Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Consider and evaluate their own work in a reflective manner
  • Manage time, personnel and resources effectively by drawing on planning, organisational, project management and leadership skills
  • Be adaptable, creative and self-reflexive 
  • Work in flexible, creative and independent ways
  • Organise and manage self-directed projects
  • Work productively in a group or team
  • Apply entrepreneurial skills in dealing with audiences, clients, consumers, markets, sources and/or users

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Workshop: How to Speak in Public (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with an understanding of the techniques behind effective public speaking, presentation and communication.
  • To provide students with practical opportunities to develop their public speaking and communication skills.
  • To provide students with a greater understanding of the importance of public speaking and communication skills to their own lives and careers.
  • To provide students with opportunities to reflect on how to employ communication strategies, in a variety of contexts.

Overview:

Skills in public speaking, public presentation, and communication of any form are essential for any student: both for success in their academic pursuits,and for their future careers. Such environments are also ones with can be a cause of stress to many students, and an impediment to their progress. For those who master these skills however, they are often able to quickly reach the head of the pack. 

'How to Speak in Public' is a presentation / workshop which can be delivered to a group of any size, and tailored to ensure its relevancy to any audience. It is designed specifically to endow students with a greater understanding of why skills in public speaking, presentation and communication are so importantto them, and to equip them with strategies and practical skills to be more effective communicators in the future. This is inclusive of structuring presentations, integrating tools and resources into them, effective delivery techniques, managing nerves and dealing with questions.

The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, but inclusive of ample opportunities for extension, through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, and could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. It was originally developed through the HEFCW funded pan-Wales Enterprise Support Programme. Lesson plans and AV presentations for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the 'ZONE Enterprise Hub' webpages listed in the references at the end of this document. 

Activity:

Slide Show Title Page

(See resources / references for materials to accompany the delivery of this activity).

Preparation

  • For the learners, preparation for this activity is not essential, but you might want to recommend prior research into presentation skills, or time the activity to correspond with an upcoming presentation the students are due to deliver. For teachers, using the materials provided here, preparation time is minimal, other than familiarising yourself with the presentation content, ensuring all media accompanying the presentation are working correctly, and that the learning environment has the appropriate AV equipment.

Activity Part 1: Introduction

  • Introduce class to the theme of the session, and the elements to be covered.
  • Discuss with students why these skills are important, and where they are likely to be used in the future.

Activity Part 2: Structure

  • The importance of a well-structured presentation is discussed, inclusive of; knowing your objective when communicating; managing audience expectations; ensuring adequate knowledge of your subject and identifying an appropriate narrative.
  • At this stage, students are presented with a variety of public speaking scenarios, and for different scenarios have to discuss and identify both the objective of the communication, and the most appropriate narratives to employ to meet that objective. There is opportunity for debate here, regarding the conclusions drawn.

Activity Part 2: Tools

  • Tools and resources that can bolster a presentation are discussed at this stage. Various examples are offered to the group, and the audience are invited to offer further examples of their own.
  • When to integrate tools into delivery, and when to avoid it is discussed.
  • At this stage, the examples from part 2 are re-introduced to the group, and the appropriate tools to support the narratives and objectives identified are discussed.
  • (If desired, you may wish to perform a demonstration at this stage, to demonstrate the efficacy of tools when used well. For example, in past deliveries of this presentation, non-science students have been introduced to the mathematical relationship between force, pressure and area, first descriptively, then formulaically, and finally with a volunteer being invited to the front of the class to sit on a chair of nails!)

Activity Part 3: Delivery 

  • The techniques behind effectively delivery when speaking in public are discussed at this stage, inclusive of; speaking with passion and enthusiasm, controlling the speed of speech, using the appropriate language and tone, and using body language to best effect.
  • Examples are offered and discussed on each of the points noted above.
  • At this stage, student practice these skills with several activities. To practice controlling the speed of speech, students are given a transcript which they time one another reading aloud. They then watch a film of the transcript being read aloud (at a clear and steady pace) and repeat the activity aiming to amend their pace appropriately. To consider the importance of using the right language in communication, students are asked to consider how they would describe their programme of study to; a) a five year old, b) an academic, c) a grandparent. Students to this in groups, and the reasons for their decisions are discussed and debated.

Activity Part 4: Nerves

  • The reasons why nerves may arise are discussed amongst the group.
  • Measures and coping strategies to control nerves are suggested and discussed (including practice, preparation, release of nervous energy etc.).
  • (You may wish to use your own presentation as an example of how such strategies allow you to present, without being impeded by nerves).

Activity Part 5: Questions

  • Fielding questions is discussed. The group are asked to reflect on what a questioner wants, when asking their question, and strategies for various scenarios are suggested. 
  • If and how the presentation skills covered in the session can be applied to a Q and A session are also discussed.

Activity Part 6: Conclusion

  • The key themes covered by the session are re-capped.
  • If desired, you may wish to field any questions from the audience at this point.

Post-Activity

Following this activity, students may be set a presentation to deliver (as individuals or as groups), or they may be set further questions for reflection and investigation. General questions on presentation, communication and public speaking which have been set to such groups include;

  1. How would you define public speaking?
  2. How many different public speaking environments will you encounter as a student?
  3. Can you find examples of both good and bad public speeches, the impacts of which have changed the course of history; for individuals, for organisations and for nations?
  4. Who are the teachers, speakers and presenters that have made a positive impact on you? What common traits do they possess?
  5. What are the benefits of a structure / narrative to a presentation?
  6. How will enhanced skills in public speaking benefit you in your future life and career?
  7. Is the ability to speak in public more or less important today than it was in the past?

Equally, you may wish to set such questions prior to the session, and debate them after the session. 

Skill Development:

  • Following this session students should have a much greater understanding of the importance of skills in public speaking, presentation and communication, their relevance to their own studies and careers, and a greater understanding of how to develop and nurture those skills in themselves.
  • For these skills to be consolidated, the session must be supported by opportunities to further discuss, explore, and importantly, practice these techniques, by presenting in a wide variety on environments and contexts.

Resources:

  • Lesson plans and PowerPoint presentations to accompany this activity can be downloaded via > https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11 or copies of slides can be downloaded here > How To Speak In Public [PDF]
  • A film of this session being delivered to an audience of art, media and design students at the Creative Futures Conference, March 2015 can be viewed via > https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA
  • An extension of activity connected to this workshop can be found in the How To Guide 'One Topic Three Audiences.'
  • For Case Examples of the workshop in action, see 'Communication, Media, Film and Cultural Studies', and 'Engineering.'

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA. [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236).
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148).
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

Author:

  • Originally produced at Glyndwr University, as an Entrepreneurial Effectiveness (EE) Session, for the Enterprise Support Programme (ESP), funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales.

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Dynamic Review and Reflection (physical) (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation (review the session, understand the concept or steps covered in an interactive way).
  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • To evidence the power of group work as more ideas are created through team work

Overview:

This is a physically active exercise that can be used at the end of the day or at the end of a session. It is especially useful after a session that involves a lot of technical material or requires heavy concentration as it is also an effective energizer.  This task brings together physical movement and the
opportunity for revision and review.

This can also be highly effective as an approach to reflective learning and providing natural opportunities for students to comment on the deeper or more personal learning they have achieved during a task.

Activity: 

Example 1 – ‘Valuable Lessons Learned’ Ball Toss

  1. The facilitator asks the workshop participants to form a circle
  2. The facilitator starts by saying what they thought was their most valuable lesson or concept they learned that day, and then throw the ball to another participant
  3. The participant states the most valuable or important lesson/concept they learned that day and throws to another participant and so on until all participants have expressed their valuable lessons/concepts learned.

Example 2 – ‘Concept in Action’ Ball Toss

  1. The facilitator asks the workshop participants to form a circle
  2. The facilitator starts by stating a concept that relates to the workshop / exercise, and then throws the ball to another participant. 3. The participant gives an example of that concept in action, and the states another concept and throws to another participant and so on

Example 3 – ‘Process’ Ball Toss 

1.After an exercise has been conducted about the steps in a particular activity, the facilitator asks the workshop participants to form a circle.
2. The facilitator starts by explaining the first step in the process that has been covered in the exercise, and then throws the ball to another participant.
3. The participant explains the next step in the process and then throws to another participants and so on.  Notes: If someone receives the ball but does not have an example read, they can ‘pass’ by passing the ball to a different person and simply repeating the question.  This can declare them as “out” and result in having to withdraw from the circle, or sit down.  However as facilitator, you may not wish to use this for reflective tasks, as deeper reflections may emerge from the comments of others and total non-participation is not helpful to the individual.

Skill Development: 

This task engages the whole body in either remembering or reflecting in a way that is both energising and engaging to the whole group.  The physical element can divert from the task and as facilitators, you can ask “why” or “so what” as the ball is thrown in order to deepen reflection.

If you wish to have more control over the game, you may stand in the middle and throw the ball back to participant who did not provide a sufficiently strong input. The skill development needs to be explored at the end and the emotions that are created in the game (pressure; speed; short-responses etc) acknowledged as drivers, as well as limiters of good communication.

Resources: 

1. A soft ball or ball of wool.

Engaging Alumni for Real World Learning (QAA 2, 3, 4, 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

Effective engagement of Alumni seeks to support the students to become:

  • be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions
  • review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk.

Overview:

With the pre-arranged (and prolonged) support of alumni (now professionals) this approach of continued access to external professionals (ideally programme/course Alumni) is designed to prepare students to be able to engage with real clients and better enable them to respond proactively to change.

Externals are invited to engage with the current student group as they undertake a task, using social media (facebook; twitter etc) an/or Skype. This creates either incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment or regular support or feedback on course work from externals.

Activity

This approach needs pre-agreement and commitment of externals (ideally Programme/course Alumni) who commit to short, but regular interaction through social media or Skype.

This activity can either be driven by a live brief or challenge identified by the external (higher level of engagement) or as comment and support to those undertaking the programme, through sharing expertise and current work experiences. If the students are working on a live brief or task given by the external, this high level of interactivity can mean that summative deadlines can changedand information updated, and the newsworthy or other high profile influences can be included throughout the module. (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni professional).

This engagement can be “managed” by the tutor – to pre-plan some ambiguity or pre-agreed change of brief/scope with the Alumni contact, or left open to allow access to externals as an organic relationship, where advice may be sought by the students or experience/daily practice shared by the Professional as they see fit.

In addition, any presentation /show case or final assignment submission can be shared with the external and their input made part of the summative or formative feedback (assessment strategy).

Note that the choice of social media will impact on the type of engagement between alumni and students, but ideally something that the Alumni member uses regularly will ensure more regular engagement. Even small inputs (as typically seen in social media such as Twitter) can guide student approach and ensure that they are able to ask private questions, and that other students can also learn from the mentor/alumni generic comments or insights.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the level and type of engagement, students can benefit from insights from a ‘typical day/week’ of a professional working in their area, or be pushed to develop their tolerance to ambiguity (through changing deadlines, or unexpected changes to the brief or additional information). This can build resilience in the students but there needs to be clear expectations of this relationship, as well as additional tutor support.

Students typically respond well to changes and additional insights from professional Alumni and can develop their understanding and judgement, in their chosen field, whilst gaining further insight regarding professional practice.

Students should be bought together to share their experience of virtually engaging with their Alumni contact and explore their emotional responses to the changing briefs or additional information. They need to explore, and develop strategies, for coping with ‘real world’ brief/challenges and exploringthis together, and sharing how they dealt with it, and could deal with it in the future, builds their confidence and resilience to change. Using reflective practice to consider the learning across the group can draw out a range of key lessons for preparing for future challenges.

Resources:

Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project or to commit to regular updating/comment for a pre-agreed period of time.

References:

Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).

Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)

Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)

Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) ‘When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes’, Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410

Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna, University of Wales, Trinity St David.

Production Line (QAA 4,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objectives:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • To explore and establish methods of production for a simple products
  • To understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation
  • Understanding processes and procedures
  • Replicating methods

Overview

This task focuses a group of people to organise themselves to set up a production line to exactly replicate an existing product as many times as possible in set amount of time. They are giveqaan the opportunity to reflect on and improve their approach twice to increase efficiency, quality and productivity. This gives participants and others the opportunity to see how their own and other behaviour, ideas, approach affects the development and outcome of the task and how by working together and reflecting and analysing a situation it can be adapted and improved going forward.

Activity:

This activity could take from 30 minutes to a couple of hours depending on how much review, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

Group gathers around a table with all the resources on it. There is a sample product : a booklet with 13 squares of paper 10cm x 10cm, secured with 2 staples in a x shape in the top left hand corner of the booklet.

The group is asked to put together a production line replicating this booklet. They will have 2 minutes to discuss how they think they could best do thisand to allocate roles. Then 3 minutes to put this into practice and produce as many booklets as possible. When the time is up the facilitator then countsand inspects the finished products, looking for quality and accuracy ie:

  • Correct number of sheets
  • Correct size
  • Cut lines are straight
  • There are 2 staples
  • Staples are in the right place
  • Staples are crossed correctly

The group then gets 2 minutes to discuss and review their methods, systems and procedures and come up with improvements or a different approach. They then get another 3 minutes on the production line to best their last score.

The above process is then repeated for a third time.

This could be done with any size group as long as there are sufficient facilitators to split into smaller groups. The optimum numbers in each group wouldbe between 6 and 10, however multiple groups could be working at the same time. They would have to work at the same time so as not to hear the discussion of other groups.

Skill Development:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Efficiency/Productivity
  • Quality Control
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

As has been described this task involves many different skills and objectives on all different levels and can be assessed and analysed either briefly or in great depth across some or all of the objectives. For example, if this is an exercise for managers or recruiters to assess staff skills and abilities it can be finished there at the end of the last count. However it can be extended further, so each team then breaks off with a facilitator to analyse what happened at each stage and why.

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the review and analysis go, who took the lead, someone different? How were news ideas taken on board.
  • What changed the next time, was there an improvement, if so why
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

For example : the focus could just be on the outcomes, ie the quality and quantity of the finished products. Often the first time, people are rushing and slapdash and may do quite a few but get a lot rejected, so need to slow down. Or get them all passed but do a small number, so need to speed up. So it's finding that balance between speed and quality/accuracy.

Or the focus can be on the review and reflection, how the method was changed or improved each time to give better results.

Or the focus can be on the team dynamics how they evolved through each stage, or on the leadership and management of the task and how that changed and fluctuated at each stage, how the balance of power shifted as the task went along.

Or it could very much focus on the individual, the role they played, how this evolved, how they felt, how they were affected by the different characters,how they affected other members in the group, positively or negatively what they would do differently next time.

Depending on whether the focus is on 1 or 2 of the objectives and skills or all of them, all of these and more angles can be identified and explored after the task.

Resources:

Large sheets of paper (A3 or larger, could use old newspapers) minimum of 60 sheets per team, pens, pencils, markers, rulers, scissors, staplers.

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: PUZZLES AND QUILTS (QAA 1,2,3,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Experience the difference between managerial and entrepreneurial thinking.
  • Engage with conditions of uncertainty and ambiguity.
  • Illustrate how entrepreneurs think.

Overview:

Given the unprecedented level of uncertainty in business and entrepreneurship, students must learn how to navigate effectively in an increasingly uncertain world. The exercise consists of students starting in one room with the task of completing a jigsaw puzzle. Students are systematically moved toanother room, where they are asked to create a quilt from a selection of fabric pieces. The debrief explores jigsaw puzzles as managerial thinking and quilt making as entrepreneurial thinking. There is an optional debrief that includes leadership.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, or practitioner. Ideally the exercise should be done on day one of a general entrepreneurship course as a way to set up how entrepreneurs think and the difference between entrepreneurial and managerial thinking.

Activity:

Pre-Work Required by Students

None.

Time Plan (60–80 minutes)

The exercise begins in a room with tables for each team. Students are asked to clear their table in preparation. The second room required is a large empty space. A table (fairly long) is placed in front of this room or space, and fabric pieces are piled on the table. The piles should be messy, with all the fabrics mixed up (not sorted by size, colour, or any other dimension).

Puzzle time 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes)

Divide students into groups of five to seven and give them the following directions: “Your task is quite easy but you don’t have a lot of time. Your goal is to put together the puzzle that is sitting on the table as fast as you possibly can. It’s only 300 pieces! You can do it. Get started. You are being timed. Don’t worry; there are no cameras in the room!”

Random Pull - Out to Quilting Room 0:05–0:30 (25 minutes)

Pull students at random from the puzzle room, one at a time, asking for one volunteer from each group. The individual volunteered or selected from each group is taken to the empty room with the table of fabric.

At the fabric table the first group is told: “Your new task is quite easy but you don’t have a lot of time. You are now designated quilt leaders. Your goal is to construct a design for a quilt. Choose six pieces of fabric from the table – no more and no less. Select an area in the room and begin to construct a quilt. You may not come back to the table for more or different fabric. No sewing is required. Simply place your fabric on the ground as if you were going to sew patches of fabric together to create the quilt. The goal is to build the best quilt you possibly can. Others will join you a bit later. Have fun!”

Note: Each quilt leader should choose six pieces of fabric, and each will begin his or her own quilt in different areas of the room. Subsequent “volunteers” are taken out of the puzzle rooms at two to three minute intervals and instructed to take six pieces of fabric and join any quilt in progress that interests them. “Your new task is quite easy but you don’t have a lot of time. Join one of the groups in the room. You do not have to stay with the team members from your puzzle group. Your goal is to construct a design for a quilt. Choose six pieces of fabric from the table – no more and no less. Next, join a group to help them build the best quilt you can. You may not exchange fabric once you choose. No sewing is required. Simply place your fabric on the ground as if you were going to sew patches of fabric together to create the quilt. Have fun!” When all individuals are out of the puzzle room and in the quilt room, allow two more minutes to complete the quilts.

Debrief 0:30–1:00 (30 minutes)

The debrief may take place inside the quilt room or back in the classroom depending on group size. If debriefing inside the quilt room, have each quilt leader describe how the design of the quilt emerged. If debriefing outside the quilt room, give students time to walk through the quilt room to study all of the quilt designs before leaving the room. Begin with questions:

  • How many preferred the puzzle? Why?
  • How many preferred the quilt? Why?

Focus on quilts:

  • Ask the leaders about how the design came to be.
  • Ask team members why they joined one team versus another.
  • How did it feel moving from puzzle to quilts?
  • What type of thinking was required for each part of the exercise?

Summary

At this time, it’s important to introduce the concepts of puzzle as managerial thinking and quilts as entrepreneurial thinking. Puzzle as managerial thinking:

  • The goal is well defined (the puzzle picture is typically on the outside of the box).
  • Determine resources to achieve the goal (puzzle pieces).
  • Create a plan (put pieces in piles by colour, and start with the edges).
  • Execute the plan (edges first).
  • Measure progress along the way.
  • Goal achieved – the puzzle looks just like the picture on the front of the box! Well done!

Quilt as entrepreneurial thinking:

  • Entrepreneurs start with what they have rather than what they need (fabric pieces).
  • When entrepreneurs are not sure what to do their only choice is to act (pick a group and get to work)
  • The design of the quilt emerges over time because it’s difficult to plan (the quilt keeps changing every time a new person enters the group and the environment and resources change).
  • You never really know when it’s quite finished.
  • Creating something new requires iteration rather than linear problem solving.

Optional Leadership Debrief 1:00–1:20 (20 minutes)

  • What is leadership? (Ask them to write down their definition.)
  • How did you “see” leadership around you? (Call on several different quilt groups.)
  • How did you “see” followership?
  • Who were the assigned leaders?
  • Did the rest of you know there were assigned leaders?
  • Pick an assigned leader and ask that person to describe his or her experience.
  • When and how do you decide whether to lead or follow?
  • What is the difference between leadership, management, and entrepreneurship?
  • What is entrepreneurial leadership?

Key Takeaways

  • Under conditions of extreme uncertainty the only choice is action.
  • One form of thinking (entrepreneurial or managerial) is not necessarily better than the other, yet it is important to understand the environmental context. If the skills for completing a jigsaw puzzle (managerial thinking) are used to solve a complicated problem in an uncertain environment, students are likely to run into one roadblock after another. However, if students can get more comfortable with quilt making (entrepreneurial thinking), then they may be able to navigate the terrain of entrepreneurship with greater aptitude.
  • Action trumps planning in uncertain environments.

Teaching Tips

It is preferable not to refer to the exercise as the “quilt exercise” prior to conducting the exercise, as it rather gives away the punch line. Pacing is very important. As soon as the quilt leaders have placed their fabric on the ground, volunteers should be pulled out of the puzzle room approximately every three minutes. Fast pace is much better than a slow pace.

Skill Development:

This exercise is an interactive challenge designed to help raise student awareness of the difference between managerial and entrepreneurial thinking. It also is a strong illustration of how to gain a better understanding of the impact of increasing degrees of uncertainty on the entrepreneurial process.

Resources:

Materials List

  • Jigsaw puzzles (one per group, 300 pieces).
  • Fabric remnants (approximately six pieces per person).
  • Two rooms (one with tables equal to number of groups and one empty).
  • The exercise is adapted from Saras Sarasvathy’s crazy quilt principle within her work on effectual entrepreneurship.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.105 – 109). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Neck, H.M. 2011. Cognitive ambidexterity: The underlying mental model of the entrepreneurial leader. In D. Greenberg, K. McKone- Sweet, and H.J. Wilson (eds.)The New Entrepreneurial Leader: Developing Leaders Who Will Shape Social and Economic Opportunities (pp. 24–42). San Francisco: Berrett- Koehler.
  • Sarasvathy, S. 2008. Effectuation: Elements of Entrepreneurial Expertise. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Schlesinger, L., and Kieffer, C. 2012. Just Start. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.105 – 109). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub. and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.,

About the Author
This guide was produced by Heidi M. Neck & Patricia G. Green..

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Case Examples

Live Client Solutions: The Woodland Trust (QAA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with the opportunity to work with professional clients, providing ‘expert’ media solutions.
  • To provide students with the opportunity to take responsibility for projects, and find creative solutions to problems.
  • To incorporate social responsibility and ethical citizenship into the practice and attitudes of future graduates.  
  • To provide students with real-life feedback that informs decision making.
  • To provide students with experiences of dealing with risk, uncertainty and high pressure environments.
  • To develop students team-working, communication and interpersonal skills.
  • To provide students with experience of managing budgets and deadlines.
  • To provide students with the opportunity to apply their academic and practical skills within a real-world context.
  • To enable students to collaborate with recent Glyndwr University graduates and commission services from new start-up companies in order to enable high-quality delivery of their own projects.

Introduction:

For students of media and communications, skills in enterprise and entrepreneurship are essential to success. Many will progress to self-employment or development portfolio careers with a number of employers and clients. All will be exposed to fast-paced, high pressure environments. All will have to have exemplary communication and interpersonal skills and all with have to be adept at seeking out new opportunities, finding creative solutions to a wide variety of problems. As such, exposure to real-world projects where such skills can be developed and honed, are a crucial part of their education.

In this particular context, approximately 20 students in their second year of study on the BA in Broadcasting, Journalism and Media Communications at Glyndwr University engaged in a live client project that spanned, for some of them, across their final two years of study – and provided them with a portfolio of genuine work experience, demonstrating capabilities within a ‘freelance mode’ of expert consultancy.

The challenge:

  • To work with a non-media expert client, of national / international calibre (The Woodland Trust); finding media solutions to raise awareness of the organisation’s presence on a local scale.
  • To understand the client brief – and enter the commissioning process - pitching media-based solutions to the client, in order to secure a production budget for commissioned solutions to be delivered.
  • To produce and deliver the commissioned content within the timescale and budget specified by the client.
  • To collaborate with recent Glyndwr University graduates, commissioning paid-for services in order to deliver a high-quality product to a professional standard, and working with role-model peers to see start-up graduate companies in action.

The students were supported in this by their course lecturer, graduate start-up companies Minimal Media and Creative Catalysts - and with two main contacts for support at The Woodland Trust.

The project ran for the duration of the students’ second and third years; beginning at level 5 in The Commissioning Process: Pitching and Selling Ideas (HUM550) module, and taking commissioned ideas forward into their Media Project and Portfolio (HUM677) and Applied Broadcasting Project (HUM609) modules.

The relationship with the client continues and will continue into the academic year, at the time of writing, with the second year cohort of 2015/16 and beyond.

Activity:

Introduction

  • Students were introduced to the project via a presentation from their main contact within The Woodland Trust. This was inclusive of background information to provide context for the project and a discussion of the project brief, budget and deadlines, followed by informal Q and A.
  • Students were asked to look at a newly developed woodland site, close to the university campus in Wrexham – at Plas Power Woods.
  • Students were asked to consider the research presented to them as part of an ‘interpretation plan’ of the woodland site, and to consider how they might promote the woodland site to potential visitors and explain some of the conservation activities such as tree thinning, for example, which may be misperceived as destructive felling.

Research and Development

  • Students were given an extremely open brief to encourage free-thinking, but with key objectives and indicators in terms of the client’s needs.
  • Students were steered towards key information and research about the woodland interpretation and types of conservation activity being conducted at the Plas Power site.
  • Students were given close tuition and support in addressing and responding to the brief from a specialist, media producer’s perspective. (I.e. In the form of lectures, workshops and one-to-one tutorials).
  • Each student produced an individual audio-visual presentation for the client and underwent peer review and formative feedback before presenting / pitching to the client.

Commissioning

  • The Woodland Trust commissioned several media content and form concepts from the students - to be taken forward into production in the next academic year - entailing the creation of an online micro-site that would host media content produced by the students and enable autonomy from the national Woodland Trust site (which would later be linked, pending approval from head office).
  • Ideas included the production of an interactive trail, video content to showcase the use of Plas Power woods for specific audiences as per the client brief (e.g. families with children), and an application or game that aimed at being fun to play but delivered some key conservation messages.
  • Funding was provided via a Big Lottery Fund grant that had already been secured by the Woodland Trust in order to interpret, conserve and promote the Plas Power woodland site.
  • At the start of the next academic year, students formed production teams around the commissioned activities and were given budgets to work within, with deadlines and timescales for delivery of content.

Production

  • Students produced storyboards, production plans and schedules and communicated with the client, integrating suggestions and feedback as appropriate).
  • Students, as producers, briefed collaborators (Minimal Media who provided high-quality filming and Creative Catalysts who provided the game and web-build), communicating key objectives within the creative concepts; ensuring all parameters were met and adhered to.
  • Students had to be responsive to a number of moving parameters at this stage, being able to quickly respond to find solutions to problems as they arose (for example, weather permitting that a planned location was no longer feasible, availability of employers changing at short notice, delay in art-work, Equity guidelines on child working hours for filming with children, health and safety limitations, budget limitations, and changing requirements of the client.

Feedback

  • Students held periodic meetings with their main contact at Woodland Trust. They relayed updates on project progress, discussed and debated project details, and negotiated client approval and expectations.

Project Completion

  • The content was delivered to The Woodland Trust, some of it being adopted for the national Woodland Trust website, which surpassed client expectation and secured further projects with the organisation, for future students. Students ensured all aspects of the brief had been met, and that all associated project administration was completed.

Evaluation and Reflection

  • Students produced a portfolio throughout the projects duration, to submit for academic assessment. This included as inclusive of reflection on learning points, and changes that would be implemented if the project were to be repeated – and serves as a portfolio of work that will enable the students to showcase their capabilities to future employers or clients. One graduate specifically has gone on to work as a freelance media consultant, promoting charities and their work. Others have secured work as TV/game producers and have sited this project specifically as one that they felt confident in relaying their skills and experience in this field.

Impact:

The project had a positive impact for all of those involved.

For the client, The Woodland Trust (and Big Lottery Fund), the content now exists as a microsite receiving unique visitors and offering information to woodland visitors at Plas Power Woods.

At the time of writing, the graduate start-up companies continue to go from strength to strength and have secured other work on the strength of the project and through new contacts made during the process. 

Learner outcome:

For the students, the project required them to combine a wide variety of skills, to communicate and collaborate in delivering creative concepts in an unfamiliar scenario, with a brief set and funded by a real client, inclusive of the real world responsibility and pressure associated with it. This proved challenging yet enjoyable for all, and developed the skill set in the group in a way that would not have been possible in a simulated environment.

Resources:

  • An external partner able to set an appropriate brief to students (ideally supported by a budget).
  • The support of appropriate internal departments at the University with project delivery (for example, with developing risk assessments).
  • Links to the content produced by the students can be found in the ‘References’ section.

References:

Creative Catalysts. 2015. Online Marketing Wrexham and Chester by Creative Catalysts. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.creativecatalysts.co.uk/ . [Accessed 04 August 2015].

Minimal Media. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minimalmedia.co.uk/. [Accessed 04 August 2015].

Plas Power Woods | Explore woods | The Woodland Trust. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/visiting-woods/wood/4314/plas-power-woods/. [Accessed 04 August 2015].

The Woodland Trust. 2015. The Woodland Trust. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/. [Accessed 04 August 2015].

Author:

Sally Harrison

Email: s.harrison@glyndwr.ac.uk

Mike Corcoran

Email: m.a.corcoran@outlook.com (www.macorcoran.com)

With thanks to The Woodland Trust, Minimal Media and Creative Catalysts, and a team of very dedicated students.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Sally Harrison. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- s.harrison@glyndwr.ac.uk.

How To Speak In Public (Media Communications) (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To give media and communications students an insight into the importance and relevance of public speaking, presentation, and communication skills to their subject area.
  • To equip students with insights, strategies and skills to become more effective communicators.
  • To allow students to reflect on the diverse environments in which they will require public speaking skills in the future, and to reflect on the most effective strategies to employ in each instance. 
  • To provide students with a practical opportunity to nurture and develop their communication skills.

Introduction:

For students of BA Broadcasting, Journalism, and Media Communications at Glyndwr University, skills in public speaking, presenting and communication are absolutely essential. Throughout their academic life students will be required to present work in a wide variety of ways, and in their professional life they will encounter many environments were public speaking is unavoidable. To that end, students studying towards this degree programme are given as many opportunities as possible to develop these skills, in a mixture of real-world and simulated environments.

A two hour session was run for a small group of second year students on the above programme, on the theme of ‘How to Speak in Public.’ The group were of mixed ability and experience, with some working in media jobs (entailing regular presentation and communication) as alongside their study, and other with who’s only experience had come from school, college and University presentations. 

The session was delivered by the University’s ZONE Enterprise Hub Manager, on the invitation of the course tutor.

Activity:

The session followed the format which can be found in the ‘Workshop - How to Speak in Public’ How to Guide.

The students began the session with an introduction to the themes which would be covered, namely; how to structure a presentation, how to use tools effectively; how to present clearly; how to control and manage nerves, and how to deal with questions.

A brief dialogue initiated the session, where students discussed how they felt the subject was relevant to them, their studies and their careers. As the group size was small, it was possible to ask each individual about their own experience, feelings toward public speaking, and careers ambitions at this stage. This entailed that the session was tailored directly to the needs of the individuals there after. 

At each stage in the workshop, examples were chosen which were appropriate to the audience in hand, and as the session extended over two hours, it was possible to go into a greater degree of depth at each of the practical activity and discussion opportunities. For example, in discussing the use of appropriate language, each member of the group wrote a short paragraph, communicating the same piece of information for three separate audiences, and then the group each presented these mini-presentations to one another. An in discussing the appropriate use of tone, we used a real world example from one of the audience, who broadcasts her own show on a community radio station. 

Again taking advantage of the small group size, the session was informal and conversational in nature, and questions were answered, points of contention debated, and tangents explored wherever appropriate as we progressed.

At the end of the one session, the key themes covered were re-capped, and students were offered the opportunity to ask additional questions, and directed to further support, links and reading if they wished to explore the issues further.

Impact:

The session had a strong, positive impact on the individuals who participated. For those in the group with some prior experience of presenting, they were able to consolidate what they knew, focus on the finer details of the content, and offer valuable feedback and contributions to the group conversation. For those with limited or no previous experience, it served as a solid foundation to the topic on which to build going forward. 

Indeed, following the session, the group sought further support from the enterprise service at the University, in organising and hosting their own contemporary science debate evening, putting many of the skills covered into practice.

Learner outcome: 

Learners reported that the session left them with greater confidence and understanding, and all were keen to put the skills discussed into practice going forward. Feedback from participating students included;

“Really supportive and helpful! Made it interesting.”

”Good dynamic talk with great points and useful information.”

“Enthusiastic presentation which was clear and understandable. Very good!”

“Very good presentation – clear, informative and interesting.”

“Good talk containing a lot of useful and relevant information.”

“Excellent presentation. Really useful.”

Resources: 

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].  
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA.  [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236). 
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148).
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Numeracy Film Project

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with the opportunity to work with professional clients.
  • To provide students with the opportunity to take responsibility for projects, and find creative solutions to problems.
  • To give provide students with experiences of dealing with risk, uncertainty and high pressure environments.
  • To develop students team-working, communication and interpersonal skills.
  • To provide students with experience of managing budgets and deadlines.
  • To provide students with the opportunity to apply their academic skills within a real-world context.

Introduction:

For students of media and communications, skills in enterprise and entrepreneurship are essential to success. Many will progress to self-employment or development portfolio careers with a number of employers and clients. All will be exposed to fast-paced, high pressure environments. All will have to have exemplary communication and interpersonal skills and all with have to be adept at seeking out new opportunities, finding creative solutions to a wide variety of problems. As such, exposure to real-world projects where such skills can be developed and honed, are a crucial part of their education.

Approximately 20 students in the final year of BA Broadcasting, Journalism and Media Communications at Glyndwr University, engaged in a ‘Numeracy Film Project’ in collaboration with professional client, science discovery centre Techniquest Glyndwr (TQG). TQG were seeking the production of a series of short films (approximately 5 minutes in duration), showcasing the importance of numeracy skills to the work of a variety of regional employers. These films were to form part of a larger body of work, as part of TQG’s Welsh Government funded Numeracy Employer Engagement programme.

Students were invited to project manage the creation of 5 such films, subject to their adherence to an agreed brief, and an agreed deadline and budget for delivery.

The students were supported in this by their course lecturer, by a designated contact with the University’s student experience department, and with a main contact for support within TQG. The project ran for the duration of the students’ second semester, contributing to their Media Project and Portfolio (HUM677) Module.

Activity:

Introduction

  • Students were introduced to the project via a presentation from their main contact within TQG. This was inclusive of background information to provide context for the project and a discussion of the project brief, budget and deadlines, followed by informal Q and A.
  • Students were informed that TQG would provide a list of employers and contact details to be featured in the films (based on their existing networks), but that it would be students responsibility to arrange film content, and filming times, dates and locations with each of them.

Research and Development

  • Students organised themselves into teams, and through assessing their own skills, designated roles to each team member. They agreed on how their allocated budget would be shared amongst the teams, and identified where budgets would need to be spent, inclusive of bringing in additional expert support to fill in any gaps in their own particular skill sets (for example – camera operatives for filming on location).
  • The students allocated to employer film to each team, and undertook research to establish how best a film could meet their brief with their designated employer.
  • Story boards for each film were produced.

Filming

  • Students communicated with employers, to brief them as to the content of the films to be produced (integrating suggestions and feedback from employers as appropriate), and to agree on suitable filming times, dates and locations.
  • Students had to be responsive to a number of moving parameters at this stage, being able to quickly respond to find solutions to problems as they arose (for example, weather permitting that a planned location was no longer feasible, availability of employers changing at short notice, employer representatives requiring coaching prior to filming, in virtue of limited confidence and experience in front of camera).
  • Students worked with their contact within the University’s Student Experience department to ensure that they had followed all the necessary policies and procedures throughout the filming process (for example, producing risk assessments, contracting external expert support etc.).               

Editing

  • The student teams took the raw footage from their filming process, and edited to produce their finished short films.
  • Students retained creative control for the final appearance of these, and allocated their budgets to bring in additional support in the editing process wherever necessary (for example, sourcing a music score to accompany a film).

Feedback

  • Students held periodic meetings with their main contact at TQG. They relayed updates on project progress, discussed and debated film details, and negotiated for moving deadlines where necessary (for example, if an employer had been unable to oblige by a filming date).

Project Completion

  • The set of films were delivered to TQG. Students ensured all aspects of the brief had been met, and that all associated project administration was completed (for example, all invoices submitted).

Evaluation and Reflection

  • Students produced a portfolio throughout the projects duration, to submit for academic assessment. This as inclusive of reflection on learning points, and changes that would be implemented if the project were to be repeated.

Impact:

The project had a positive impact for all of those involved.

For the client, TQG, the films were disseminated via their social media platforms, and integrated into the AV presentations accompanying their numeracy themed outreach workshops. This ensured that the students work was viewed by many thousands of individuals. For the employers, all expressed thanks at being invited to participate, were happy with the products produced, and were able to share the media for their own purposed.

Employer feedback included, “[The] collaboration has proven to be a very positive one. We strongly believe that the festival should benefit everyone in the region, especially young people in the community, and this opportunity has been of great support to our educational aims.”

For the students, the project required them to combine a wide variety of skills, in an unfamiliar scenario, with a brief set and funded by a real client, inclusive of the real world responsibility and pressure associated with it. This proved challenging yet enjoyable for all, and developed the skill set in the group in a way that would not have been possible in a simulated environment.

“Giving students the opportunity to collaborate with professional clients, especially within their degree, gives them skills that can’t necessarily taught; experience such as this is essential for students progression upon graduating, and entering into the world of work.” (Staff Member, Glyndwr University Student Services)

Learner outcome:

Student feedback included;

“The brief was challenging and exciting. I've never had experience in broadcasting before and it gave me an insight into just how complicated the industry can be and how much needs to be thought about. I especially liked the theme of numeracy in the workplace”

All students reported finding the project a challenge. Though all had confidence in the individual skills the project required of them (budgeting, liaising with external clients, time management etc.), combining all of these, in a pressurised, real world environment was a new experience. Many found that team working within this environment also presented new challenges which had to be overcome.

However students reported that they found the whole experience to be enjoyable and worthwhile and the work the contribution the project work made to the students’ professional portfolios supported a number of them in finding their first media employments upon graduating.

Resources:

  • An external partner able to set an appropriate brief to students (ideally supported by a budget).
  • The support of appropriate internal departments at the University with project delivery (for example, with developing risk assessments).
  • Links to the films produced by the students can be found in the ‘References’ section.

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (With thanks to Sally Harrison, Senior Lecturer – Broadcasting, Journalism and Media Communications – Glyndwr University, and Rob Roper – Project Manager, Student Experience, Glyndwr University). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Engaging Alumni to Deliver Real World Learning

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement

Objective:

  • Students should be able to:
  • identify, analyse and respond to relevant opportunities
  • Develop and produce multiple solutions to identified problems, shortfalls and similar challenges
  • Be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk

Introduction

  • With the support of alumni who engage through social media (Facebook; Twitter etc.) and/or Skype, students are given incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment.
  • This interactivity means that deadlines can changed and information updated, often in response to newsworthy or other high profile influences and the students need to adapt throughout the module.
  • (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni/professional).
  • The project is designed to precede later work where the students will engage with real clients, so as to better enable them to respond pro-actively to change.

Activity

This activity is undertaken in semester 1 of a second year course of study (15 weeks – 2.5 hour sessions with anticipated 2.5 hours private study per week) and runs across all Visual Communication and Design courses. Each course’s relevance is ensured as the framework can be adapted to specific study areas and alumni inform the actual project – so as to ensure relevance and to maintain student motivation (See: Continuous Conceptual Review Model). The sample offered here is for two cohorts (approximately 50 students) from the film and media production courses and from the Advertising and Brand Management course – who will subsequently engage in an interdisciplinary module.

The following provides an outline of the activity as delivered to these disciplines, and was first introduced in 1995 following alumni feedback on the value of their educational experiences. Other disciplines use their own alumni and realistic contexts.

Week 1.

Students expect the lecturer to lead the class, but an unannounced stranger is brought in (alumni - in person or via skype) who asks the group about their career aspirations and challenges their understanding of the world of work. He or she explains their busy lifestyle and asks them to quickly help him or her with a problem they have – how to visualise a brand for a new academy of creativity, but explain that they have to go and leave them to it. Normally 90-95 per cent of responses include a light bulb.

Week 2.

Student’s have been discussing the individual and although not told, want to question the alumni about their work (curiosity based learning). The alumni, still in a rush, starts to explain that the headmaster for this new school will be Sir Humphrey Davy… then the connection is lost. Quick internet searches reveal that this is a historical project, as Sir Humphry Davy lived in 1778 – 1829 and that his work preceded the invention of the light bulb. Past work is discarded (with occasional moans and groans) and new research starts into historical images that represented creativity - prior to the invention of the light bulb. New / alternative ideas start to emerge.

Towards the end of the session the alumni reconnects / re-enters the room and takes questions about their work as a freelance storyboard writer for major TV companies. Scripts are discussed and student interest gained – a promise to see a script is made by the alumni.

Week 3.

An outline of a TV script is presented to students by the alumni. They or another alumni start to explain how camera angles and specialist instructions such as close ups or super close ups need to be incorporated in the storyboards. Examples from well know TV programmes or Films are shown when possible. With support from the alumni, students attempt to develop a storyboard through acting out the script and noting important aspects such as emotional engagement. Identification of the brand is central to the story line.

Week 4.

The alumni explains that he or she has just met the producer, who is happy for them to see other scripts for later episodes. Episode two has the main character Davy waking up in the future and looking at a barren landscape, one which is littered with light bulbs - which is now a thing of the past. The alumni explains that their brand has to survive the passage of time and that it has to be recognisable in the year 2020. Research into potential future understanding of creativity commences and students envisage / storyboard a potential future scenario based on the script.

Week 5.

The alumni / staff set up an opportunity for the students to pitch their ideas to the alumni. They have an hour to prepare a presentation and are requested to discuss and argue a minimum of three ideas. This was unexpected. After 20 -25 minutes the alumni asks them to limit their presentation to one or two minutes, so that he / she can hear them all. Students are asked at random to present. Time may run out and alumni ask students to make a PDF version to email (via staff).

Week 6.

The alumni explains the future direction of the time travelling Davy, and introduces the idea that he may meet aliens in his travels. Some students have already discovered Davy claimed this through their research. The task now is to create a pitch as to why aliens would find the brand design that they are developing to be credible.

Weeks 7 – 9

Students develop their storyboards and at least 3 brand ideas in the sessions. More in depth research is undertaken and initial concepts re-evaluated and iteratively developed. Arguments for the solutions are mapped and explained as reflective mind maps – so as to illustrate the thinking journey.

Week 10.

With 2 or more alumni present or available via Skype, students are asked to consider how this kind of work could be best assessed and who should assess it? Using a proforma, students suggest how their could be meaningfully evaluated. Through discussion, research, and assisted by appropriate lines of questioning by the educator and alumni, the idea of flexibility, adaptability and the requirement for multiple solutions emerge. Students come to realise that their response to change is a key factor and that when faced with incomplete data (QAA, 23 states “students can be required to work with incomplete information or information that is incrementally offered after a review of their initial findings”). As multiple and responsive outcomes are the most important aspect, the theory of divergent production is introduced, i.e. more solution developing capabilities, many alternative solutions that respond to change, plus the value of distinctiveness of ideas (similar solutions being less creative than distinctly different ones).

Week 11 – 13


Students develop their ideas further, in the knowledge that the alumni will be commenting and advising the educator, and that they will be assessed on the distinctiveness of a range of ideas that relate to the assignment given to them by the alumni. These will be evidenced by charts that illustrate the critical elements of their research and how the research informed their solutions. In simple terms, the more divergent the thinking the more complex the charts, hence students can easily recognize the range of solution development that has taken place in a clear and transparent manner.

Week 14 – 15


Pitches take place and the alumni adds their thoughts and comments. Assessment is based on the range of alternative ideas, the divergence of alternative ideas and their ability to be used flexibly in the scenarios described in the scripts supplied by the alumni.

Note: later, in the next semester’s module, the process continues and approximately 5 weeks into the projects each class will be provided with a theory session on brain functionality and how these kinds of activities enhance ‘aha’ moments of creative discovery (See: Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar). Thus practice informs personal theory development and theory follows practice, “reflective practice enables students to ‘join the dots’ of past experiences and perceptions” (QAA, 14).

Impact:

The assignment is constructively aligned (Biggs, 2003) as it enables students to demonstrate their skills and responses in meaningful and relevant (to their studies) scenarios that engage true to life experiences of alumni – who are partners in the process / most of whom have now experienced it for themselves in their own education and are familiar with the concepts.

Of interest is that the assessment strategy is often new conceptually and structurally, but through debate and discussion (week 10) the students feel engaged and very aware of the goals – which are not as they first perceived.

The assignment also leads into later QAA areas, for example they learn to “robustly justify their decision making processes” (QAA, 17) and includes “pitches to peers and expert advisors” (QAA, 23) that involves “feedback from different viewpoints” (QAA, 26).

Moreover, aspects of decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement (QAA, 19) can be evidenced in this and later assignments based on the same approach. Specifically, the assignment discussed here adopts the following QAA (19) guidance on delivery approaches:

  • Recognise or create multiple opportunities through actively making connections
  • Make connections as a result of problem solving, evaluating and assessing ideas, and iterative development strategies involving critique and enactment
  • Develop relevant subject expertise, as well as awareness of contemporary issues, both of which should feature strongly in any strategies for recognising opportunity.

Learner outcome:

The impact of engaging alumni with students is immeasurable and has impacted across the course. Seeking views from Alumni, their response to this approach was incredibly strong (as this ‘flash survey’(2015) below shows).

When asked about support (or otherwise) for learning environments where the working environment was simulated in their studies (through incomplete information, shifting deadlines and reference to newsworthy events that would impact on their solutions / fit within their personally identified problems to solve (briefs)) Alumni overwhelmingly confirmed its importance.

Question: Before students work with real clients, & to help get them, lecturers should simulate reality & change deadlines / add info to projects as they go along. (E.g. Partial assignments are issued & newsworthy events make it more real).

Question

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Not Sure

Agree

Strongly Agree

4.Changing deadlines and adding new information as projects evolve

0% (0)

2.04% (1)

6.12% (3)

42.86% (21)

48.98% (24)

Perhaps the most marked response is the alumni support for an educational experience where change occurs and situations of ambiguity and risk require them to develop resilience and flexible responses - so as to prepare them for the real world beyond graduation. This 91.84% (45) support rate aligns with the QAA (2012, 23-24) guidance views that:

Knowledge that is continuously being 'harvested' during a project or assignment may bring new dimensions into play at any time, and both the student and the educator must be flexible and adaptable to changing scenarios…Enterprise and entrepreneurship are dynamic and changing. Ambiguity and risk are difficult to evaluate in predictable and forcastable schedules. Shifts and changes by the educator
can be effective ways to assess flexibility and adaptability.

The findings are also a good fit to The Wilson Review of Business-University Collaboration recommendations (2012, 50), which state that:

Enterprise skills require responsiveness to unexpected pressures and tasks; they require reaction to changing circumstances and disruptive interventions. These attributes are contrary to the established framework of assessment processes. Enterprise skills do not presently lend themselves to formal assessment methods.

Resources:

  • Open plan and flexible working environments suited to enactments and pitching – ideally simulated professional design studio with access to online resources.
  • Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project.
  • Pens and software utilised in storyboard development and brand evolution.

References:

  • Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).
  • Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)
  • Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)
  • Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) ‘When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes’, Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410
  • Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

                                                    

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- University of Wales, Trinity St David.

University Of Chester: Integrating An Employer Event Into The Curriculum

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 6Interpersonal Skills

This example features in 'Bath Spa University Careers - Embedding Enterprise and Employability in the Curriculum' - Download the full document HERE.

Introduction:

 

‘Inside the Creative Industries’ is an annual University of Chester event organised by Careers and Employability, the media department and a team of students from a variety of courses, including journalism, graphic design, PR, marketing, TV and English literature. Students put their questions to creative industry professionals to get advice, tips, industry views and the chance to network informally with employers.

In addition to curriculum work, other degree courses, for example digital photography, asked student volunteers to work on briefs outside the curriculum to create portfolio content for assessment, and other volunteers took on roles such as 'events assistant' and 'marketing/social media' assistant. In total, 16 students worked on every aspect of the event including branding and publicity, artwork, studio set-up and management, sound and music composition, animation, TV production/filming, social media and photography.

 

Activity:

 

Traditionally, the event was extracurricular in nature. However, for 2012 Careers and Employability and staff from the media and art and design departments worked together to integrate the event into the curriculum by setting practical assignments based around the event, or using client briefs to work on aspects of the event.

For example, Careers and Employability presented a creative brief to TV students requiring them to produce clips from the event that were less corporate in nature than those produced by university staff last year. Students developed written pitches containing suggestions about how the event format and resulting video clips could be made more student-friendly.

Careers and Employability selected the three strongest pitches (giving feedback to all students who had submitted pitches) and short-listed students for a producer / floor manager role. The successful student then coordinated all TV-related aspects of the event in liaison with Careers and Employability (the client), including managing a TV crew of fellow students who filmed the day’s events, coordinating studio set up and editing footage.

The TV students also scheduled, conducted and filmed guest interviews.

Figure 1

Impact & Learner Outcomes:

 

(See references for AGCAS article)

 

References:

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by David Jarman (Bath Spa University).

Bath Spa University: Creative Media Practice

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

This example features in 'Bath Spa University Careers - Embedding Enterprise and Employability in the Curriculum' - Download the full document HERE.

 

Introduction:

 

The course’s final year is industry focused and based on students work at the supported professional practice centre Artswork Media - a digital media incubation and training business owned by the University which is currently based at the Paintworks business park in Bristol. This facility is staffed by University appointed practitioners and selected mentors working as freelancers.

 

Activity:

 

Within the Year 3 project modules students participate in live briefs, often as part of a team, for a range of clients, and work with industry mentors and the University careers service to plan their futures – be it progression to further study or seeking opportunities in the workplace.

Students are also encouraged and supported in undertaking paid freelance work as part of their final year and have a thorough understanding of the opportunities associated with freelance work and the process of establishing your own business.

 

Impact:

 

What the external examiner says:

‘The course embeds employability superbly through the Artswork initiative. This is a sector leading initiative which, to the credit of the University and the course team, has had significant investment. The breadth and scope of the work produced is super and professionally valuable.’ - Creative Media Practice External Examiner’s comments, 2012

 

Learner outcomes:

 

What students say:

‘Overall my experience at Artswork has given me more, I believe, than almost any other degree can offer. Every project, essay or meeting has been conducted in a professional, real life office environment. We dealt with real people who wanted a real product, some were even willing to pay for the privilege. At the end of such an action acked year I feel that as a group we went into Artswork Media as students but we are walking away from the office as young professionals.’ - Ed Whicher, Creative Media Practice graduate 2012

‘The third year of Creative Media Practice is amazing. We get to work with real clients and prepare ourselves for the professional world of work. It provides us with extremely valuable experience.’ - Creative Media Practice student, National Student Survey 2013

 

References:

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by David Jarman (Bath Spa University).

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

A model for an Interdisciplinary intrapreneurship-entrepreneurship module (QAA2,3,4,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will understand the importance of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behaviour in the context of their subject area
  • Will engage with subjects outside their discipline to pitch for and explore ideas and concepts
  • To reflect and draw personal conclusions about their capacities and capabilities for entrepreneurial behaviour
  • To research and persuade others of the feasibility and viability of their ideas
  • To conclude with a ‘live’ opportunity which they can research and develop further through a research project/dissertation, employment or a new business venture

Overview: 

This type of module is appropriate on applied courses, or courses ‘with enterprise’. It is especially valuable where students from a range of disciplines are taught together, invited to ‘bring their discipline and interests with them’ (of course, discipline and interests are not always/often synonymous, and this approach helps with that!)

Activity: 

Students engage in a shared first lecture, setting the context for the module, discussing, and responding to individual learner expectations, and an introduction to innovation, delivered by an inventor, which asks the students to invest in one of a series of inventions, based on a case study of each in practice. They are encouraged to reflect on their choice, and in particular the reasons why they feel that their chosen option represents most value.

In week 2 students return to their own discipline (or choose an area of interest based on the available disciplines) and a session is led by academics and industry guests/entrepreneurs focussing on ‘the current and future trends in the XYZ industry’. This tends to be ‘products for users in Science and Engineering’ subjects (e.g. pets and children), and ‘approaches’ in other subjects (e.g. social and online media). 

Week 3 is a facilitated session in which students join interdisciplinary groups (formulated with as wide a variety of disciplines as possible (e.g. 1xcomputing science, 1xbiology, 1xmarketing and management) and share their findings from the previous week to identify areas of shared interest and the skills each member can contribute.

The remainder of the sessions are built around convincing the module assessors, and industry/entrepreneurs that your emerging idea is worth spending more time, money and effort on developing, and that individual students have the appropriate skills and motivations to deliver on the opportunity. The design of the remaining sessions is aimed at students achieving this objective. Remaining module content and tools can be designed together with the students, using flipped classroom, online resources, and update meetings alongside taught lecture material.

Skill Development: 

The confidence gained by the students is seen as they engage with each other and with externals (industry experts).  They are exposed to entrepreneurship through opportunity spotting and evaluation, and through building their reflective and persuasive/selling skills.  By working in teams they are building collaborative approaches to problem solving and task completion.

Resources: 

Planned engagement – including engagement of academics, entrepreneurs and industry partners in each discipline where a student originates.

Time to coach groups individually, access to mentors or online interaction.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Defining your Customer (QAA 2,3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

  • To build a profile of (future) customer as a person
  • To develop the business offer through a broader understanding of the customer needs
  • To  support critical thinking and evaluation of ideas 

Overview: 

This exercise enables students to demonstrate their understanding of their potential customer and deepen that understanding to create a robust offer.

Activity: 

Give each group or individual a sheet of paper with an outline of (non-male or female) person drawn in the middle. 

Ask them to depict on the figure what they might know about their (future) customer.  This requires them to visually-describe their customer, including things like: 

  • Where do they live, work, spend time outside of work and home
  • How much do they earn
  • Where else might they access products/services like yours
  • How do they think, feel
  • What experience do they expect 
  • What concerns do they have
  • What life to do they lead

The purpose is to try and establish a real understanding of what is important to a potential customer, rather than drawing out key “facts” about them (disposable income etc).

Once all the drawings are done, everyone looks collectively at the different customer outlines and tries to add further understanding from what they can see.  The owner of the drawing need not accept these, but can include anything relevant onto their picture.

Once every drawing has been explored, each team/individual needs to articulate one message that they have learnt from this exercise that they can take forward into their planning.  So if offering fast-food to a student customer base, they may have identified price as critical.  However the wider discussion might have identified that students may also select to eat somewhere that is offering free wifi to allow them to connect with others or make plans with each other.  Or if the customer base was a family, then other elements that are important to them such as child-friendly parking, might indicate 1 premises to be more attractive than another.  This “linked” thinking allows the student to draw out the wider benefits of their product or service and explore it in order to create an effective offer.

Skill Development: 

Whilst this task can be based on initial research undertaken by the student, the critical thinking comes from the assumptions that the wider group offer to develop their thinking.  This shows the power of group work and allows the students to deepen their own thinking through the examples of others.

It is useful to explore this task at the end of the session to see how the groups found sharing and testing their assumptions in a group environment.

Resources: 

Paper, pens, flipchart (outline of a person)

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Creating Entrepreneurship: entrepreneurship education for the creative industries

Enterprise and entrepreneurship has grown as a focus for national policy across the UK. Policymakers have urged education at all levels to address the entrepreneurial capacity of learners through enhancing learning environments, the curriculum and through building stronger links with industry. There is a pressing need to address entrepreneurship in the creative industries. See more at: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resources/detail/subjects/adm/Creating-Entrepreneurship

 Making Theatre Work: Entrepreneurship and Professional Practice in Higher Education.

This report, which is the outcome of a PALATINE Development Award, examines the development of employability and entrepreneurial skills, knowledges, attitudes and behaviours, and the support of new business start-up within the theatre and performance field. It identifies the different kinds of curriculum and programme design employed to address this area of practice and pedagogy, as well as identifying examples of good practice and innovation. https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resource/making-theatre-work-entrepreneurship-and-professional-practice-higher-education

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business. Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf