expanding upon their prior understanding or life experience, as relevant to this work.

Once the activities are being undertaken, reflective models can be issued or sourced by the students to support their thinking. However you may wish to provide a set of reflective questions at regular intervals as prompts to their developing thinking.

This activity can be highly prescriptive, with set timescales at which you expect stages of reflection to be completed (as relating to the task being undertaken) however it is also possible to make this an open task, where the approach and learning is with the student to design and undertake. This allows the learner to explore, source and select their own model for reflection and test its effectiveness as a tool for their development during the process. This additional skills of research, evaluation and comparative analysis but risks diluting the quality of the reflection if the students place the emphasis upon critiquing models rather than the task itself and their personal learning. It is therefore important that you reflect the emphasis you wish to seek within your assessment schedule.

To increase the synthesis, and the ability for personal and confidential reflection, you may wish to create a format in which the students regularly capture thoughts and feelings, but keep this as a personal document (diary, blog or video diary) from which the submission is created. This synthesised version of their learning and reflections build an understanding of their personal development over time and allows for honest and uncensored self-reporting and reflection. Again the structure/control of the format/questions can be loose and open (providing only sources and reference to guide) or highly prescriptive (working within a template or with specific tools/questions) to ensure that the key elements of learning (including emotional elements and confidence) are a required feature of the submission.

Skill Development

Personal reflection is a tremendous skill, but is often difficult for students to develop, particularly during a period of study, with little or no external reference points or practical application. It is therefore recommended that this is an assessed piece, so that the value of reflection is made clear. It is therefore important that you, as the tutor, place importance upon the development of this skill and take class-time to consider what is meant by reflection practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning.what is meant by reflective practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning. It is also important to consider the formative as well summative assessment within this process, as reflective skills are improved through regular practice, and this form part of your regular teaching. It is important that you 'model' a reflective approach with the students by including reflective questions onto your regular contact with them, and making reflection an explicit aspect of your activity/classroom debrief. Making this explicit within your teaching will reinforce the student's understanding of reflection as an activity to repeated and practiced, as well as help them see how reflective questioning or models can deepen their understanding, and build confidence in their abilities.

Resources

Three stem questions (Borton T 1970) were further developed by John Driscoll (1994, 2000, 2007)

  • What?
  • So what?
  • Now what?
  • Driscoll Reflective Questions (2000) - Download (PDF | 843KB)
  • Gibbs's reflective Cycle - Download (PDF | 843KB)
  • Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) - Download (PDF | 843KB)
  • Task template for individual (adapted from Reflective Learning Diary Template sourced from Burns, T and Sinfield, S (2012) "Essential Study Skills" Third Edition SAGE (photocopiable; printable) - Download (PDF | 843KB)

References

  • Burns, T and Sinfield, S (2012) "Essential Study Skills" Third Edition SAGE
  • Gibb's reflective cycle: from Gibbs, G (1988) "Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods"
  • Atkins and Murphy Model from Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard 8(39) 49-56
  • Driscoll, J (2000) Practising Clinical Supervision Edinburgh Bailliere Tindall

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Peter Brown (University of South Wales). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- peter.brown@southwales.ac.uk.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Cases Studies of Good Practice

can be found in Higher Education Academy booklet (2014) Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education Case Studies

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf