Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Identify and resolve problems
  • Communicate ideas with clarity, coherence and persuasiveness
  • Work with a significant amount of independence, demonstrated in self-direction, self-management and intellectual initiative both in learning and studying and in time management.
  • Present materials orally in a clear and effective manner, using audio-visual aids, where appropriate and answering questions from an audience
  • Listen effectively and work creatively, flexibly and adaptively with other

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Problem Solving Challenge (QAA 1,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • Listening to other members of the team  
  • Idea generation and creativity
  • Understanding the importance of careful research, discussion and planning

Overview:

This exercise is a fantastic way to get people working together to complete a simple challenge. The idea is that they are given a pack of spaghetti, a pen, scissors, a reel of cotton, two chairs and a bar of chocolate for each member of the team. They are asked to build a bridge using the equipment provided that will hold the bars of chocolate. The first team to do this wins.

Activity:

This activity could take from 30 minutes to complete, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session

An example of the tools they will be given is laid out on the facilitators desk where the spaghetti packet is opened and the cotton is cut into a few lengths, providing visual example of what is possible (if potentially misleading!).

The chairs are spread two feet apart and cannot be moved (ideally these will be away from other groups to stop cheating) items are given to the group and they are advised that they are to have a 5 minute team talk to prepare before they start, however the first one to build the bridge wins (and invariably they race ahead and start to build the bridge, but you can reflect upon this approach with the whole group at the end).

Typically the further they race ahead (without planning and discussion) and open the items, the more problems they will face. For example, once the spaghetti is opened it becomes a lot harder but the more creative constructions emerge. The best solution is to leave the packet closed, pierce the ends and use the cotton to secure the packet to the chair and rest the chocolate on the packet of spaghetti. However it is still possible to complete the task once the spaghetti is opened, but they will do well not only to hold the chocolate, but complete the task in 30 minutes.

At the end of the 30 minutes, the groups get a chance to see what the other teams have done and see how creative they have been in creating a bridge.

This could be done with any size group as long as there are sufficient facilitators to split into smaller groups. The optimum numbers in each group would be 4, however multiple groups will be working at the same time. They would have to work at the same time so as not to hear the discussion of other groups.

Skill Development:  

This activity can develop a wide range of skills including the following:  

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving  
  • Teamwork and organisation 
  • Leadership/Persuasion 
  • Individual and team decision making 
  • Logistics/Systems 
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency 
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback to other team members and at the end of the task

It is useful to spend additional time reviewing the group process and explore how the task was tackled as a group.  Ask the groups to reflect on the following within their team process:

How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas 

  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why 
  • Who was ignored and why 
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved 
  • Who allocated roles 
  • Who put themselves forward for roles 
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team? 
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved? 
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages

Resources:  

In advance you need to purchase resources.

Each team will need a pack of spaghetti, scissors, reel of cotton, two chairs and a chocolate bar for each team member. Someone will need to watch the time or you can add time keeping to their responsibilities.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Michael Marsden.

Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: RAINMAKERS (QAA 1,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • Break the ice and build energy in a classroom setting.
  • Encourage students to think more creatively when problem- solving.
  • Feel how movement can be an active component of the learning process.

Overview:

How do you make rain inside a room? This is the opening question for a playful, kinaesthetic, exercise that can help students begin to think more creatively and collaborate as a group. In a round circle of 15 or more, participants work together to create the sound of light rain that then escalates to a powerful storm and back to light rain. 

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, and executive. The exercise is best positioned at the start of a session or a class as a non- traditional opener. 

Activity: 

Pre-Work Required by Students

  • None.

Time Plan (15 minutes)

Exercise 0:00–0:08 (8 minutes)

The instructor should begin with the following challenge: "If we wanted to make it rain in this classroom right now, how could this be accomplished?"

Students will offer the more obvious solutions such as: light a fire so the sprinkler system will go off; bring in a bucket of water and throw it up in the air; shake a closed bottle of carbonated water and then open it. Note that many of these solutions are individual based, and they are neither realistic nor innovative. When there are no more ideas, ask the students to form a circle (shoulder to shoulder) in the room and announce the following: “We are going to make rain together as a group. Only do what the person to your right is doing and don't start until the person on your right starts.” The “rain” is made during a series of seven rounds. The instructor begins each round, and then the person to the left will do exactly as the instructor does. The rounds flow into one another; there is never a break in the flow of making the rain.

  • Round 1: rubbing hands together. The instructor begins by rubbing his or her hands together palm to palm. The person on the immediate left should immediately follow. Eventually the entire group will be rubbing their hands together. When hand rubbing reaches the person to the immediate right of the instructor, it's time for round 2.
  • Round 2: snaps. While everyone is still rubbing their hands together the instructor then begins snapping his or her fingers of both hands. The person on the left should immediately follow. Eventually the entire group will move from rubbing hands to snapping fingers. When the snapping of fingers reaches the person to the immediate right of the instructor, it's time for round 3.
  • Round 3: slapping hands on thighs. Repeat the format of the previous rounds. Transition to round 4 when thigh slapping reaches the person to the instructor's immediate right.
  • Round 4: stomping feet while slapping hands on thighs. The storm is at its peak during this round. Repeat the format of previous rounds.
  • Round 5: return to slapping hands on thighs. Repeat the format of the previous rounds.
  • Round 6: snaps return, and the storm begins to subside. Repeat the format of the previous rounds.
  • Round 7: rub hands together so the light rain returns, and then end. Repeat the format of the previous rounds.

Congratulate the students for making rain and creating a storm and initiate a round of applause.

Debrief 0:08–0:15 (7 minutes)

The following questions are suggested for debriefing:

  • When I asked the question about creating rain, why did your answers not consider “sound” or other ways to create rain?
  • What does this mean for how you think about creating opportunities? Problem solving?
  • What was your reaction when I asked you to get into a circle?
  • How did you feel before, during, and after the exercise?

Teaching Tips

Here are a few tips to ensure a true rainmaking experience:

  • Every round must flow into the next without stopping.
  • The instructor sets the tone for each round because he or she is the first to go. For example, it's important to slap hands on thighs rather hard to get the sound needed. The same can be said for stomping.
  • Students have a tendency to want to all start rubbing their hands together when the first person starts. It's important that each person waits to start (or change) until the person to his or her right starts or changes. The instructor may have to start, stop, and restart in the first round to make the point regarding who does what activity when.

Skill Development:

Key Takeaways

  • Our frames of reference are the starting point for problem solving and creating, yet these frames are limiting.
  • There is usually uncertainty associated with asking students to get into a circle, but through collaboration this uncertainty is diminished and something completely unexpected is created.
  • Entrepreneurship requires action. Simply moving your body can have an immediate impact on emotions, motivation, and confidence to continue.

Resources:

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.114 – 117). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Attribution

  • This exercise has been used by teachers of all levels, though it's not clear who created the exercise. See http://www.teampedia.net/wiki/index. php?title5Make_it_Rain.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Gardner, H. 2011. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.114 – 117). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub, and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Heidi M. Neck.

Team Work and Creative Thinking: Egg Challenge (QAA 1,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • To encourage students to work effectively in teams.
  • To develop students' abilities to delegate tasks, make decisions quickly, and deliver results under pressure.
  • To develop students creative thinking and problem solving skills.

Overview:

The Egg Challenge is a fun activity, ideal to stimulate effective team working, creativity and effective problem solving with any group.

Split into small groups, learners are each given a real, raw egg, and a simple challenge: to prevent the egg from breaking when dropped from a height of 2 metres!

To assist them, students are given a small number of resources, and set against the clock to complete the challenge.

The activity works well as an ice-breaker, or as the introduction to a larger topic. It takes approximately 20 – 30 minutes to complete.

N.B. This activity uses raw eggs, and will not be suitable for learners will egg allergies.

Activity:

 

  1. Organise the group into small teams (2 – 3 per team is ideal)
  2. Provide each team with a raw egg (stress that the egg is raw, and should be handles carefully!)
  3. Instruct teams that their eggs will soon be dropped from a height of 2m, and their challenge will be to prevent their egg from breaking. (You may wish to drop eggs from a different height, based on accessibility, and the space available. For example, if safe and appropriate, you may wish to drop eggs from an upstairs window, or in a stair well, to provide a considerable height. The higher the eggs are dropped from, the more exciting the challenge becomes!)
  4. Inform teams that to complete the challenge, they will be given a set of materials (2x pieces of A4 paper, 4x drinking straws, 1m of string, 1x balloon and a role of sticky tape).
  5. Using these, and only these materials, they must construct something around their egg, to protect it as it as drops.
  6. Instruct the group that successful teams will be those whose eggs survive without a crack, and that they have 20 minutes to complete their constructions!
  7. As groups work, ensure all stick to the rules that have been set, and provide regular time checks. (You may wish to play fast-paced music in the background as students' work, to add additional energy and tension to the task).
  8. To add an element of silliness, you may wish to encourage teams to come up with team names (egg puns always prove popular), or provide felt-tips for teams to draw character faces on their eggs!
  9. When time is up, instruct all groups to pass their constructions (eggs included) to the testing area. (In view of the whole class, set up an appropriate area for testing. You may wish to ensure the floor is appropriately covered to cater for any mess if eggs break!)
  10. One by one, invite teams to explain to the group the reasoning behind their designs, before dropping their constructions from a height.
  11. Retrieve the egg, and announce to the group whether the team have been successful, inviting applause.
  12. Finish the session by inviting students to identify the skills they have developed through the activity, and how these apply to their academic and business practice. What was the difference between successful and unsuccessful teams? (Team work? Build Quality? Etc.).

 

Challenge Solution

There are numerous ways of successfully completing this challenge. Design ideas include;

  • Using the paper to make a parachute
  • Shedding the paper and using as padding
  • Using the balloon as cushioning
  • Constructing a basket for the egg using straws.

Successful designs tend to be those where weight is well balanced, where the egg resides near the centre of the construction, and where there is no way of the egg making direct contact with the floor on impact!

Skill Development:

After this activity, students will have a greater appreciation of how they work as teams, and how well they can perform in completing a time-limited challenge as a team under pressure. They will have stimulated their creative and problem solving capacities, and be better equipped for creative thinking, team-working, and problem solving based activities going forward.

Resources:

For each team;

  • 2x pieces of A4 paper
  • 1m of string
  • 4x drinking straws
  • 1x balloon
  • 1x roll of sticky tape
  • (Additional items may be added if desired to make the challenge harder / easier)

For the facilitator;

  • A bin bag / floor covering for the testing area (just in case!)
  • A step or footstool (if required).

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Networking Connections (QAA 6, 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Outside

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • An icebreaker (25 minutes) for a module or great background activity for a networking event
  • To ensure the group engages in networking activities
  • To introduce the importance of physical networking and hints and tips on how to go about it

Introduction:

A fun and interactive session that encourages networking which can be underpinned by theory and practical advice and support on how to improve physical networking. Each participant is given a card from a standard 52 deck. The participants keep their card for the duration of the game. Initially they find someone to pair up with to form a starting hand. The pair of participants then queue to visit the dealer who deals a Texas Hold'em hand and each participant is awarded points based upon the final hand obtained. Participants then have to find another partner to form a new starting hand and join the back of the queue. The gamification of networking encourages participants to meet as many people as possible and look to identify where they have commonality that could lead to mutual value. Each relationship is not equal as suits could represent sectors, face value could represent job roles. Yet sometimes cards that do not seem to have any strong connection can lead to a useful networking connection (and score in the game). The individual with the top score will win a prize; this is not always the person who made the most connections although playing as many scoring hands as possible (putting in the effort) obviously helps. Successful players are therefore selective in who they form a starting hand with. Through playing the game and talking whilst queuing to see the dealer, participants do engage in real networking as the conversation inevitable moves away from just game participation.

After a winner has been announced the sessions can be underpinned by introducing theory or practical tips.

Activity:

This session works well as an icebreaker at the beginning of a new module or extracurricular enterprise intervention or equally well at a formal networking event. This has been used with local Chamber of Commerce organisations, UGs, PGs and staff with excellent results. Please note a basic understanding of Texas Hold'em poker and hand dynamics does add value to the participant's experience. If the educator is not confident then it is likely a student or member of the group has the necessary knowledge to help.

Resources:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Jon Powell (Enterprise Team Manager, EEUK Board Member). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- j.e.powell@lancaster.ac.uk.

Opportunity Spotting Within a Narrative Journey (QAA 2, 3, 5, 6, 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will discover that they have entrepreneurial abilities and potential
  • The learner will get an insight into the world of 'everyday' entrepreneurship
  • The learner will become more alert to opportunity recognition
  • This is a useful session for the reluctant entrepreneur – those who might think it's not for them, particularly arts students.

Overview:

Activity:

This is a two hour session and it will begin abruptly by creating a case study with the student group.

The idea is to pick on a student and announce in 5 years' time "Jane"(or John) will run a successful arts consultancy. This will raise some surprised gasps and giggles which will immediately engage students' attention. The narrative that unfolds will demonstrate: how Jane started out in one direction but discovered, and followed, opportunities elsewhere, how she took a few risks, showed resilience in the face of setbacks and how she turned to her networks (other students in the room who come into the story) to help her fill skills gaps and capacity problems.

The case study is pre prepared and can be tailored to the cohort. It should be approximately 10 mins long and the story should be plausible – not extraordinary – a case of everyday entrepreneurship. It will be fun as it draws the students into a fictional story.

Following this there is a 30 min breakout to discuss in groups of 3 or 4 to analyse Jane / John's journey: how did he do it, the key factors for success, would you have done it differently, could you have done the same journey, have you encountered any similar situations to John, if so what did you do? Students post thoughts on stickies.

The management of feedback here is important because the students, who are reluctant entrepreneurs, should be led to the explanation that this behaviour is entrepreneurial. The session is to not only identify the behaviour as entrepreneurial but to get the students to reflect on their experiences in similar situations and imagine how they would respond. The idea is for the students to see enterprise as tangible, every day (familiar even), as a series of minor steps and small scale risks and about trying things out to see what happens.

The upshot of the feedback session is that the students 'discover' the entrepreneurial mind-set for themselves – they have not listened to an expert talk about it for 50 mins – and that they identify with it as something they can do themselves.

Skill Development:

The session finishes with 10-15 mins reflection where students have to pledge to do something entrepreneurial that week. It could be something they had been thinking about for a while but had made excuses not to do it. Others may need a little help and guidance from peers about what they might do, so reflection and pledge setting should be discussed in groups. The follow up session (if appropriate) will be when more detailed reflections can emerge and when students can get a measure of where they might be regarding their own development in terms of entrepreneurship and the enterprising mind-set.

Resources:

  • Post-its or similar sticky pads
  • Pens
  • Flip chart

About the Author
This guide was produced by Dr Peter McLuskie, Coventry University. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- Peter.McLukie@coventry.ac.uk.

A Compendium of Pedagogies: THE USE OF EMPATHY IN COMMUNICATION EXERCISES (WITH ENTREPRENEURS) (QAA 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

The objective is to sensitise participants to the need for different forms of communication with different audiences or interest groups, and to develop capacity to use this skill. In particular, emphasis is placed upon the 'ways of communicating' of entrepreneurs, informally, within constraints and on a need-to-know and know-how basis.

Overview:

Activity:

This can be approached in a number of ways, including by an exercise in writing for different kinds of audiences. To commence this exercise, participants, organised in small groups, can be given a copy of an article from a 'broadsheet' newspaper (in the UK, this would be the Times or Guardian) and then an article on the same subject from a 'tabloid' (in the UK these would be The Sun or The Mirror).

They are asked to analyse the differences. They can then be asked to write a short piece reporting an incident or covering an issue of relevance to the group in the language of the broadsheet (the Times) and then the tabloid (the Sun newspaper). The end discussion might focus upon the importance of considering the different 'word counts' and processes of communication for different audiences and discussion of the relevance of this for the participants.

An example focused upon reaching independent business owners might be that of designing a brochure to promote a programme on financial management for small firms. Participants might be asked to speculate on the different needs of different groups of firms at different stages and invited to consider ways of segmentation of the 'market. Particular attention will be paid to the educational/qualification background and the kinds of newspapers they might read. They might then brainstorm on the particular 'needs to know' (key knowledge and facts) and 'know how' needs of this group. What problems are they likely to have in the field of financial management and what opportunities for development might they face where financial skills mightbe needed? What barriers might there be to owners of the 'type' identified have to attending the programme and how does that affect the communication? Bearing the above in mind the brochure will be written and may be appraised by different groups.

Another example is organising and selling a briefing workshop to local entrepreneurs for the above programme, in particular, covering forms of verbal and written communication relating to processes of; attracting entrepreneurs to the workshop; creating the right environment for communication when they arrive; forms and content of presentations/discussions designed to excite and create interest; and methods of 'sealing the deal'.

Skill Development:

The focus is upon the art of communication and engagement with different audiences, a key component in the process of creating affectivity and co nativity in entrepreneurial learning processes.

This activity will result in an enhanced capacity to build promotional and learning relationships with different groups of participants and also an associated ability to communicate on a Know-How and Need-to-Know basis with small firms.

Resources:

The full text 'A Compendium of Pedagogies for Teaching Entrepreneurship. Professor Alan Gibb and Professor Alison Price, can be found via the following link > http://ncee.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Compendium-of-Pedagogies.pdf

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Allan Gibb and Professor Alison Price.

Gather learners’ expectations and needs (using post-its) (QAA 1, 2)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation

Objectives:


• To allow learners to contribute to the agenda for large-group teaching sessions;
• To allow teachers to find out ‘where a group of learners is at’ at the start of a large-group session
• To gather details of ‘learning incomes’ for a group – what the learners can already do, what they already know, and what their potential problems may be.


Overview

This is a plenary activity using post-its in a large-group setting, for example in a lecture theatre, at the start of a lecture, or at the start of a series of lectures. Each learner is given a post-it, and asked to respond privately to a given starter-question. Learners are then asked to swap post-its, and a few volunteers are invited to read out what’s on the post-it they now have (in the comfort of relative anonymity). Then learners are asked to stick up all the post-its on one or more flipcharts, to serve as an exhibit for the rest of the lecture, and to be taken away by the teacher/lecturer at the end of the session for further exploration.


Activity


1. Show a slide indicating very broadly what the session is going to be about, or give a very short oral introduction to the session.
2. Issue post-its, one to everyone (rectangular ones are best for this)
3. Picking a main topic from what’s going to be addressed in the session, indicate the starter statement on a slide ‘Xxxx would be much better for me if only I ….’ and ask everyone to jot down, in good handwriting, quick completions of this starter on their post-its.
4. Ask everyone to swap post-its, till they’ve lost track who may have their own.
5. Find a volunteer to read out, loudly, whatever’s on the post-it they now have. Explain that there’s no risk, as if the post-it is ‘silly’ it’s not the fault of the person who now has it.
6. Ask the volunteer to pick any other learner (e.g. by what colour they’re wearing or any other way), and get them to read out what’s on their post-it.
7. Repeat till between 6 and 10 post-its have been read out.
8. Ask for the post-its all to be stuck onto a flipchart (or two) at the front of the room, e.g. ‘folk at the end of rows please bring them and stick them up’.
9. Look briefly at the exhibit, picking out trends, praising a couple of really good ‘if only’s, and reading out any amusing ones.
10. From time to time during the session, address things that were listed on the ‘if only’ post-its.
11. Peel off all the post-its and take them with you at the end of the session, and if you have time sort out what the most frequently occurring ones are, and start of your next session with the class by addressing one or two of these directly. From the whole collection, gain an idea of how much (or little) the group seems to already know about the topic (the ‘learning incomes’ – what they’re bringing to the topic).

Skill Development

This exercise helps teacher and students develop the following skills:
• Teacher: skill at finding out ‘where a group is at’ regarding a new topic, or an (important) subtopic.
• Teacher: a way of starting a lecture where it matters little if a few stragglers are still arriving during the activity.
• Teacher: a resource to re-visit before running a new session on the same topic with another group in future.
• Learners: the feeling that their views, fears, and ideas are being collected and addressed by the teacher.
• Learners: a quick, anonymous, safe way of admitting things they think will be difficult or challenging.
• Learners: the opportunity to think quickly around a new topic, and pick something they would like to get out of it being covered in the session.


Resources

• One or more pads of post-its.
• Something on which post-its can be stuck by learners towards the end of the activity; a flipchart is ideal, but doors, windows, whiteboards and walls can be used as necessary, testing them first to ensure post-its will actually stick to them.
• A few pens or pencils to give away to those learners who haven’t one with them. 


References:


Race, P. (2014) ‘Making Learning Happen: 3rd edition’, London: Sage.
https://iad4learnteach.wordpress.com/2014/01/10/making-learning-happen-the-power-of-the-post-it-note/
Race, P. (2015) ‘The Lecturer’s Toolkit; 4th edition’, Abingdon: Routledge.
http://phil-race.co.uk

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Phil Race.

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Case Examples

Your Example Here

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

Defining your Customer (QAA 2,3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

  • To build a profile of (future) customer as a person
  • To develop the business offer through a broader understanding of the customer needs
  • To  support critical thinking and evaluation of ideas 

Overview: 

This exercise enables students to demonstrate their understanding of their potential customer and deepen that understanding to create a robust offer.

Activity: 

Give each group or individual a sheet of paper with an outline of (non-male or female) person drawn in the middle. 

Ask them to depict on the figure what they might know about their (future) customer.  This requires them to visually-describe their customer, including things like: 

  • Where do they live, work, spend time outside of work and home
  • How much do they earn
  • Where else might they access products/services like yours
  • How do they think, feel
  • What experience do they expect 
  • What concerns do they have
  • What life to do they lead

The purpose is to try and establish a real understanding of what is important to a potential customer, rather than drawing out key “facts” about them (disposable income etc).

Once all the drawings are done, everyone looks collectively at the different customer outlines and tries to add further understanding from what they can see.  The owner of the drawing need not accept these, but can include anything relevant onto their picture.

Once every drawing has been explored, each team/individual needs to articulate one message that they have learnt from this exercise that they can take forward into their planning.  So if offering fast-food to a student customer base, they may have identified price as critical.  However the wider discussion might have identified that students may also select to eat somewhere that is offering free wifi to allow them to connect with others or make plans with each other.  Or if the customer base was a family, then other elements that are important to them such as child-friendly parking, might indicate 1 premises to be more attractive than another.  This “linked” thinking allows the student to draw out the wider benefits of their product or service and explore it in order to create an effective offer.

Skill Development: 

Whilst this task can be based on initial research undertaken by the student, the critical thinking comes from the assumptions that the wider group offer to develop their thinking.  This shows the power of group work and allows the students to deepen their own thinking through the examples of others.

It is useful to explore this task at the end of the session to see how the groups found sharing and testing their assumptions in a group environment.

Resources: 

Paper, pens, flipchart (outline of a person)

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Teaching Entrepreneurship A Practice Based Approach Exercise Business Model Canvas Game (QAA 1,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Reflect on the meaning and importance of the nine business model components. 
  • Demonstrate how the ordering on the canvas categorizes components as generating value or creating efficiency to deliver value. 
  • Discuss and debate the ordering proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010).

Overview:

The Business Model Canvas (http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/ canvas) has become a popular teaching tool in entrepreneurship classrooms. It is not my intention here to introduce the canvas or illustrate how it works. Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) do a magnificent job explaining the canvas, articulating the theory behind the canvas, and offering many ways to use the canvas. This exercise is a quick game to help students reflect on the nature and ordering of the nine business model components found on the canvas as proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works well for both undergraduate and graduate audiences. The exercise is best used in a course or class session where the Business Model Canvas is first being introduced.

Activity:

Pre- Work Required by Students - None.

Time Plan (30 minutes)

The Game Setup 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes) 

Before introducing the canvas, simply introduce that there are nine components of a business model. I typically show a PowerPoint slide with the nine components listed in random order. Tell the students that there is a particular order to the components, but they need to figure out what the order is. In other words, they need to determine which of the components should be considered first, second, and so on. What’s most important to start with and what’s least important? Separate students into teams of five (maximum).

The Game 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes) 

Give each team a deck of cards (see resources) and ask them to place them in order from one to nine (10 minutes). After 10 minutes, give each team a long piece of masking tape and have them tape the order of their cards to the wall or board, so everyone can see the differences across the team.

The Discussion 0:15–0:30 (15 minutes) 

Now it is time to introduce the ordering that Osterwalder and Pigneur use. Their book (see Theoretical Foundations) is quite helpful if you are not familiar with the canvas. I typically give out a copy of the Business Model Canvas to each student prior to disclosing the order. The ordering of the components is: 

  1. Customer segments
  2. Value proposition
  3. Channels
  4. Customer relationships
  5. Revenue streams
  6. Key resources
  7. Key activities
  8. Key partners
  9. Cost structure

Usually student teams will have either customer segments or value propositions first and this creates a wonderful debate in the class. Introduce the order of the components one by one while also explaining what each component is. After walking through the components and discussing the differences in order created by each team I end the exercise with a brief discussion summarizing the order. At the end of the day, the ordering really does not matter because the canvas is meant to be an iterative, working document that will continuously change as you learn new information from every action taken or experiment conducted. What is most interesting about the design of the canvas and its ordering is found when you fold the canvas in half (left to right). 

According to Osterwalder and Pigneur, the right side of the canvas is concerned with creating and generating value. The left side of the canvas is concerned with generating efficiencies to deliver that value. As such, an entrepreneur needs to first determine or create the value and then develop the approach to deliver that value. Innovation, novelty, creativity, and competitive advantage are most often found in the value creation. So, start on the right!

Teaching Tips

The most important reason that I do this exercise is to get the students thinking about each component on their own in teams rather than just “telling” them about each component. Expect raging debates about customer segments versus value propositions as being first in the order. It is always a great conversation to have.

Skill Development: 

Key Takeaways

  • It is important to think about the ordering of the components but not be wedded to one particular ordering. 
  • A business model is about value creation, delivery, and capture – but start with creation and think about cost last. 
  • Focusing too soon on cost structure and resources can diminish the innovativeness of new ideas. This can happen when we start on the left side of the canvas.

Resources: 

Materials List

Instructors will need to create decks of “business model component cards.” One deck is needed per team in the class. Each deck is comprised of nine index cards. On each card should be one of the nine business model components: customer segments, value propositions, channels, customer relationships, revenue streams, key resources, key activities, key partners, cost structure. Given that this is the actual order recommended by Osterwalder & Pigneur, it is important that the cards in the deck are not in this order. You may also want to have copies of the Business Model Canvas to distribute as well, but after the game. A copy of the canvas can be obtained at http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695 

References:

This exercise is taken from;

•Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.136 – 138). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Theoretical Foundations

•Osterwalder, A., and Pigneur, Y. 2010. Business Model Generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Heidi M. Neck.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Cases Studies of Good Practice

Here be dragons?: Enterprising graduates in the Humanities

This report is based upon interviews with graduates from a range of humanities subjects who are currently running their own businesses. It is not intended to be a guide to teaching business skills to humanities students, but aims to demonstrate to lecturers, tutors, careers advisors and others that humanities degree students acquire a huge range of skills and attributes which will equip them to run successful businesses when they graduate. See HEA for more information: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resources/detail/evidencenet/Here_be_dragons

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf