Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Understand and manage changing situations and respond in a flexible manner
  • Develop effective skills in team building, group activities and organisation of others
  • Reflect on and modify behaviour in light of experience and take action where necessary
  • Display skills in management of self in relation to time management, uncertainty, change and stress in work situations

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Team Development through Skills Analysis (QAA 2,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

The learner seek to recognise the skills inherent within a team or are needed for a group to achieve a goal/complete a task.

To recognise difference and how contributes to overall success.

Overview:

An exercise to understand the different skills needed by different individuals working within an organisation and how each person is integral to the overall mission.

Activity:

By presenting a group challenge (which could be an assessment or in-class group activity) ask the students in groups to identify the roles needed to achieve and deliver this task.

The task could be a research study, a group project or a live case from an employer. They can be actual/live or "typical" to your sector and industry or could be created from tender/proposals or research opportunities that you are aware of. This activity can assist a group if they are starting a long term project or assessment together or can be a stand-alone activity which helps them think through roles and responsibilities and underpins future group work.

Firstly ask them to identity the number and type of roles required to deliver the proposal, project, tender or group challenge. Typically they will focus on the project deliverables, but ensure that they also think of the skills needed within the project, such as communication; team leader; organised; patient; good listener. 

Using flip chart paper, they can start to shape these responsibilities into roles or jobs.

Some of their skills may link directly to roles, others may be standalone elements that they wish to see in the team and these can be identified on post its.

Provide outline images of people or a new piece of flip chart and ask them to present the roles required to deliver the job/meet the challenge. This can be presented to the group, or a poster-showcase can be created which includes the brief/project and their proposed solutions (job roles and skills).

Skill Development:

In order to review the skills developed in this task it is important to review the process with the group as well the outcome. They will have had to make judgements and rely on expertise and leadership from within the group and it can be powerful to explore their group dynamics against those they have created in their "dream team". Reflection questions can include:

  • Who demonstrated leadership?
  • Who analysed the task most effectively?
  • How did you overcome any barriers – or "stops" in your work?
  • What resources did you rely on? What networking skills supported this task

Ask the group to reflect upon the skills analysis they have undertaken and their ability to meet the challenge/task. What do they need within their team to be the "dream team" and what qualities would they need? What steps do they need to take (personally and professionally) in order to develop their skills to become a team player for this challenge?

Resources:

Scenarios or group challenges for the groups to tackle (can be different or the same) created from a proposal or tender, or the group assessment.

Flip chart, pens

(optional: outline of a person to create their "job description" with)

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: BUILDING THE CULTURE OF YOUR BUSINESS WITH THE SIMS (QAA 2,3,4,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Use and explain the critical interdisciplinary definitions related to organizational culture and entrepreneurship.
  • Describe the relationship between organizational culture, structure, and leadership.
  • Evaluate personal approaches to a professional work-life.
  • Design and assess an emerging organizational culture.
  • Critically evaluate the approaches to the intentional creation of organizational culture.

Overview:

By the time most enterprise founders start thinking about ensuring a healthy culture in their business, it is usually too late. The culture has already emerged and is not always the most conducive to the health of the founder and employees, or even the enterprise itself. The culture of the enterprise emerges from the mind, values, and practices of the founder(s) while the business is being created, a time when the founder generally places more priority on the creation of economic value than the creation of culture. This exercise is based on a combination of organization and entrepreneurship theory and uses an off-the- shelf computer game, The Sims: Open for Business™, to investigate the core values, assumptions, interpretations, and approaches that combine to define the culture of a new venture. The students are assigned to play the game for a minimum of two hours outside of class, with no introduction given around the concept of culture. The heart of the exercise is the in-class debrief (including viewing the game), which reveals the culture that was created, what it means for all stakeholders, and what actions could be taken to adjust that culture.

Usage Suggestions

This content of the exercise works for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, executive, or practitioner. The delivery requires that the students have access to the game and are able to play it before the discussion. The exercise lends itself well to online courses, as the debrief and illustration can also be done online, preferably in a synchronous mode, although asynchronous will work too. The exercise works best when each student is able to log on to his orher game for the debrief. This exercise is positioned in the course when emphasis is on resources. Culture is presented as a resource that can either add to or detract from the value of the company.

Activity:

Pre-Work Required by Students

  • Play The Sims: Open for Business™ for a minimum of two hours.

Time Plan (90 minutes)

This 90- minute exercise can be adapted to fit various time schedules, including an entire class. Prior to the exercise the students would have been told to play the game for two hours. No other instructions are given. In this way, playing the game provides a shared experience and serves as the live case for the discussion.

Step 1 (Introduction) 0:00–0:10 (10 minutes)

Ask the students to open their laptops and log on to their games. Each game should open at the point at which the student left the game. The opening or warm- up questions should be about just playing the game:

  • How many of you had played some version of The Sims before? Anyone played this particular expansion version?
  • How was it? Did you enjoy it? If so, why? If not, why?
  • Were there any particular challenges?
  • Where there any particular surprises?
  • How long did you actually play? (Probe for who played the longest and why.)

Step 2 0:10–0:40 (30 minutes)

Divide students into groups of five to six and give them the following directions: “Please select a scribe and a reporter to first capture the themes of your work and then be ready to report out to the full class on your work. First, individually, each write down the answer to this question: What is the culture of the business you created – and how can you tell? You have five minutes for this individual work. After five minutes, and I’ll tell you when the time is up, we’ll switch to working with your team. 

  1. First, each student please share with your group the business you created.
  2. Second, as a group create your list of criteria that create an organizational culture.
  3. Third, please describe the impact of how people will carry out work given the culture you have created.

Step 3 (First report out and discussion) 0:40–1:10 (30 minutes)

Start with the first table and have the reporter share their top two criteria, along with an explanation and illustration of each. Then ask each table to add two criteria to the ones already listed. If desired, you can take a hand count at the end to establish what was considered as most important, and so on. The board map should match the theoretical criteria of your choice. For the purposes of this teaching note the primary source is Schein (1983) and focuses on the basic underlying assumptions around which cultural paradigms form. Examples include:

  • The organization’s relationship to its environment: Is recycling important?
  • The nature of reality and truth: How important is time?
  • The nature of human nature: how employees (insiders) are treated and how customers (outsiders) are treated.
  • The nature of human activity: the physical design of the employee break room.
  • The nature of human relationships: Is the focus on competition or cooperation?

Summary and Close 1:10–1:30 (20 minutes)

Ask the students to again work individually and list the three things they would keep about their culture and the three things they would change, along with how they would implement that change. Lead the closing discussion in such a way that the students discover:

  1. What types of cultural approaches are common across most businesses?
  2. What is the role of fit between the founder, the company, and the environment in creating culture?
  3. How does culture become a positive resource for your business?

Teaching Tips

The game generally has to be ordered online, so you need to allow students time to order and receive it. The ideal experience is for the classroom to have wireless internet access and for each student to have a laptop. However, if teaching students with no access to computers or ability to buy the game, the instructor can lead the class in playing the game as a group, with one computer and the screen projected on the wall.

Skill Development:

Key Takeaways

  • The importance of intentionally creating organizational culture during firm emergence.
  • Organizational culture can be a positive or negative firm resource.
  • Organizational culture needs to be a fit between the founder, the firm, and the environment.

Resources: 

Materials List

  • Video game: The Sims and the expansion packet The Sims: Open for Business™.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.110 – 113). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Suggested assigned reading:

  • Schein, Edgar H. 2010. Organizational Culture and Leadership, Vol. 2, Chapters 1 and 11. Wiley.com.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Barney, J.B. 1986. Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustainable competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11, 656–65.
  • Brush, C.G., Greene, P.G., and Hart, M.M. 2001. From initial idea to unique advantage: The entrepreneurial challenge of constructing a resource base. Academy of Management Executive, 15(1), 64–78.
  • Cameron, K.S., and Quinn, R.R. 1999. Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework, Chapters 2 and 3 only. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley.
  • Schein, E. 1983. The role of the founder in the creation of organizational culture.
  • Stinchcombe, A.L. 1965. Social structure and organizations. In J.G. March (ed.), Handbook of Organizations (pp. 142–93). Chicago: Rand- McNally.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.110 – 113). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub. and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Patricia G. Green.

Engaging Alumni to develop Implementation of Ideas and judgement (QAA 2,3,4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

Students should be able to:

  • identify, analyse and respond to relevant opportunities
  • develop and produce multiple solutions to identified problems, shortfalls and similar challenges
  • be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions
  • review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk.

Overview:

With the support of alumni who engage through social media (facebook; twitter etc) an/or Skype, students are given incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment. This interactivity means that deadlines can changed and information updated, often in response to newsworthy or other high profile influences and the students need to adapt throughout the module. (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni professional). The project is designed to precede later work where the students will engage with real clients, so as to better enable them to respond proactively to change.

Activity

This activity is undertaken in semester 1 of a second year course of study (15 weeks – 2.5 hour sessions with anticipated 2.5 hours private study per week) and runs across all Visual Communication and Design courses. Each course's relevance is ensured as the framework can be adapted to specific study areas and alumni inform the actual project – so as to ensure relevance and to maintain student motivation (See: Continuous Conceptual Review Model). The sample offered here is for two cohorts (approximately 50 students) from the film and media production courses and from the Advertising and Brand Management course – who will subsequently engage in an interdisciplinary module.

The following provides an outline of the activity as delivered to these disciplines, and was first introduced in 1995 following alumni feedback on the value of their educational experiences. Other disciplines use their own alumni and realistic contexts.

Week 1

Students expect the lecturer to lead the class, but an unannounced stranger is brought in (alumni - in person or via skype) who asks the group about their career aspirations and challenges their understanding of the world of work. He or she explains their busy lifestyle and asks them to quickly help him or her with a problem they have – how to visualise a brand for a new academy of creativity, but explain that they have to go and leave them to it. Normally 90-95 per cent of responses include a light bulb.

Week 2

Student's have been discussing the individual and although not told, want to question the alumni about their work (curiosity based learning). The alumni,still in a rush, starts to explain that the headmaster for this new school will be Sir Humphrey Davy... then the connection is lost. Quick internet searches reveal that this is a historical project, as Sir Humphry Davy lived in 1778 – 1829 and that his work preceded the invention of the light bulb. Past work is discarded (with occasional moans and groans) and new research starts into historical images that represented creativity - prior to the invention of the light bulb. New / alternative ideas start to emerge.

Towards the end of the session the alumni reconnects / re-enters the room and takes questions about their work as a freelance storyboard writer for major TV companies. Scripts are discussed and student interest gained – a promise to see a script is made by the alumni.

Week 3

An outline of a TV script is presented to students by the alumni. They or another alumni start to explain how camera angles and specialist instructions such as close ups or super close ups need to be incorporated in the storyboards. Examples from well know TV programmes or Films are shown when possible. With support from the alumni, students attempt to develop a storyboard through acting out the script and noting important aspects such as emotional engagement. Identification of the brand is central to the story line.

Week 4

The alumni explains that he or she has just met the producer, who is happy for them to see other scripts for later episodes. Episode two has the main character Davy waking up in the future and looking at a barren landscape, one which is littered with light bulbs - which is now a thing of the past. The alumni explains that their brand has to survive the passage of time and that it has to be recognisable in the year 2020. Research into potential future understanding of creativity commences and students envisage / storyboard a potential future scenario based on the script.

Week 5

The alumni / staff set up an opportunity for the students to pitch their ideas to the alumni. They have an hour to prepare a presentation and are requested to discuss and argue a minimum of three ideas. This was unexpected. After 20 -25 minutes the alumni asks them to limit their presentation to one or two minutes, so that he / she can hear them all. Students are asked at random to present. Time may run out and alumni ask students to make a pdf version to email (via staff).

Week 6

The alumni explains the future direction of the time travelling Davy, and introduces the idea that he may meet aliens in his travels. Some students have already discovered Davy claimed this through their research. The task now is to create a pitch as to why aliens would find the brand design that they are developing to be credible.

Weeks 7–9

Students develop their storyboards and at least 3 brand ideas in the sessions. More in depth research is undertaken and initial concepts re-evaluated anditeratively developed. Arguments for the solutions are mapped and explained as reflective mind maps – so as to illustrate the thinking journey.

Week 10

With 2 or more alumni present or available via Skype, students are asked to consider how this kind of work could be best assessed and who should assess it? Using a pro forma, students suggest how their could be meaningfully evaluated. Through discussion, research, and assisted by appropriate lines of questioning by the educator and alumni, the idea of flexibility, adaptability and the requirement for multiple solutions emerge. Students come to realisethat their response to change is a key factor and that when faced with incomplete data (QAA, 23 states "students can be required to work with incomplete information or information that is incrementally offered after a review of their initial findings"). As multiple and responsive outcomes are the most important aspect, the theory of divergent production is introduced, i.e. more solution developing capabilities, many alternative solutions that respond to change, plus the value of distinctiveness of ideas (similar solutions being less creative than distinctly different ones).

Week 11–13

Students develop their ideas further, in the knowledge that the alumni will be commenting and advising the educator, and that they will be assessed on the distinctiveness of a range of ideas that relate to the assignment given to them by the alumni. These will be evidenced by charts that illustrate the critical elements of their research and how the research informed their solutions. In simple terms, the more divergent the thinking the more complex the charts, hence students can easily recognize the range of solution development that has taken place in a clear and transparent manner.

Week 14–15

Pitches take place and the alumni adds their thoughts and comments. Assessment is based on the range of alternative ideas, the divergence of alternative ideas and their ability to be used flexibly in the scenarios described in the scripts supplied by the alumni.

Note: later, in the next semester's module, the process continues and approximately 5 weeks into the projects each class will be provided with a theory session on brain functionality and how these kinds of activities enhance 'aha' moments of creative discovery (See: Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar). Thus practice informs personal theory development and theory follows practice, "reflective practice enables students to 'join the dots' of past experiences and perceptions" (QAA, 14).

Skill Development:

The assignment is constructively aligned (Biggs, 2003) as it enables students to demonstrate their skills and responses in meaningful and relevant (to their studies) scenarios that engage true to life experiences of alumni – who are partners in the process / most of whom have now experienced it for themselves in their own education and are familiar with the concepts.

Of interest is that the assessment strategy is often new conceptually and structurally, but through debate and discussion (week 10) the students feel engaged and very aware of the goals – which are not as they first perceived.

The assignment also leads into later QAA areas, for example they learn to "robustly justify their decision making processes" (QAA, 17) and includes "pitches to peers and expert advisors" (QAA, 23) that involves "feedback from different viewpoints" (QAA, 26).

Moreover, aspects of decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement (QAA, 19) can be evidenced in this and later assignments based on the same approach. Specifically, the assignment discussed here adopts the following QAA (19) guidance on delivery approaches:

  • recognise or create multiple opportunities through actively making connections
  • make connections as a result of problem solving, evaluating and assessing ideas, and iterative development strategies involving critique and enactment
  • develop relevant subject expertise, as well as awareness of contemporary issues, both of which should feature strongly in any strategies for recognising opportunity

Resources:

Open plan and flexible working environments suited to enactments and pitching – ideally simulated professional design studio with access to online resources

Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project

Pens and software utilised in storyboard development and brand evolution.

References:

Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).

Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)

Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)

Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) 'When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes', Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410

Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna, University of Wales, Trinity St David .

Reflective Learning Diary (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To reflect upon learning journey 
  • To acknowledge individual or team “learning gain” experienced over time (process; project; task; or period of learning/study)
  • To articulate skill development (soft skills) and personal insights (in team dynamics, personal progression or learning)
  • Option to support future development:
    to provide the opportunity to identify gaps in learning or development and create a personal action plan for personal development and future learning.

Overview:

This task provides an opportunity to reflect on the learning gained during particular tasks for activities (ideally should be of “medium” length, such as intense induction programmes, week long activities or longer learning ‘events’ (modules or years of study). This can be particularly effective in terms of drawing out “change” or learning gain as identified by the learner themselves. 

This approach provides an opportunity to reflect upon a wide range of individual development (including emotional development and confidence levels) as well as recognising improvement in the development of skills.  

Traditionally physical diaries were issued to encourage students to write regularly and informally, however the wide range of multi-media (through smart phones and tablets) also allows students to select their own format (s) or trial the use of a new media tool for this purpose (ideally agreed in advance with tutor to avoid IT issues in viewing).  A learning diary is therefore a tool of reflection which can take a variety of forms.  

Key considerations for the tutor include:

  • media (format options include: written essay or report; video diary; podcast; voice memos; photos/collage; or a combination of approaches) 
  • structure (open; templates; prompts or based on prescribed reflective models and frameworks, or those sourced by the student)
  • formalised base line (questionnaire or status review at the start, to review at the end)
  • inclusive of theory and wider reading (whilst some learning diaries are entirely “personal” and seek to draw out the development of softer skills and personal ‘learning gain’ others seek the inclusion of wider reading and theory development to evidence change and thought)
  • assessment (% within modules vary though typically it is used as part of an assessment strategy, though can stand alone when used to capture and review a full programme year or team task activity.)  

NB: Consideration of how to create “value” is key in determining the role/purpose of this approach within an assessment strategy or within a programme. Typically students value activities that the tutor places a value on, and their currency is marks/assessment.  However as diary is, by definition, a subjective view, and should reflect what the student has heard, learnt and reviewed, it is the student’s own analysis and insights that count, and clear marking parameters and guidance need to be provided to ensure clarity.

Activity:

Issuing this task should be done at the start of the activity that you wish the learners to reflect upon.  Ideally you encourage (or set) answering a range of open-ended questions, delighted to understand their initial position as they approach this learning/task.  This may include expanding upon their prior understanding or life experience, as relevant to this work.
Once the activities are being undertaken, reflective models can be issued or sourced by the students to support their thinking.  However you may wish to provide a set of reflective questions at regular intervals as prompts to their developing thinking.  

This activity can be highly prescriptive, with set timescales at which you expect stages of reflection to be completed (as relating to the task being undertaken) however it is also possible to make this an open task, where the approach and learning is with the student to design and undertake. This allows the learner to explore, source and select their own model for reflection and test its effectiveness as a tool for their development during the process.  This additional skills of research, evaluation and comparative analysis but risks diluting the quality of the reflection if the students place the emphasis upon critiquing models rather than the task itself and their personal learning.  It is therefore important that you reflect the emphasis you wish to seek within your assessment schedule.

To increase the synthesis, and the ability for personal and confidential reflection, you may wish to create a format in which the students regularly capture thoughts and feelings, but keep this as a personal document (diary, blog or video diary) from which the submission is created.  This synthesised version of their learning and reflections build an understanding of their personal development over time and allows for honest and uncensored self-reporting and reflection.  Again the structure/control of the format/questions can be loose and open (providing only sources and reference to guide) or highly prescriptive (working within a template or with specific tools/questions) to ensure that the key elements of learning (including emotional elements and confidence) are a required feature of the submission.

Skill Development:

Personal reflection is a tremendous skill, but is often difficult for students to develop, particularly during a period of study, with little or no external reference points or practical application.  It is therefore recommended that this is an assessed piece, so that the value of reflection is made clear.

It is therefore important that you, as the tutor, place importance upon the development of this skill and take class-time to consider what is meant by reflection practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning, what is meant by reflective practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning. 

It is also important to consider the formative as well summative assessment within this process, as reflective skills are improved through regular practice, and this form part of your regular teaching.  It is important that you ‘model’ a reflective approach with the students by including reflective questions onto your regular contact with them, and making reflection an explicit aspect of your activity/classroom debrief.  Making this explicit within your teaching will reinforce the student’s understanding of reflection as an activity to be repeated and practiced, as well as help them see how reflective questioning or models can deepen their understanding and build confidence in their abilities.

Resources:

Three stem questions (Borton T1970) were further developed by John Driscoll (1994, 2000, 2007)

  • What?
  • So what?
  • Now what?

 

References:

  • Burns, T and Sinfield, S (2012) “Essential Study Skills” Third Edition SAGE 
  • Gibb’s reflective cycle: from Gibbs, G (1988) “Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods” 
  • Atkins and Murphy Model from Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard 8(39) 49-56
  • Driscoll, J (2000) Practising Clinical Supervision Edinburgh BailliereTindall

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

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Case Examples

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

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Case Examples

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Additional Resources

Cases Studies of Good Practice

can be found in Higher Education Academy booklet (2014) Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education Case Studies

Enterprise Educators UK (EEUK) regularly share members practice, including examples such Sheffield Hallam's innovative approach to providing students with opportunities to address real-life challenges, getting work experience in a safe and secure environment - the Venture Matrix and Sheffield University's unique module Make Ideas Happen.

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf