Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Working collaboratively 
  • Written and oral communication skills
  • Time planning and management
  • Working productively in a group

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Production Line (QAA 4,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objectives:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • To explore and establish methods of production for a simple products
  • To understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation
  • Understanding processes and procedures
  • Replicating methods

Overview

This task focuses a group of people to organise themselves to set up a production line to exactly replicate an existing product as many times as possible in set amount of time. They are giveqaan the opportunity to reflect on and improve their approach twice to increase efficiency, quality and productivity. This gives participants and others the opportunity to see how their own and other behaviour, ideas, approach affects the development and outcome of the task and how by working together and reflecting and analysing a situation it can be adapted and improved going forward.

Activity:

This activity could take from 30 minutes to a couple of hours depending on how much review, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

Group gathers around a table with all the resources on it. There is a sample product : a booklet with 13 squares of paper 10cm x 10cm, secured with 2 staples in a x shape in the top left hand corner of the booklet.

The group is asked to put together a production line replicating this booklet. They will have 2 minutes to discuss how they think they could best do thisand to allocate roles. Then 3 minutes to put this into practice and produce as many booklets as possible. When the time is up the facilitator then countsand inspects the finished products, looking for quality and accuracy ie:

  • Correct number of sheets
  • Correct size
  • Cut lines are straight
  • There are 2 staples
  • Staples are in the right place
  • Staples are crossed correctly

The group then gets 2 minutes to discuss and review their methods, systems and procedures and come up with improvements or a different approach. They then get another 3 minutes on the production line to best their last score.

The above process is then repeated for a third time.

This could be done with any size group as long as there are sufficient facilitators to split into smaller groups. The optimum numbers in each group wouldbe between 6 and 10, however multiple groups could be working at the same time. They would have to work at the same time so as not to hear the discussion of other groups.

Skill Development:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Efficiency/Productivity
  • Quality Control
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

As has been described this task involves many different skills and objectives on all different levels and can be assessed and analysed either briefly or in great depth across some or all of the objectives. For example, if this is an exercise for managers or recruiters to assess staff skills and abilities it can be finished there at the end of the last count. However it can be extended further, so each team then breaks off with a facilitator to analyse what happened at each stage and why.

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the review and analysis go, who took the lead, someone different? How were news ideas taken on board.
  • What changed the next time, was there an improvement, if so why
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

For example : the focus could just be on the outcomes, ie the quality and quantity of the finished products. Often the first time, people are rushing and slapdash and may do quite a few but get a lot rejected, so need to slow down. Or get them all passed but do a small number, so need to speed up. So it's finding that balance between speed and quality/accuracy.

Or the focus can be on the review and reflection, how the method was changed or improved each time to give better results.

Or the focus can be on the team dynamics how they evolved through each stage, or on the leadership and management of the task and how that changed and fluctuated at each stage, how the balance of power shifted as the task went along.

Or it could very much focus on the individual, the role they played, how this evolved, how they felt, how they were affected by the different characters,how they affected other members in the group, positively or negatively what they would do differently next time.

Depending on whether the focus is on 1 or 2 of the objectives and skills or all of them, all of these and more angles can be identified and explored after the task.

Resources:

Large sheets of paper (A3 or larger, could use old newspapers) minimum of 60 sheets per team, pens, pencils, markers, rulers, scissors, staplers.

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Team Building Time Challenge (QAA 4,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Outside

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • Understanding the importance of careful research, discussion and planning
  • Listening to other members of the team
  • Research
  • Idea generation
  • Sales, persuasion techniques (as needed)

Overview

This exercise is a fantastic way to get people working together as they tackle up to 10 tasks in a given time frame. With limited information (on each other and the tasks presented) the group must navigate through the challenges in order to be the most successful group (back within the time frame; most tasks achieved; most accurate delivery of the tasks). Depending on the tasks selected, specific industry or sector knowledge can be tested as widerskills of background knowledge, research and creative thinking are required. Insist upon evidence of the achievements (photos on flip or camera phones) as well as delivery of objectives.

Activity : This activity needs a long session (such as 120 minutes) to complete, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

The groups of up to 6 people are sent out to complete > 10 tasks (usually 3 cryptic, 3 researched and 4 fun)

Examples of these could include:

  • To find an encryption or statue (or similar engraving) in the University Library
  • Two examples of their subject/discipline in practice (photographs or illustrations of)
  • Interview a relevant professional in the field
  • Find a particular journal article
  • How many people can you fit in a phone box
  • Share a message on social media as widely as possible

These tasks should be developed beforehand to suit the environment where the day is taking place. Ensure there are fun tasks involved and that everyone has a chance to engage by creating a range of challenges that involve the physical, mental, social aspects of your learners.

To manage this challenge effectively, if it important that you:

  • Give strict time frames and penalties for not meeting the time
  • Consider the health and safety aspects of all the challenges and adapt to suit your learners (by keeping everyone on campus; in 1 building; or keeping all the tasks within the 1 room etc as necessary).
  • Consider whether you wish to keep them all together as a team or are happy for individuals to split off to deliver tasks back to the group.

Practically it can also be helpful to give them a puzzle to solve before they can leave and a further one when they return. This means they are leaving at different times and they return to a final challenge, so that you can record time and award points.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the challenges you create, there is a wide range of transferable skills and knowledge base that you can test during this challenge. You can create tasks that draw upon their:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Route Planning
  • Research skills
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

It is important that you review the challenges and how the groups tackled the tasks in order to draw out the subject learning and these wider skills, before reviewing the wider team experience by exploring:

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who planned the route
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved
  • How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

Drawing out the team dynamics will allow the students to identify the lessons that they can take forward that will improve their future group work and learning experiences.

Ask if they started by sharing their knowledge and skill set or just started on the tasks (the most typical response) and whether they would do that again. Ask when, or if they ever start a task by reviewing when they have collectively or individually undertaken something similar and what was learnt that they could take forward.

Resources:

  • Prepared tasks – such as Two indoor puzzles/tasks
  • Research the area for tasks to complete
  • A flip phone or check if students have their own camera phone
  • Flip boards or wall space to show evidence
  • A prize
  • A timer or watch

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Engaging Alumni for Real World Learning (QAA 2, 3, 4, 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

Effective engagement of Alumni seeks to support the students to become:

  • be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions
  • review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk.

Overview:

With the pre-arranged (and prolonged) support of alumni (now professionals) this approach of continued access to external professionals (ideally programme/course Alumni) is designed to prepare students to be able to engage with real clients and better enable them to respond proactively to change.

Externals are invited to engage with the current student group as they undertake a task, using social media (facebook; twitter etc) an/or Skype. This creates either incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment or regular support or feedback on course work from externals.

Activity

This approach needs pre-agreement and commitment of externals (ideally Programme/course Alumni) who commit to short, but regular interaction through social media or Skype.

This activity can either be driven by a live brief or challenge identified by the external (higher level of engagement) or as comment and support to those undertaking the programme, through sharing expertise and current work experiences. If the students are working on a live brief or task given by the external, this high level of interactivity can mean that summative deadlines can changedand information updated, and the newsworthy or other high profile influences can be included throughout the module. (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni professional).

This engagement can be “managed” by the tutor – to pre-plan some ambiguity or pre-agreed change of brief/scope with the Alumni contact, or left open to allow access to externals as an organic relationship, where advice may be sought by the students or experience/daily practice shared by the Professional as they see fit.

In addition, any presentation /show case or final assignment submission can be shared with the external and their input made part of the summative or formative feedback (assessment strategy).

Note that the choice of social media will impact on the type of engagement between alumni and students, but ideally something that the Alumni member uses regularly will ensure more regular engagement. Even small inputs (as typically seen in social media such as Twitter) can guide student approach and ensure that they are able to ask private questions, and that other students can also learn from the mentor/alumni generic comments or insights.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the level and type of engagement, students can benefit from insights from a ‘typical day/week’ of a professional working in their area, or be pushed to develop their tolerance to ambiguity (through changing deadlines, or unexpected changes to the brief or additional information). This can build resilience in the students but there needs to be clear expectations of this relationship, as well as additional tutor support.

Students typically respond well to changes and additional insights from professional Alumni and can develop their understanding and judgement, in their chosen field, whilst gaining further insight regarding professional practice.

Students should be bought together to share their experience of virtually engaging with their Alumni contact and explore their emotional responses to the changing briefs or additional information. They need to explore, and develop strategies, for coping with ‘real world’ brief/challenges and exploringthis together, and sharing how they dealt with it, and could deal with it in the future, builds their confidence and resilience to change. Using reflective practice to consider the learning across the group can draw out a range of key lessons for preparing for future challenges.

Resources:

Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project or to commit to regular updating/comment for a pre-agreed period of time.

References:

Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).

Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)

Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)

Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) ‘When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes’, Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410

Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna, University of Wales, Trinity St David.

Communication Icebreaker (Physical) (QAA 4,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives: 

  • Ice breaker (which builds a connection between pairs)
  • Participants will have to interact and adapt their communication skills to help their team member 
  • Participants will reflect and evaluate their performance as a pair
  • Improve communication and listening skills and to highlight the importance of trust when working in a team or pair

Overview: 

This physical task engages the whole person in supporting a colleague and ensuring their safety through good communication.  The activity can be used at any time during the session, however it is highly effective as and ice breaker.  It is a fun method to start participants communicating and is simple to deliver in an appropriate environment and can be adjusted depending upon group size, age etc. However health and safety is paramount and you must consider the appropriateness of the group and room for this challenge.

Activity:

You should initiative this activity by stressing the nature of the challenge and stressing that the safety of those involved is paramount.  You can also agree across the group that “stop” can be initiated by any member of the team by raising a hand if they don’t feel that it is safe to proceed.  This can be actioned by anyone and will not result in any penalties.

To run the task, gather the group outside the room and:

  1. Scatter furniture that can be used as obstacles but ensuring that safety is not compromised. 
  2. Put team members into pairs and should decide amongst them who is to be blindfolded first. 
  3. The sighted and blindfolded member should stand at one end of the room. 
  4. Aim of the task is for the sighted individual to guide their partner across the room and giving concise information to avoid the obstacles. 
  5. Once each team reaches the other side, the pairs are to swap roles 

It could also be possible to create a preferred route or course (as seen in horse show jumping) which they need to accomplish (if you didn’t wish to use obstacles for safety or mobility reasons) which would lead the pair to particular numbers/letters indicated on the wall.

Subject specialisms could also be tested by placing knowledge based answers on the walls and asking the pairs to walk to their answer through the course (see QAARunaround for details of how to do a multiple choice but don’t mix the games in play for safety reasons).

Skill Development: 

This task requires listening and communication skills and also helps builds trust and connections across the pairings.  However the skill development and improved future practice comes from evaluating performance across the group and understanding how and when particular techniques were effective and what lessons that provides for the future.  It is important to acknowledge fears and concerns, or frustrations between the pairings but keep the discussion to the general learning, rather than focusing upon particular experiences of individual pairings as the depth of learning will come from the lessons that can be applied in future group work or communication challenges.  These lessons include clear communication; agreeing ground rules for working together; recognising the need of feedback or support; understanding the importance of clear short messages within these circumstances etc.

Resources:

  • Blindfolds
  • Large room  - large, safe, open space
  • Items that can be used as obstacles which will act as safe barriers (not fall over; not hurt if walked into – no sharp edges)

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Timelines (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • The learner will develop reflection techniques transferring this information into a group self development/ action plan
  • Experience of discovery through interactive learning processes including learning from failure.

Overview:

(small paragraph/ 2 -3 sentence)

The focus of this task is group reflection, understanding and learning from experience when faced with challenges.

Activity:

As a tutor you will need to prepare in advance to deliver this activity.

PREPERATION:

Depending on class size the activity timings is 2 hrs when working with 4-5 groups of learners. The exercise can be assessed or used as a reflection exercise within a group assignment. You will need to make sure the room is suitable with moving space and tables which can accommodate seating of each group. To deliver the session you will have a box of materials (listed in resources) prepared including laminated titles from 5 sections discussed below.

This activity is divided into 5 sections: -

  • Past – What have you done?
  • Barriers/Pathways – What barriers did you face/ what pathways did you experience?
  • Present – Where are you now?
  • You (Your Opportunity Unrealised) – What did you learn/ what opportunities did you miss?
  • Future – Action plan/ group self development looking forward

Each section is introduced in a timed sequence of 10 minutes per section/ 50 minutes. The group are tasked with creating a “time line” using materials and space provided. The timeline will be created based on group discussion and reflection after each of the sections. Each group will share their timeline, ideally one learner per topic.

Skill Development:

short – focus on reflection; review; feedback; learning

Opportunity to focus and reflect on group working, learning through reflection with chance to put this understanding into practice as the group work for assignment continues.

Resources:

  • String
  • Scissors
  • Selotape
  • Flip Chart
  • Paper
  • Newspaper
  • Post-its or similar sticky pads
  • Pens
  • Cardboard boxes 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Penny Matthews Coleg Llandrillo Enterprise Coordinator, Grwp Llandrillo Menai.

Workshop: Being Heard (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the principles behind effective communication.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the importance of a personal brand, and how a personal brand is developed.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of how communication strategies and brand apply to individuals and businesses in a social media context.
  • To provide students with the ability to utilise social media to generate opportunities for themselves and their enterprises. 

Overview:

'Being Heard' is a presentation which can be delivered to a group of any size, and tailored to ensure its relevancy to any audience. 

The ability to communicate effectively through social media is becoming of increasing importance, to individuals and to businesses. Those who master it, are able to generate more leads, find more opportunities, and get their message heard more clearly, than those who don't. Though social media itself is anew phenomenon, many of the principles behind its effective usage are not: clear communication skills, and a strong brand identity, lie at the heart of it. 

Being Heard is a workshop which to introduce students to these themes, discussing the importance of social media as a communication tool, exploring communication strategies and effective branding, and investigating cases where these have been put to effective use within a social media context.

The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, with ample opportunities for extension, and through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. The AV presentation for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the 'ZONE Enterprise Hub' webpages listed in the resources and references at the end of this document. 

Activity:

(See Resources / References for materials to accompany the delivery of this activity).

Activity Part 1: Introduction

  • The themes of the workshop are introduced to the audience.
  • The group share which social media platforms they use, what their aims and objectives are with using each, and fi they have ever reflected on how to use these platforms to greatest effect.

Activity Part 2: Communication

  • The group explore principles behind effective communication (I any arena), namely; presentation structure, the use of tools, and powerful delivery.
  • Here, the group explore how they would structure presentations on various themes, how tools (pictures, videos etc.) could make this delivery more effective, and how the use language and tone impact on information being communicated.
  • This section follows the format of the workshop 'How to Speak in Public', a guide and resources for which, can be found in the 'Resources / References' section of this document.

Activity Part 2: Personal Brand

  • Students are presented with the logos of various companies, and discuss the words and feelings which a brought to mind when they see each.
  • They discuss what the reasons for these are, and the actions companies have taken to bring them about.
  • Next the process is repeated with individuals (as opposed to companies) and the same questions are explored.
  • Students reflect of the words and feeling they would wish to be brought to mind when their name was heard (and their objectives in wanting these associations). They reflect on the actions they could take to bring about these associations. 

Activity Part 3: Social Media

  • Students discuss how each of the points discussed in communication and branding applies within a social media context.
  • Real world case studies are explored, seeing how individual social media posts, series of posts, and users' platforms as a whole, adopt the above to great effect.
  • You may wish to include your own case studies in this section, to ensure the workshop is up-to-date and maximally relevant to the audience. 

Activity Part 4: Conclusion

  • The main themes of the workshop are re-capped.
  • Students are invited to share a post regarding their experience of the workshop, via their own social media channels.
  • You may wish to recommend a specific hash tag for students to include in this post. 

Skill Development:

  • Students will have greater awareness of the importance of strong communication skills and a well-developed personal brand, and a better understanding of how to achieve these.
  • They will understand how these themes relate to social media, how social media can be used advantageously, and how this related to their own studies, careers and endeavours. 

Resources:

  • Copies of the slides which accompany this presentation can be downloaded here ? Being Heard [PDF]
  • For a How To Guide expanding upon the communication elements explored in Being Heard, see 'Workshop: How to Speak in Public.'

References:

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Creative Problem-solving Exercise Involving Peer-Assessment and Criteria Design ‘The Egg Game’ (QAA 1,2,3,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

After participating in this exercise, learners should be better-able to:

  • Achieve higher assessment literacy
  • Formulate and negotiate assessment criteria for a task, and undertake the task with the criteria firmly in mind;
  • Think constructively about the weighting of assessment criteria;
  • Undertake peer assessment of other teams’ performance;
  • Undertake self-assessment by reflecting on their own group’s performance;
  • Recognise the benefits of team work (and address some of the problems of working in teams);
  • On the basis of a ‘fun’ exercise, take forward useful thinking on assessment design.

Overview

The task is for groups of learners to make a container to hold an egg that is capable of being dropped from a specified height and position in the room without the egg breaking. To do this properly you need about two hours in a large flat room, big enough to enable groups to work independently. This is a practice task to familiarise learners with the concepts of meaningful assessment criteria, weighting and agency of assessment and is particularly useful during the first six weeks of the first semester of the first year. It is presented as serious fun which improves learners’ assessment literacy. It’s also a good staff development exercise to get staff to think hard about assessment issues.

Learners in a class (16-70) are divided into groups of 4-6, at separate tables around the room, and provided with a range of everyday objects as resources, including an unbroken fresh egg. They are briefed to use the resources in a specified time to arrange that the egg can be dropped from a specified height and position in the room to ground level, and remain unbroken by the fall. They are to use the various resources in a creative way to achieve this. But first the groups must come up with around five assessment criteria, which will be used by the other groups to assess each group’s achievement of the exercise, and the whole group of learners must assign weightings to each of the criteria. One criterion is not negotiable: “The egg remains unbroken by the fall”.

Activity

  1. Divide the learners into small teams (groups of about 4-6 work well). This activity can be done with a class size of up to 50, but for smaller classes the minimum group size is 3.
  2. Advise the learners of the purpose of the task, emphasising that it is competitive but essentially fun, and that actually the discussion around the task is much more important to their understanding of assessment conventions than the task itself.
  3. Issue the materials to the groups, instructing them that no other items may be used, including waste paper bins, people and furniture. Insist no one handles the materials and egg before the start signal. You may need to be very strict about this. You may also wish to ham up the rawness of the egg by chucking them to the learners or ‘accidentally’ dropping one. Get each group to check their egg is not cracked when they receive it.
  4. Ask learners to brainstorm up to 5 criteria on which they should be judged (5 mins)
  5. Collate the criteria on a flipchart or white board, and telling them that the egg not breaking is the non-negotiable criterion, get them to collectively prioritise their further criteria. Ask them to include both product and process in the criteria. (Typical criteria include effective planning, aesthetic beauty, sustainability (all items could be reused), using all items provided or smallest number of items, team all worked together well, everyone contributed to the task in some way, achieving the task within the set time, and so on). You shouldn’t need to spend more than 10 mins on this but if you get into discussing how you judge aesthetic beauty it could take 15 mins.
  6. Explain the concept of weighting of assessment criteria. Tell them that the egg not breaking is worth 40% and ask them to propose weightings for the other four criteria that add up to 100% with the most important things being given the highest weighting. (5 mins).
  7. Negotiate agreed weightings for the criteria for the whole group and put on flipchart or white board. (5 mins).
  8. Get the whole group to think up who will actually do the assessmenti.e. agency for 5 mins. Forexample, most product items could be assessed by the tutor or the learners acting as peers rating other groups (inter-peer assessment). If they are judging items like how well they worked as a team, this will have to be rated within the group by four peers each rating the fifth, i.e. intra peer assessment. Self assessment might be used for example if a negotiated criteria is something like individuals contributing to the best of their capabilities or enjoyment. Even if you only use a couple of agents, its helpful to discuss the full range and mention that other possibilities on future group work might include employers, placement managers and clients. (10 mins).
  9. Get the groups to talk for 5 mins about what they plan to do and insist no one touches the materials until you start the task. 
  10. Start the task advising them they have say 8 minutes in which to complete it. You may wish to add to the sense of fun by blowing a whistle, setting a kitchen timer, phone timer or whatever.
  11. Watch learners in action, talking no part in the activity but you may wish to record any breach of the rules which you can bring up in your moderation/summing up.
  12. Stop the task exactly on time. Blowing your whistle loudly is fun! Notice any learners who choose to carry on regardless and decide whether to penalise them totally by giving no marks at all (this gives you a chance to mention things like plagiarism policies and rules on issues like mitigation) and the risks learners can run by ignoring the detail of assignment brief.
  13. Allow each group in turn to come to the ‘dropping point’ and use their equipment to drop their egg from the specified height to the floor, and prove whether or not their egg has been broken, carrying out the assessment using tutors and peers as appropriate. If you have a lot of groups, this can take quite a while. Discuss the assessment of the first six or so in detail, and then tell learners that to do every one in detail would take ages and this is after all a game about assessment (but do drop every egg and check the egg isn’t broken or else learners will feel cheated).
  14. It is really important to get the learners back into small groups after the assessment to discuss the assessment issues for at least five minutes (try to stop them having endless discussions about whether their design was actually best or whether they were fairly treated, and so on) and then have 5-10 minutes in plenary with you summing up the learning points.
  15. You might then wish to issue to learners the assignment brief for the next actual assessment task that follows in their course or module, and get them to bring along to the next session any queries they have about criteria, weighting, agency or anything else, arising from their reflections on the egg game.

Skill Development:

  • Assessment literacy
  • Team working.
  • Creativity and originality of design.
  • Time and task-management.
  • Learners formulating and agreeing assessment criteria for the task.
  • Learners proposing and agreeing the weighting of the assessment criteria.
  • Peer-assessment of other groups’ performances.
  • Self-assessment and reflection on what happened in each group. 

Resources:

Flipchart of white board to display agreed assessment criteria.
Supermarket carrier bag, per group, in which you place:

  • a pair of scissors
  • a small roll of sellotape
  • a selection of about 4 items from the following: a newspaper, a plastic cup, paper plate, tissue paper (or a tissue), length of string (about 2 metres seems to work well), cocktail sticks, wooden or plastic clothes peg, square of bubble wrap (if you want to make it really easy for them) or whatever is available.
  • one uncooked egg in shell.

It is important that each bag contains more-or-less identical kit, otherwise appeals of ‘unfairness of assessment’ may arise (though of course you might wish this to be one of the matters which will arise, in which case allow some differences in the kit).

References:

  • Brown, S. (2015) Learning, teaching and assessment in higher education: global perspectives, London: Palgrave-MacMillan.
  • http://sally-brown.net

Author's Website:

http://sally-brown.net

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Sally Brown.

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Case Examples

Enterprise Clubs: Guest Speakers In Practice (QAA 1,2,3,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • To provide learners with opportunities to network and learn from their peers.
  • To provide learners with opportunities to network with industry relevant experts.
  • To provide learners with opportunities to enhance their subject relevant skills and knowledge.
  • To provide learners with opportunities to reflect, and to plan.
  • To improve learners confidence and self-belief.
  • To support learners in setting up and growing their own Enterprises.

Introduction:

In north east Wales a number of criminology students (along with peers from a variety of degree programmes) develop their enterprise skills by engaging with expert guest speakers, facilitated by the Business Entrepreneurship Network.

The Business Entrepreneurship Network for Wrexham and Flintshire is a network of businesses, business support organisations, entrepreneurs and education institutions with a shared interest in supporting individuals (especially young people and those from disadvantaged backgrounds), in developing their confidence, aspirations and abilities, and supporting them through the process of starting up their own businesses.

The network was established by Askar Sheibani, CEO of Comtek Network Systems LTD, and an appointed 'Entrepreneurship Champion' to Welsh Government. In 2014, having been successfully developed in Flintshire, the Network's provision was extended to Wrexham. Speaking at the launch of the Wrexham Network, Mr Sheibani said, "The aim is to increase the number of business start-ups in Wales and this trial in Wrexham will give us a better ideaof how the Flintshire model can be improved and applied in other regions. The Wrexham trial is supported by the Welsh Government and we are confident that the model – which was developed within the community at a grass roots level - will prove to be a practical and innovative way to increase the level of entrepreneurship and business start-ups in Wales."

Amongst the ways in which the Business Entrepreneurship Network supports entrepreneurs, is via fortnightly 'Enterprise Clubs.' These clubs are coordinated in Wrexham by NE Wales based further education institution Coleg Cambria, and feature presentations by invited guest speakers, followed by informal networking.

The use of guest speakers at enterprise clubs has been of tremendous value to learners. The clubs are held at Wrexham Library, a centrally located and publicly accessible venue, and are open to students, graduates and members of the public free of charge.

A number of regular attendees are current NE Wales based undergraduate students, from a wide-variety of degree programmes. Attendees range from those setting up their own businesses, to students looking to develop their networks and skills for employment, to those simply wishing to develop their confidence and find out more.

Activity:

Planning Guest Speaker Sessions

There is no budget to facilitate guest speakers to the Enterprise Club. As such, appropriate speakers are identified from a variety of sources, including;

  • Contacts from the professional networks for the Business Entrepreneurship Network and its supporters.
  • Representatives from a variety of business support organisations (who are able to cover their costs from their own funds).
  • Funded schemes, for examples, the Welsh Government funded 'Big Ideas Wales Role Model' network.
  • Experts from further and higher education (able to offer their time in kind).

Club members are invited to suggest the topics and themes they would like the club to cover in the coming weeks and months, and speakers are sourced to meet these specific needs, ensuring sessions are always relevant to their audience. Speakers are generally confirmed two weeks prior to a club meeting, allowing for the sessions to be promoted through a club mailing list, through professional networks, through general press release, and through social media.

Facilitating Guest Speaker Sessions

Enterprise Club

Figure 1. Attendees discussing ideas at the BEN Enterprise Club

Enterprise Club sessions last for 2 hours. The general running order is as follows;

  • The club’s facilitator (Lynn Williams, Business Lecturer at Coleg Cambria) welcomes attendees.
  • The speaker is introduced to the group.
  • The speaker delivers a talk / workshop for approximately 1 hour. AV presentation facilities are provided for speakers who require them. (The majority of guest speakers deliver sessions inclusive of amble discussion points and break away activities).
  • The facilitator invites Q and A from the group at the end of the talk.
  • For the second hour of the session, refreshments are provided, and guest speakers and club members are invited to stay, discuss the content covered in the session, and informally discuss problems, achievements and ideas.
  • The facilitator thanks for guest speaker and group for their attendance, and the group are invited to suggest topics they would like to visit at the club in the weeks and months ahead.
  • The details of the following club presentation are promoted to the group, and the club is brought to a close.

Impact:

The guest speaker sessions have made a huge impact on the club attendees. The first hand, up-to-date, and relevant knowledge and expertise which speakers have passed on to club members, is directly applicable to the groups of needs and endeavours, and the opportunity to network with speakers and fellow club attendees has led to numerous mentoring relationships and collaborative projects, and allowed members of the group to identify bespoke solutions to their own specific problems.

Approximately 100 unique individuals have participated in the guest speaker sessions to date, with average attendances of 10 participants at each club meeting, and with many new enterprises being launched by club members.

Learner outcome:

Comments from regular club attendees have included;

"The staff, the entrepreneurs and the members have helped me out a lot and not just with my business. They have boosted my confidence and made me feel like I could really achieve my dreams."

"BEN has helped me a great deal with starting up my business and I have been given so much positive feedback from both mentors and fellow members."

"The BEN Club has allowed me to work with a great mentor and meet great people with passion for business."

Resources:

  • An appropriate meeting venue.
  • A network from which guest speakers can be provided.
  • For a How-To Guide and utilising guest speakers, see 'Guest Speaker Guidance.'

References:

Author:

www.macorcoran.com

With thanks to Lynn Williams, Coleg Cambria – lynn.williams@cambria.ac.uk

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Defining the Marketing Message (QAA3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop their own ‘marketing message’ – content that can be used to describe their product / service that will inform customers about what it is; inspire them to make a purchase by explaining the benefits the product / service offers; and provide details of how to engage so that the customers knows what to do to make a purchase.

Overview:

The focus of this task is to develop a well-constructed marketing message which describes the benefits of a product/service to customers.

Activity:

Instructions  

Invite the entrepreneur to complete the ‘Message Matrix’ below to describe their product or service:

Inform

What is it you are selling?

Inspire

Why should the customer buy from you? 

Engage

What should the customer do next? Ensure they have all the information they need

     

By sharing and discussing their Message Matrix with a business development provider or fellow entrepreneur, the ‘Marketing Message’ can be refined and developed to ensure that it is clear, understandable to a wider audience and that key information is not omitted.

This activity can be undertaken for different groups of customers as a slightly different message may be needed for each.

Skill Development:

By working in groups, or through watching each other present their work, students are able to learn further and deepen their own work.  It is useful to draw any presentation or discussion session to a close by asking what they now wished they had done, or what they are now going to do, in order to ensure there is action from learning.

Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

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Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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Additional Resources

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf