Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Critical and analytical skills
  • Creative and imaginative skills
  • Communication in a variety of media
  • Reflexive and independent thinking
  • Handling creative, personal and interpersonal issues
  • Negotiation and pursuing goals with others
  • Managing personal workloads and meeting deadlines

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Communication Icebreaker Truth & Lies (QAA 1,2,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Idea generation
Understanding processes and procedure
With opportunities to:

  1. Review the session, understand the concept or steps covered in an interactive way.
  2. Evidence the power of group work as more ideas are created through team work
  3. Understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  4. Understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation.

Overview:

There are times when people’s energy is low during workshops, particular after a long lecture or after a break. After lunch time workshop participants tend to be tired while they are still digesting. It’s fast and fun ways to get participants refocused on the workshop (and topic).  This task can help the group bond or develop their subject knowledge through a “truth and lies” approach to multiple choice statements (right or wrong).

Activity:

  1. Participants write on cards / note pads two truths about themselves and one lie.
  2. The participants then walk around sharing with one another their three statements – during this participants should reveal which of the statement is a lie. During this sharing it is the goal of the participants to:
            a)    Convince others that your lie is true
            b)    Guess the correct lie of the other participants
  3. The participants gather back together in a circle and the first person read aloud their statement to remind everyone.
  4. The group then tries to guess which of the three statements is not true – at the end of each statement ask for a vote through a show of hands. ‘Who thinks this statement is true?’ Raise your hands.
  5. The participant then reveals says which of the statements is untrue.

    Notes:

    •    For large groups (30+), it is best to split into smaller group sizes.
    •    Give example of statements and remind people that they should use short statements.

    This task can be undertaken as a lively energiser, or as a subject based/ discipline focused activity.  By providing a slightly longer time for the students to prepare, the statements can be about a revision topic, or a new topic that is being studied.  It is also possible to pre-prepare a set of two piles of statements and invite the students to take them, research them (this can be for the following week if more complex subject related topics) and convince others of their position.  This could be delivered as a panel in front of the group, who are acting as audience. Inspiration for this type of extension can come from the BBC TV format “Would I lie to you?” but requires subject knowledge to make the truths and lies work and therefore the individual panellists can benefit from working in advance as a team to prepare their statements and answers.  By creating teams, with a panel spokespeople, audience engagement is high.

Skill Development:

It is important to ensure that the student groups recognise that the potential of subtle communication skills deployed in this task (such as empathy; humour; rapport).  Discussing the challenge, and what elements were memorable and effective, can highlight how individuals create effective communication.  Whilst they are opportunities to develop a range of communication skills through practice, it is important to look for “future lessons” from this task to build an understanding of the transferable skills that are being developed.  This might include discussion of Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation; Interpersonal Skills; Communication; Reflection and Action; Team Building and creative thinking skills.  It could be helpful to write up these titles and invite comments on post-its under each title to draw out experiences and feelings. Explore these comments collectively to draw together themes and learning from the whole group.

Resources:

Each participant needs a note pad/card and pen/pencil
If you wish to use this approach to introduce a new topic, or topic extension, then you may wish to pre-prepare the statements for the students in advance for the session – or to issue in the session in advance for learners to research and prepare for the next week panel task.

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Building Contacts and Widening Circles (QAA 2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To get students engaged in networking
  • To get students to understand what networking is
  • To get students to see the value of networking
  • To get students to acquire networking skills and techniques

Overview:

It goes without saying that networking is a really important activity. Yet students are often reluctant to engage in relationships beyond their immediatecircle. They have powerful aversions to networking partly based upon fears and misconceptions about what it is: selling (it's all about selling yourself and pitching), that it is about being an extrovert (sociable and bubbly), that they as students have nothing to offer (‘who would want to talk to me?'), that it seems pointless (students will have stories about going to events collecting business cards and nothing ever happening). They will have a multitude of good reasons why they can't and shouldn't do it. The challenge is to turn round these misconceptions and show students that networking is valuable, doable and indeed enjoyable.

Activity:

The first task is to get the misconception and fears about networking out into the open and to introduce different versions of what networking might be. This can't be done by asking students about their fears and why they don't currently engage in networking: this is sensitive and students may feel embarrassed talking about it.

The session begins with the value of networks and networking. This should be interactive, talking to students about their networks, how they found opportunities, but also using statistics about how many jobs are filled via networks rather than open advertising. This part of the session functions as a warm up and should get students feeling positive about networking.

The second activity is to get them into groups and ask them to draw a 'good' networker. This will bring out some of the negative misconceptions about it:students will draw someone who is extroverted, experienced, knowledgeable, valuable, confident, good at pitching – all the things they may not be good at. This is your opportunity to demonstrate that a good networker is someone who is good at listening, (not talking), it is someone who is genuine and open (rather than focussed on their own agenda) and that it is about building trust and rapport leading to a lasting relationship.It's an opportunity to discuss their value as students – which they are very anxious about as they have little work experience. Here a discussion about their value in terms of innovation, fresh thinking, new ways of doing things is important.

The third activity is a group brainstorm around how to create rapport with someone: suggestions will include, smiling, shaking hands, complementing people, being helpful, listening to what people have to say. This section could include a listening activity, for example where individuals have to listen to partners and paraphrase.

The final session involves practical activity. The students will network amongst themselves. It's important that they shake hands here: this is partly about creating the rapport, discussed earlier, but also about adopting a more professional outlook and attitude. The students will find this both fun and challenging and some students will become anxious about it so it is worth doing a bit of role play to try it out: i.e. demonstrations of how to shake hands and introduce yourself. The result is that students will feel more professional.

The assignment is:

Find a person, introduce yourself: impress upon them your integrity and openness.

Reflect on what you did and report:

One positive technique; One negative technique

The feedback will draw out feelings about handshaking, observations about body language, about personalising conversations by using the other person's name.

Skill Development:

This activity has been delivered with 3rd year Design and Visual Arts student, 2nd year Photography students and MA Contemporary Art students at Coventry University.

Through a clear group debrief, students' misconceptions about networking are reversed.

Students understand the networking is a skill that they can practice and develop. They learn the importance of networks and collaboration. They learn that networking and professionalism is a 'performance' which they can adopt when necessary – in this context it can be useful to talk about wearing different hats as they often think of themselves as 'students' which can carry a lot of negative connotations.

They feel more comfortable with the idea of networking – they thought it was all about sales and the pitch but find it is actually something they could do. Some students struggle with the handshake, they find it very unusual but with a bit of practice and shift in attitude, do get it.

A group of students who know one another is not as good as a mixed group where they might be introducing themselves to strangers. However, the practical element can be modified by asking students to find out something new about their colleagues, or to find out a shared interest they didn't know they had with a colleague which will help build rapport.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Peter McLuskie. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- Peter.McLuskie@coventry.ac.uk.

Enhancing Reflective Practice: Think Pair Share (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Build deeper reflection by working with others
  • Explore and understand process and experience through reflection
  • Develop reflective practice within learning

Overview:

This simple and effective reflective technique works in all teaching spaces and across all group sizes. This requires some individual time, some time working in pairs and then working wider across the group. It is a collaborative process that deepens individual reflection and shares collective thinking effectively with a group of any size.

Activity:

This activity is a cooperative learning technique that encourages individual reflection that builds through three distinct steps:

Think: Students think independently about the question that has been posed, forming ideas of their own or reflecting up their own learning experience or journey. This stage should not be rushed as it is key that individuals take time to think on their own, making notes or reflecting personally.

Pair: Students are grouped in pairs to discuss their thoughts. This step allows students to articulate their ideas and to consider those of others.

Share: Student pairs share their ideas with the full group and the tutor supports or facilitates a group discussion on the consensus of ideas.

This technique works well for reflection but also any open-ended questions or problems that require discussion. Other amends are to "Write- pair-share" which ensures that the individual element of the task is not rushed, or to avoid the third stage of "share" across the whole group.

Skill Development:

You can enhance the presentation skills within this task by asking each person to stand and respond individually, moving round the group – or to create a powerpoint slide to share their individual or joint thinking from the process. However the immediacy of this process, requiring no resources and yet engaging all the learners in reflective practice is very attractive to use in class, with large groups.

References:

http://www.cultofpedagogy.com/think-pair-share/

http://blogs.edweek.org/teachers/coach_gs_teaching_tips/2014/12/a_think-pair-share_on_think-pair-share_1.html?intc=es&intc=mes

http://www.learner.org/jnorth/tm/InstrucStrat36.html

http://blogs.edweek.org/teachers/coach_gs_teaching_tips/

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

Quick Smart Presentation (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To present ideas in a short space of time
  • To communicate effectively under time pressure
  • To determine the content which most effectively communicates within the artificial constraints
  • To deliver a quality presentation working on your own

Overview:

(small paragraph/ 2 -3 sentence)

Described as the art of concise presentation, this format of presenting with PowerPoint ensures that all the speakers have a fixed time to communicate their ideas to their audience.

There are a range of time scales/number of slides (such as delivering 20 slides, 15 seconds each slide or 20 slides, 20 seconds each) but the essence of this format is to keep the delivery clear and crisp under strict time constraints.

Activity:

The preparation for this task will be done by the student in advance.

As their tutor, you issue them with a topic and the constraints by which they must work –

Either to deliver 20 slides, each timed for 15 seconds to provide a 5 minute talk

Or you can give them 20 slides, each timed for 20 seconds.

Ideally provide them with a template which will automatically move on after 20 seconds (downloadable – see resources) so that they cannot take longer over 1 slide or extend their point.

This format makes a great presentation showcase format for student conferences, workshop days or presentations.

You may wish to provide the links provided in the references to allow students to see how the format works – or prepare your own to show in advance.

Skill Development:

The challenge comes from the automatically moving slides which requires that that the students plan their short, but powerful impact.

Upon completion of this task, it is worth reviewing with the group their experience of this approach as a communication method and how they found the challenge.

Resources:

Powerpoint (optional pre-set slide show format such as available here - http://ignitebristol.net/speak/guidance-for-speakers/

References:

http://www.pechakucha.org/

http://bettakultcha.com/bettakultcha-events/

http://ignitebristol.net/speak/guidance-for-speakers/

http://www.speakingaboutpresenting.com/content/fast-ignite-presentation/

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

Workshop: Being Heard (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the principles behind effective communication.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the importance of a personal brand, and how a personal brand is developed.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of how communication strategies and brand apply to individuals and businesses in a social media context.
  • To provide students with the ability to utilise social media to generate opportunities for themselves and their enterprises. 

Overview:

'Being Heard' is a presentation which can be delivered to a group of any size, and tailored to ensure its relevancy to any audience. 

The ability to communicate effectively through social media is becoming of increasing importance, to individuals and to businesses. Those who master it, are able to generate more leads, find more opportunities, and get their message heard more clearly, than those who don't. Though social media itself is anew phenomenon, many of the principles behind its effective usage are not: clear communication skills, and a strong brand identity, lie at the heart of it. 

Being Heard is a workshop which to introduce students to these themes, discussing the importance of social media as a communication tool, exploring communication strategies and effective branding, and investigating cases where these have been put to effective use within a social media context.

The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, with ample opportunities for extension, and through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. The AV presentation for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the 'ZONE Enterprise Hub' webpages listed in the resources and references at the end of this document. 

Activity:

(See Resources / References for materials to accompany the delivery of this activity).

Activity Part 1: Introduction

  • The themes of the workshop are introduced to the audience.
  • The group share which social media platforms they use, what their aims and objectives are with using each, and fi they have ever reflected on how to use these platforms to greatest effect.

Activity Part 2: Communication

  • The group explore principles behind effective communication (I any arena), namely; presentation structure, the use of tools, and powerful delivery.
  • Here, the group explore how they would structure presentations on various themes, how tools (pictures, videos etc.) could make this delivery more effective, and how the use language and tone impact on information being communicated.
  • This section follows the format of the workshop 'How to Speak in Public', a guide and resources for which, can be found in the 'Resources / References' section of this document.

Activity Part 2: Personal Brand

  • Students are presented with the logos of various companies, and discuss the words and feelings which a brought to mind when they see each.
  • They discuss what the reasons for these are, and the actions companies have taken to bring them about.
  • Next the process is repeated with individuals (as opposed to companies) and the same questions are explored.
  • Students reflect of the words and feeling they would wish to be brought to mind when their name was heard (and their objectives in wanting these associations). They reflect on the actions they could take to bring about these associations. 

Activity Part 3: Social Media

  • Students discuss how each of the points discussed in communication and branding applies within a social media context.
  • Real world case studies are explored, seeing how individual social media posts, series of posts, and users' platforms as a whole, adopt the above to great effect.
  • You may wish to include your own case studies in this section, to ensure the workshop is up-to-date and maximally relevant to the audience. 

Activity Part 4: Conclusion

  • The main themes of the workshop are re-capped.
  • Students are invited to share a post regarding their experience of the workshop, via their own social media channels.
  • You may wish to recommend a specific hash tag for students to include in this post. 

Skill Development:

  • Students will have greater awareness of the importance of strong communication skills and a well-developed personal brand, and a better understanding of how to achieve these.
  • They will understand how these themes relate to social media, how social media can be used advantageously, and how this related to their own studies, careers and endeavours. 

Resources:

  • Copies of the slides which accompany this presentation can be downloaded here ? Being Heard [PDF]
  • For a How To Guide expanding upon the communication elements explored in Being Heard, see 'Workshop: How to Speak in Public.'

References:

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

How Can You Create Value from Freely Available Resources? (QAA 1,2,3,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will be able to explore an idea or concept as openly as possible to gather a wide range of solutions
  • To evidence the power of group work as more ideas are created through team work
  • To explore the potential of networks and social connections

Overview

This group task challenges the teams to generate ideas within constraints. This task engages students by allowing them to draw upon their knowledge, connections, hobbies, subject experience, social networks etc. The open brief allows them to be creative but the constraints of time and “no spend” heighten their creativity.

Activity

There is an abundant supply of free-to-use resources which are not readily considered by those addressing a task. This challenge asks “How can you use one or more of these to provide an innovative product, service or experience which creates value for its users?” and seeks to engage the learners to consider the multiple forms of value creation - financial, economic, social, cultural, environmental, aesthetic.

Process – By placing your students into small working groups, suggest the following challenges to them:

  1. BRAINSTORM: Identify by listing or brainstorming all the ‘freely available resources’ you can think of. These must be resources you can use for free, without being challenged or acting illegally or irresponsibly. They may include physical, virtual, human, financial and knowledge resources, for example. (Note: you are asking them to draw together resources that will not ‘cost’ so whilst it is recognised that their time ought to be valued and compensated, for the purposes of this task, we are seeking access to resources that they can reach for free at this moment).
  2. COMBINATION: Using this “brain stormed” list, ask the group to combine selected resources to provide products, services or experiences which create new value? Aim to identify at least 3 innovative combinations.
  3. EVALUATION: ask the groups to select the best option. Who will the innovation be of value to? Whose problem does it solve?
  4. REFLECTION and REVIEW: What forms of value are you creating from the list above.
  5. REFLECTION: How can you ‘make it happen’ to implement the innovation?
  6. COMMUNICATE: Communicate your idea as effectively you can, using available resources, to the group, outlining the need they are addressing.

Depending upon time and the skills that you wish to develop, you can run this task within 1 session or extend the communication and reflection stages to create a half day task or a task that runs over 2 weeks. This allows the groups to access their resources and showcase their ideas in the presentation the following week.

Skill Development:

Within the group work, a range of skills are developed and as the tutor, you can place the emphasis on different areas, depending upon the time you have available. The core skills being developed are around idea generation and evaluation, however it is possible to extend this task to include deeper reflection and communication skills where the groups are required to analyse the challenge and their response to it, as well as present their idea. This reflection can either form part of the presentation brief so that the teams are both presenting their ideas and exploring their experience of the challenge, or you can draw the group together after the presentation-showcase to reflect collectively on:

  • How the groups worked?
  • What frustrations were caused by the constraints and open brief – and how were they handled?
  • How did you address the stages of the challenge?
  • How did the stages of the brain-storming/problem solving process help you meet the challenge?
  • How would you address such a challenge in the future?
  • Which group was most creative in their solution? Why is that your view? How do you assess creativity? 

And you can finally explore issues of cost with the group by recognising that some of these resources could be accessed once for free, but not repeatedly. Ask them to consider how they could achieve the same output/outcome regularly and attempt to cost this.

Resources:

(if available – flip chart or post its for brain storming; pens etc)
Resources to assist with presentation – access to powerpoint; flip charts etc

References:

http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/opportunity-centred-entrepreneurship-david-rae/?sf1=barcode&st1=9781137474100
Rae, D (2015) “Opportunity-Centred Entrepreneurship” Palgrave

About the Author
This guide was produced by David Rae.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Communication Icebreaker – Interpersonal skill development (Simventure) (QAA 6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

The learner will be able

  • to address the challenge by gathering a wide range of solutions
  • to evidence the power of group work as more ideas are created through team work
  • to encourage individuals to work together (icebreaker) before undertaking a significant team challenge (Simventure business start-up simulation)
  • to energise and interest a mixed group

Introduction:

This quick ice-breaker can be used with any size of group (if you have sufficient resources for each group/individual) and acts an immediate energiser.

Activity:

All participants are given a scrabble letter (or similar) at the very start of a session (You can either run this as an individual challenge, or with larger groups, create teams/groups).

Set the challenge to make the longest word possible within a set time frame (3 mins).

An enhancement of this can be to bind the task in some way – so to make the word to do with the topic/subject or related on the up-coming challenge.

This very busy activity results in people getting to know each other very quickly, having fun and finding immediate common ground.

Impact:

This active and engaging task brings the students together, energising them before they are issued with their main group challenge (to run SIMVENTURE – business start-up simulation). It is highly effective as an ice-breaker task as the task is sufficiently engaging, but 'low-risk' as not related to the large challenge of the day (competitively running a business simulation).

Learner outcome:

The need for good interpersonal skills, working within specific time constraints, means that the students engage in the task and each other from the first moments of the class.

Reflection the task at the end of the 'game' can allow for key points to be bought out regarding team work, expectations of team members or colleagues and provide a foundation for creating ground rules for working together.

Resources:

Scrabble letters – or similar

Timer (watch/phone)

References:

http://simventure.co.uk/the-product/overview

Author:

Simventure www.simventure.co.uk

About the Author
This guide was produced by Marcus Hill, SDDU University of Leeds and Peter Harrington.

Educational Innovation Leads to Attributes for Employment

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Key Points;

  • Coding skills learned and applied to a student led ‘real world’ context.
  • Large group teaching and a flipped classroom approach enables knowledge and attribute development for employment.
  • Enterprise successfully embedded in a compulsory 20 credit mathematics module

Introduction:

Computing for Mathematics is a first year 20 credit module that is core to all first year Mathematics students at Cardiff University. It was delivered for the first time in 2013-2014 over both semesters to in advance of 150 students by Dr Vince Knight of the School of Mathematics and Neil Coles from Cardiff University Enterprise. This module was in essence delivered in two consecutive halves. The first half aimed to give all future mathematicians relevant programming skills needed in the modern world. The second half sought to address the frequently identified need for mathematics graduates to recognise and engage in agendas of practical application for employment or enterprise.

Employers are in need of graduates who can articulate and contextualise their mathematical understanding for employment. The QAA subject benchmark statement for mathematics (2007) identifies the subject as fundamental to scientific and technological development and indeed any form of discipline requiring an analytical model-building approach. In addition The Institute of Mathematics references a career advice leaflet Mathematics Today (2008) that highlights business and commercial awareness as a key skill regularly flagged up by employers as requisite skill often lacking in mathematics graduates. Additionally the document flags up a range of enterprise competencies employers seek graduates to evidence.

There is a perception that Mathematicians are not able to translate their high level capacity to solve problems, discuss and develop complex idea and theorems and relate to ‘real world’ situations. This module sets out to highlight to students how they themselves can begin to contextualise their academic learning through innovative real world applications.

The foundations of the discipline are often abstract theory, so it is particularly important for students to engage in consideration and analysis of how their disciplinary knowledge can be applied. An awareness of how mathematical implementations applied in industrial and commercial contexts aids students in understanding the practical benefits and value they themselves can offer future employers as well as highlighting previously unconsidered potential career paths.

Activity:

Firstly a philosophical question needed to be addressed, ‘Should a modern mathematician know how to write code?’ Historically this question has been very subjective, however it is argued that through the coupling of coding skills and pedagogic practice that allows for a ‘real world’ application students will not become isolated, but be able to explore coding as a vector for solving real problems.

The autumn semester is taught using a flipped classroom framework encouraging students to develop coding skills. The methodology not only allows for self-directed learning, but prepares students for an entrepreneurial context by offering elements of uncertainty, thereby building key competencies’ for employment or enterprise.

Alongside formal lectures on areas in areas of innovation and project management during the spring semester, guest speakers are used to influence and persuade students’ to look beyond the class room as they are expected to self-select ‘company teams’.

Through the company teams they are challenged with finding a societal value for their newly acquired coding skills. Each company team elects a leading Director and Company Secretary. Each role has differing duties including feeding back to the module leader through weekly company minutes and explaining their idea through ‘lightening pitches’ to all teams which forms part of the ‘General Council Meeting’. The minutes allow for weekly academic led feedback, whereas the pitches gain immediate peer to peer feedback via a live web form.  

Projects have included the building of smart phone application that calculated distance travelled in a taxi and the accurate resulting fair for each passenger (who may or may not have left the vehicle before the final stop) to websites that judge contests using a statistical technique called Game Theory.

Impact:

The module has attracted high attendance and positive feedback coupled with developed creativity and communication skills. The enabled students have become more able to apply mathematical theory to a real word context.

Allowing students’ to explore and define their own projects has led to concepts of mathematical theory being studied well in advance of when would be expected, so in future we can expect stronger grounding on topic introduction.

Academic feedback;

Professor Paul Harper, Deputy Head of Cardiff School of Mathematics;

“It is evident to me that the skills the students are learning in this module will not only serve them well throughout their degree, but also put them in an excellent position to apply them to the various environments that they will find themselves in after their studies. I’m delighted that this new module is now part of our core mathematics programme.”

Dr Vincent Knight, Module Leader;

“The fact that student work is motivated by real world problems ensures that they learn how to learn how to solve real world problems. The liaison with Cardiff University Enterprise has proved invaluable to the design and delivery of this module as I did not have the relevant expertise to put all this in place.”

Professional feedback

Dr Steven Lind, Manchester Metropolitan University and guest speaker

“As a lecturer in Mathematics the skills being taught in this module gives students an excellent foundation for their degree but also their future roles in the world.” -

Neil Cottrell, Founder of LexAble and guest speaker

"What I hope the students took away from the seminar is that setting up a business is a valid, challenging and fascinating career choice to explore."

Learner outcome:

Student feedback;

Matt Lunn, undergraduate mathematics student (2014);

“Why did I have to wait to wait until university to learn this?”

Full student feedback video - http://www.vincent-knight.com/news/whywaittolearntocode/

Unidentified undergraduate mathematics student (2014);

“I really liked the group work; it helped me learn what it’s like to work in a team. Found some of the lectures/talks given about computing very interesting and inspiring (especially computation fluid dynamics).”

The examples of curriculum development for enterprise related outcomes were originally outlined by Neil Coles at the International Enterprise Educators Conference under the heading 'From Archaeology to Zoology; an A-Z of enterprise in the curriculum'. For his work in contextualising enterprise for any subject, Neil won the 2013 National Enterprise Educator Award.

Resources:

  • For a How To Guide on developing presentation skills, see ‘Workshop: How to Speak in Public.’
  • For a How To Guide on utilising external presenters, see ‘Guest Lecture Guidance.’

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Neil Coles. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- enterprise@cardiff.ac.uk.

How To Speak In Public

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group, Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To give engineering students an insight into the importance and relevance of public speaking, presentation, and communication skills to their subject area.
  • To equip students with insights, strategies and skills to become more effective communicators.
  • To allow students to reflect on the diverse environments in which they will require public speaking skills in the future, and to reflect on the most effective strategies to employ in each instance.
  • To provide students with a practical opportunity to nurture and develop their communication skills.

Introduction:

In the working world, engineers are required to work with numerous stakeholders, from their own sector and from others, based locally, nationally and internationally. Engineering students will find themselves in many interview and presentation scenarios at the seek employments throughout their career, and clarity in communication will be essential in all areas of their professional practice. To that end, skills in public speaking, presenting and effective communication are essential.

An hour long session was run for a group of approximately 20 first year engineering students at Glyndwr University (studying on the Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies BEng programme), as an introduction to these skills, to be built on and consolidated throughout the rest of their time at the University.

The session formed part of a larger programme of guest speakers and practical workshops for the students (See How to Guide on Guest Speakers), designed specifically to give the students skills for employability and self-employment, and a greater appreciation of the real world context for their studies. It was delivered by the University’s ZONE Enterprise Hub Manager, on the invitation of the course tutor.

Activity:

The session followed the format which can be found in the ‘Workshop - How to Speak in Public’ How to Guide.

The students began the session with an introduction to the themes which would be covered, namely; how to structure a presentation, how to use tools effectively; how to present clearly; how to control and manage nerves, and how to deal with questions.

A brief discussion initiated the session, whereby students offered their thoughts on why public speaking skills were relevant in their sector, and how they might employ them in the future. From here, each of the themes above was covered in turn (with discussion following the pattern as outlined in the How to Guide).

At each stage, examples were chosen which were appropriate to the audience in hand. For example, in discussing structure and tools, a presentation on solar power was considered, and in discussing use of the appropriate language, thought was given to how an engineer would discuss the same technical point, with various expert and non-expert clients.

At the end of the one hour session, the key themes covered were re-capped, and students were offered the opportunity to ask questions, and directed to further support, links and reading if they wished to explore the issues further.

Impact:

Though the session was limited to one hour only, it still made a valuable impact upon the students. Through initial discussions, students had a clear understanding of the purpose of the session, and its direct relevance and appropriateness to them.

As new undergraduates, many had limited experience of presentation and interview environments, and so the session was timely, giving a broad overview to key points, with clear direction on how to consolidate what was learned. However, the lasting impact of the session will be sustained if the students are offered continued opportunities to explore, hone and develop these skills in a variety of simulated and real-world environments.

Learner outcome:

Immediately after the session, students reported feeling more relaxed about public speaking, more confident, and better equipped going forward. Feedback comments included;

“Very useful”

“Very good. Gained knowledge to help for future presentations.”

“Really good presentation. Well structured, paced, and encouraged audience participation.”

“Good presentation on presentation.”

“Great presentation; well prepared, greatly delivered, well explained.”

“Very informative. Thank you!”

Resources:

  • For a step-by-step guide to this activity, see How To Guide 'Workshop: How To Speak In Public.'
  • YouTube Video of How to Speak in Public Workshop, Creative Futures Conference, March 2015 > https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA. [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236).
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148).
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Teaching the Teachers

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To successfully embed essential procedural knowledge.
  • To enliven a traditionally dry area of the curriculum.
  • To expose students to working within a high pressure, novel, real-world environment.
  • To develop students presentation and communication skills.
  • To develop students teamwork and interpersonal skills.
  • To develop students ability to communicate information effectively to diverse audiences.

Introduction:

In the first year of the Forensic Science undergraduate degree programme at Glyndwr University, students undertake a module in ‘Crime Scene Investigation.’ This module is a core module for all Forensic Science Students, and an elective module popular with students from various degree programmes including media, psychology and the humanities. Students studying this module have a broad range of career ambitions, including work within forensic science and associated services, the police force, criminology and criminal psychology, as well as many others looking to develop broader skills for future graduate level employment and self-employment.

A key part of the module is the learning of the rigorous practices and procedures that must be followed, for example, when handling evidence, or attending a scene of crime, something which can traditionally be one of the drier areas of the course. In working life, a forensic scientist is exposed to unpredictable and high pressure environments, is required to work with diverse teams, where clearly designated roles and effective decision making are essential, and will potentially be required to communicate complex and sensitive information in a number of settings to a diverse range of individuals. As such, we look to embed each of these skills into module delivery throughout the programme. Each of course, is also an enterprising behaviour, which will well equip students irrespective of their future career path.

To enliven this area of the module delivery, we partnered Science Discovery Centre Techniquest Glyndwr (who offer practical workshops on forensic science themes to high school students), and invited our students to train Techniquest Glyndwr’s presenters on various areas of procedural practice.

Activity:

The activity was delivered over a three hour period, with a group of approximately 20 students. Prior to the session, students had been made aware that the subject of the session would be procedural practice (something which had been covered in a traditional lecture format in previous weeks), and recommended key texts to read in preparation, but were given no further information regards the session’s content.

Upon arrival, students were told that in precisely 2 hours’ time, a group of professional educators from Techniquest Glyndwr would be attending, to receive training from the students themselves, on various aspects of procedure (handling evidence, attending a crime scene etc.).

Students were then instructed to organise themselves into small groups (of three to five individuals), select an aspect of procedure from those made available, and to prepare a 10 minute presentation on their chosen aspect. The students were encouraged to use the University library, phones, computers and other resources as they saw fit and report back to the classroom 15 minutes in advance of their presentations. A selection of props, and other presentation materials were provided for groups to use at their discretion.

Once two hours had passed, the students then each presented to their invited audience in turn, with groups observing one another, and fielding conducting a short Q and A at the end of their presentations. The presentation period was an hour in length.

Though the work was not summative, a formative assessment was made for each group.

Impact:

The activity, though simple to organise and deliver, served its purpose in both bringing to life an important, yet dry, area of the curriculum, and in developing the essential enterprise skills needed of the graduates. Though group presentations are often valuable in their own right, key elements that added to the impact of the exercise in this care were the fact that groups were presenting to an external audience, not only their peers, and that groups were given only 2 hours’ notice of the task, and so had to meet the challenge under a particular pressure.

Through its novelty it proved to serve as a strong aide memoir, and was able to support students in the completion of their summative assessed work on the themes covered too.

The activity also served to develop the relationship between the degree programme and the science discovery centre, leading to further opportunities for students to gain professional work experience thereafter.

Learner outcome:

When presented with the challenge, the initial response of the majority of students was one of trepidation, due to the unfamiliar situation into which they were being placed. However, the high pressure environment, novel circumstances, strict time constraints, and real-world context (with presentations being delivered to externals), served to focus the minds of the learners, with students remaining on task, focused, and coordinating responsibilities amongst their groups well.

Students came through their presentations successfully without exception, developing their communication skills and confidence in the process, and the activity ensured that the procedural knowledge was better remembered going forward.

After the activity had taken place, all students reflected that they had found the experience to be an enjoyable and worthwhile one.

Resources:

  • Access to appropriate materials for students to prepare a presentation (i.e. reference books, computers etc.).
  • Rooms with suitable space both for preparation, and group presentation.
  • An appropriate captive audience for students to present their work to.
  • For a step-by-step guide to this activity, see How To Guide ‘Teaching the Teachers.’

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Imagine and Create Your Future

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will discover that they have entrepreneurial abilities and potential
  • The learner will get an insight into the world of ‘everyday’ entrepreneurship
  • The learner will become more alert to opportunity recognition
  • This is a useful session for the reluctant entrepreneur – those who might think it’s not for them, particularly arts students.

Introduction

This activity has been used with 3rd year Design and Visual Arts student, 2nd year Photography students and MA Contemporary Art students at Coventry University to project forward and encourage students to imagine their potential future. This encourages students to consider how to ‘make their job’ not ‘take a job’ by working forward potential scenarios post-graduation.

Activity

This 2 hr session is based around a hypothetical case study told as an engaging story and featuring several of the students in your class. It is told by the session leader and is followed by group discussion and analysis of their colleagues’ journey which leads them to recognise and identify with the enterprising actions and activities.

For 3rd year Design and Visual Arts student, 2nd year Photography students and MA Contemporary Art students at Coventry University, the following case study was created.

I start by selecting a likely student and ask their name – and if they reply “John” then your script to the class would be:

In 5 years’ time John will be running a successful technical consultancy for the art world providing a range of services, including haulage, framing, hanging and conservation.

How did he get there? Well, 1 year ago, as a 2nd year student he attended the 3rd year Arts degree show. Here he began chatting with a few people including the curator of the Hebert Art Gallery, Jeanette Smith. They got on well: they talked about the art, the exhibition, the Herbert programme and discovered a mutual interest in (ask John about his interests i.e. baking). They got on so well that a week later John decided to pop into the gallery to ask Jeanette if there was any chance he might get an exhibition at the gallery. After Jeanette stopped laughing she did say, 'but seriously, we do have an immediate opportunity for work experience'. The gallery was busy installing an exhibition by Douglas Rainford and were a bit behind schedule, could John help? Now John had planned to spend the next week finishing off assignments, which he was behind on, and there had been a baking festival in Northampton that he wanted to go to.

John took the leap and spent the next two weeks installing the exhibition at the gallery. At the same time he was getting to know Douglas, they discussed art, rail travel (Douglas was coming up from London most days) and discovered a mutual interest in (ask John about his other interests, i.e. cycling).

John said goodbye to Douglas at the private view a week later but kept in touch via twitter. John spent the rest of the summer, baking and cycling and then returning to university for his final year. He pursued his dream of getting an exhibition and continued approaching galleries, bars and cafés, but without much luck.

8 months later, round about the time of his degree show, John is invited to Douglas ' private view at the exclusive Charlie Smith Gallery in London, an independent gallery featuring some of the brightest young things. John is a bit torn, he is busy in Coventry, and the London train fare will be a few quid. But it seems like a good opportunity so he accepts the invite. The private view is full of London art glitterati and he chats to and swaps cards with several artists and gallerists. Douglas introduces him to Charlie Smith, the owner of the gallery they are standing in. They chat about the art and about Douglas and discover their mutual interest in (ask John) Silent Cinema. It transpires that Charlie is touring an exhibition through Europe over the summer and he is looking for technical help with the show, would John be interested? Well John had planned to go travelling that summer with some mates, but decided this would be more interesting.

So John started working freelance for the Charlie Smith gallery as a gallery technician and for the next two years was meeting other artists, other gallerists, he was speaking to specialist haulage companies and shipping agents. At the same time he was making ends meet working in a bar and finding other bits of casual work. But he was getting more and more offers from other galleries to help out, to tour exhibitions, moving from assistant roles to coordination roles. He was moving onwards and upwards. 3 years later there was a public tender to manage a European touring exhibition of medieval Masters for the National Gallery. This was John's big opportunity to move on to some very exciting work. But oh dear, the tender says the applicant must have arts conversation expertise. Them john remembers, (pick on a class mate) Charlotte went onto an MA in Arts Conservation at The University of Norwich. John picked up the phone:

'Hi Charlotte, how are you?'

10 minutes later Charlotte is on board.

John put in the proposal....he didn't get it. Main reason, he didn't have experience in bid writing.

But two months later a similar tender from the V&A was announced to tour an exhibition. This time John approached Jeanette, remember, the curator at the Herbert, she had lots of experience in assessing bids and she joined them in putting together a proposal. This time they we're successful.

The session finishes with 10-15mins reflection where students have to pledge to do something entrepreneurial that week. It could be something they had been thinking about for a while but had made excuses not to do it. Others may need a little help and guidance from peers about what they might do, so reflection and pledge setting should be discussed in groups.

Impact:

The impact was significant, particularly with students who would not consider themselves to be entrepreneurial. The immediacy of creating a case around a team member makes a deep connection with the student group that connects them powerfully with the potential of this story.

Learner Outcome :

The follow up session or debrief seeks when more detailed reflections can emerge and when students can get a measure of where they might be regarding their own development in terms of entrepreneurship and the enterprising mind-set.

Resources:

Post-its or similar sticky pads

Pens

Flip chart

About the Author
This guide was produced by Dr Peter McLuskie. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- Peter.McLuskie@coventry.ac.uk.

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

A model for an Interdisciplinary intrapreneurship-entrepreneurship module (QAA2,3,4,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will understand the importance of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behaviour in the context of their subject area
  • Will engage with subjects outside their discipline to pitch for and explore ideas and concepts
  • To reflect and draw personal conclusions about their capacities and capabilities for entrepreneurial behaviour
  • To research and persuade others of the feasibility and viability of their ideas
  • To conclude with a ‘live’ opportunity which they can research and develop further through a research project/dissertation, employment or a new business venture

Overview: 

This type of module is appropriate on applied courses, or courses ‘with enterprise’. It is especially valuable where students from a range of disciplines are taught together, invited to ‘bring their discipline and interests with them’ (of course, discipline and interests are not always/often synonymous, and this approach helps with that!)

Activity: 

Students engage in a shared first lecture, setting the context for the module, discussing, and responding to individual learner expectations, and an introduction to innovation, delivered by an inventor, which asks the students to invest in one of a series of inventions, based on a case study of each in practice. They are encouraged to reflect on their choice, and in particular the reasons why they feel that their chosen option represents most value.

In week 2 students return to their own discipline (or choose an area of interest based on the available disciplines) and a session is led by academics and industry guests/entrepreneurs focussing on ‘the current and future trends in the XYZ industry’. This tends to be ‘products for users in Science and Engineering’ subjects (e.g. pets and children), and ‘approaches’ in other subjects (e.g. social and online media). 

Week 3 is a facilitated session in which students join interdisciplinary groups (formulated with as wide a variety of disciplines as possible (e.g. 1xcomputing science, 1xbiology, 1xmarketing and management) and share their findings from the previous week to identify areas of shared interest and the skills each member can contribute.

The remainder of the sessions are built around convincing the module assessors, and industry/entrepreneurs that your emerging idea is worth spending more time, money and effort on developing, and that individual students have the appropriate skills and motivations to deliver on the opportunity. The design of the remaining sessions is aimed at students achieving this objective. Remaining module content and tools can be designed together with the students, using flipped classroom, online resources, and update meetings alongside taught lecture material.

Skill Development: 

The confidence gained by the students is seen as they engage with each other and with externals (industry experts).  They are exposed to entrepreneurship through opportunity spotting and evaluation, and through building their reflective and persuasive/selling skills.  By working in teams they are building collaborative approaches to problem solving and task completion.

Resources: 

Planned engagement – including engagement of academics, entrepreneurs and industry partners in each discipline where a student originates.

Time to coach groups individually, access to mentors or online interaction.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Teaching Entrepreneurship A Practice Based Approach Exercise Business Model Canvas Game (QAA 1,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Reflect on the meaning and importance of the nine business model components. 
  • Demonstrate how the ordering on the canvas categorizes components as generating value or creating efficiency to deliver value. 
  • Discuss and debate the ordering proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010).

Overview:

The Business Model Canvas (http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/ canvas) has become a popular teaching tool in entrepreneurship classrooms. It is not my intention here to introduce the canvas or illustrate how it works. Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) do a magnificent job explaining the canvas, articulating the theory behind the canvas, and offering many ways to use the canvas. This exercise is a quick game to help students reflect on the nature and ordering of the nine business model components found on the canvas as proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works well for both undergraduate and graduate audiences. The exercise is best used in a course or class session where the Business Model Canvas is first being introduced.

Activity:

Pre- Work Required by Students - None.

Time Plan (30 minutes)

The Game Setup 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes) 

Before introducing the canvas, simply introduce that there are nine components of a business model. I typically show a PowerPoint slide with the nine components listed in random order. Tell the students that there is a particular order to the components, but they need to figure out what the order is. In other words, they need to determine which of the components should be considered first, second, and so on. What’s most important to start with and what’s least important? Separate students into teams of five (maximum).

The Game 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes) 

Give each team a deck of cards (see resources) and ask them to place them in order from one to nine (10 minutes). After 10 minutes, give each team a long piece of masking tape and have them tape the order of their cards to the wall or board, so everyone can see the differences across the team.

The Discussion 0:15–0:30 (15 minutes) 

Now it is time to introduce the ordering that Osterwalder and Pigneur use. Their book (see Theoretical Foundations) is quite helpful if you are not familiar with the canvas. I typically give out a copy of the Business Model Canvas to each student prior to disclosing the order. The ordering of the components is: 

  1. Customer segments
  2. Value proposition
  3. Channels
  4. Customer relationships
  5. Revenue streams
  6. Key resources
  7. Key activities
  8. Key partners
  9. Cost structure

Usually student teams will have either customer segments or value propositions first and this creates a wonderful debate in the class. Introduce the order of the components one by one while also explaining what each component is. After walking through the components and discussing the differences in order created by each team I end the exercise with a brief discussion summarizing the order. At the end of the day, the ordering really does not matter because the canvas is meant to be an iterative, working document that will continuously change as you learn new information from every action taken or experiment conducted. What is most interesting about the design of the canvas and its ordering is found when you fold the canvas in half (left to right). 

According to Osterwalder and Pigneur, the right side of the canvas is concerned with creating and generating value. The left side of the canvas is concerned with generating efficiencies to deliver that value. As such, an entrepreneur needs to first determine or create the value and then develop the approach to deliver that value. Innovation, novelty, creativity, and competitive advantage are most often found in the value creation. So, start on the right!

Teaching Tips

The most important reason that I do this exercise is to get the students thinking about each component on their own in teams rather than just “telling” them about each component. Expect raging debates about customer segments versus value propositions as being first in the order. It is always a great conversation to have.

Skill Development: 

Key Takeaways

  • It is important to think about the ordering of the components but not be wedded to one particular ordering. 
  • A business model is about value creation, delivery, and capture – but start with creation and think about cost last. 
  • Focusing too soon on cost structure and resources can diminish the innovativeness of new ideas. This can happen when we start on the left side of the canvas.

Resources: 

Materials List

Instructors will need to create decks of “business model component cards.” One deck is needed per team in the class. Each deck is comprised of nine index cards. On each card should be one of the nine business model components: customer segments, value propositions, channels, customer relationships, revenue streams, key resources, key activities, key partners, cost structure. Given that this is the actual order recommended by Osterwalder & Pigneur, it is important that the cards in the deck are not in this order. You may also want to have copies of the Business Model Canvas to distribute as well, but after the game. A copy of the canvas can be obtained at http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695 

References:

This exercise is taken from;

•Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.136 – 138). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Theoretical Foundations

•Osterwalder, A., and Pigneur, Y. 2010. Business Model Generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Heidi M. Neck.

Idea Generation: New (product/service) Development (Group Ideation)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any, Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action

Objective

  • To reflect upon learning journey
  • To acknowledge individual or team "learning gain" experienced over time (process; project; task; or period of learning/study)
  • To articulate skill development (soft skills) and personal insights (in team dynamics, personal progression or learning)
  • Option to support future development: to provide the opportunity to identify gaps in learning or development and create a personal action plan for personal development and future learning.

Overview

This task provides an opportunity to reflect on the learning gained during particular tasks for activities (ideally should be of "medium" length, such as intense induction programmes, week long activities or longer learning 'events' (modules or years of study). This can be particularly effective in terms of drawing out "change" or learning gain as identified by the learner themselves.

This approach provides an opportunity to reflect upon a wide range of individual development (including emotional development and confidence levels) as well as recognising improvement in the development of skills.

Traditionally physical diaries were issued to encourage students to write regularly and informally, however the wide range of multi-media (through smart phones and tablets) also allows students to select their own format (s) or trial the use of a new media tool for this purpose (ideally agreed in advance with tutor to avoid IT issues in viewing).

A learning diary is therefore a tool of reflection which can take a variety of forms.

Key considerations for the tutor include:

  • media (format options include: written essay or report; video diary; podcast; voice memos; photos/collage; or a combination of approaches)
  • structure (open; templates; prompts or based on prescribed reflective models and frameworks, or those sourced by the student)
  • formalised base line (questionnaire or status review at the start, to review at the end)
  • inclusive of theory and wider reading (whilst some learning diaries are entirely "personal" and seek to draw out the development of softer skills and personal 'learning gain' others seek the inclusion of wider reading and theory development to evidence change and thought)
  • assessment (% within modules vary though typically it is used as part of an assessment strategy, though can stand alone when used to capture and review a full programme year or team task activity.)

NB: Consideration of how to create "value" is key in determining the role/purpose of this approach within an assessment strategy or within a programme. Typically students value activities that the tutor places a value on, and their currency is marks/assessment. However as diary is, by definition, a subjective view, and should reflect what the student has heard, learnt and reviewed, it is the student's own analysis and insights that count, and clear marking parameters and guidance need to be provided to ensure clarity.

Activity

Issuing this task should be done at the start of the activity that you wish the learners to reflect upon. Ideally you encourage (or set) answering a range of open-ended questions, delighted to understand their initial position as they approach this learning/task. This may include expanding upon their prior understanding or life experience, as relevant to this work.

Once the activities are being undertaken, reflective models can be issued or sourced by the students to support their thinking. However you may wish to provide a set of reflective questions at regular intervals as prompts to their developing thinking.

This activity can be highly prescriptive, with set timescales at which you expect stages of reflection to be completed (as relating to the task being undertaken) however it is also possible to make this an open task, where the approach and learning is with the student to design and undertake. This allows the learner to explore, source and select their own model for reflection and test its effectiveness as a tool for their development during the process. This additional skills of research, evaluation and comparative analysis but risks diluting the quality of the reflection if the students place the emphasis upon critiquing models rather than the task itself and their personal learning. It is therefore important that you reflect the emphasis you wish to seek within your assessment schedule.

To increase the synthesis, and the ability for personal and confidential reflection, you may wish to create a format in which the students regularly capture thoughts and feelings, but keep this as a personal document (diary, blog or video diary) from which the submission is created. This synthesised version of their learning and reflections build an understanding of their personal development over time and allows for honest and uncensored self-reporting and reflection. Again the structure/control of the format/questions can be loose and open (providing only sources and reference to guide) or highly prescriptive (working within a template or with specific tools/questions) to ensure that the key elements of learning (including emotional elements and confidence) are a required feature of the submission.

Skill Development

Personal reflection is a tremendous skill, but is often difficult for students to develop, particularly during a period of study, with little or no external reference points or practical application. It is therefore recommended that this is an assessed piece, so that the value of reflection is made clear. It is therefore important that you, as the tutor, place importance upon the development of this skill and take class-time to consider what is meant by reflection practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning.what is meant by reflective practice and how to ensure that reflection leads to learning. It is also important to consider the formative as well summative assessment within this process, as reflective skills are improved through regular practice, and this form part of your regular teaching. It is important that you 'model' a reflective approach with the students by including reflective questions onto your regular contact with them, and making reflection an explicit aspect of your activity/classroom debrief. Making this explicit within your teaching will reinforce the student's understanding of reflection as an activity to repeated and practiced, as well as help them see how reflective questioning or models can deepen their understanding, and build confidence in their abilities.

Resources

Three stem questions (Borton T 1970) were further developed by John Driscoll (1994, 2000, 2007)

  • What?
  • So what?
  • Now what?
  • Driscoll Reflective Questions (2000) - Download (PDF | 843KB)
  • Gibbs's reflective Cycle - Download (PDF | 843KB)
  • Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) - Download (PDF | 843KB)
  • Task template for individual (adapted from Reflective Learning Diary Template sourced from Burns, T and Sinfield, S (2012) "Essential Study Skills" Third Edition SAGE (photocopiable; printable) - Download (PDF | 843KB)

References

  • Burns, T and Sinfield, S (2012) "Essential Study Skills" Third Edition SAGE
  • Gibb's reflective cycle: from Gibbs, G (1988) "Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods"
  • Atkins and Murphy Model from Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard 8(39) 49-56
  • Driscoll, J (2000) Practising Clinical Supervision Edinburgh Bailliere Tindall

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Peter Brown (University of South Wales). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- peter.brown@southwales.ac.uk.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Mapping Dance

This report maps the scale of dance provision in the higher education sector with particular reference to how this provision develops employability and entrepreneurial skills in the student dancer. It seeks to quantify and clarify what is currently being offered and, through this, to identify good practice. See more at: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resource/mapping-dance

Making Theatre Work: Entrepreneurship and Professional Practice in Higher Education.

This report, which is the outcome of a PALATINE Development Award, examines the development of employability and entrepreneurial skills, knowledges, attitudes and behaviours, and the support of new business start-up within the theatre and performance field. It identifies the different kinds of curriculum and programme design employed to address this area of practice and pedagogy, as well as identifying examples of good practice and innovation. https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resource/making-theatre-work-entrepreneurship-and-professional-practice-higher-education

Creating Entrepreneurship: entrepreneurship education for the creative industries

Enterprise and entrepreneurship has grown as a focus for national policy across the UK. Policymakers have urged education at all levels to address the entrepreneurial capacity of learners through enhancing learning environments, the curriculum and through building stronger links with industry. There is a pressing need to address entrepreneurship in the creative industries. See more at: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resources/detail/subjects/adm/Creating-Entrepreneurship

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business. Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf