Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • The ability to devise solutions to routine and unfamiliar problems
  • The ability to work effectively with others
  • The capacity for independent and self-managed learning

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: IMPROVISATION FOR CREATIVITY (QAA 1,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • Cultivate an entrepreneurial mind-set.
  • Recognize limitations of entrepreneurial thinking (what holds one back).
  • Practice improvisation for idea generation and creativity.

Overview:

This series of three short improvisational exercises offers students the opportunity to identify personal limitations to idea generation and reflect on situations where creativity may have been stifled. Students will consider their personal abilities and reactions to their improvisational abilities, as well as approaches to incorporate improvisational thinking in entrepreneurial endeavours. The overall goal is to demonstrate how students can develop an entrepreneurial mind-set through improvisation. Such exercises are routinely used for developing improvisational actors as well as for pre-show warm- ups for the actors. This methodology was created in the 1960s and remains the standard by which individuals learn to improvise. Improvisation is an important component of the entrepreneurship method because idea generation and the ability to incorporate relevant, timely information are critical skills for developing new ventures that will not only survive but thrive.

Usage Suggestions 

These exercises work for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, or practitioner. It is particularly relevant for new venture creation courses, entrepreneurial creativity and/or leadership courses, entrepreneurship boot-camps, and workshops.

Activity:

Pre-Work Required by Students

The optional readings may be used for pre-work or post-work, depending on the audience (see ‘Theoretical Foundation in ‘References’).

Time Plan (1 hour)

This exercise can be extended to longer sessions so that students can begin brainstorming entrepreneurial ventures. For the purposes of an initial introduction to improvisation, this teaching note has been written so that the exercise requires at least 60 minutes.

Introduction 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes)

Begin the exercise by introducing the concept of improvisation: Ask students generally if they know what improvisation means. Opening questions for the discussion can include:

  • What does improvisation mean to you? 
  • Where have you seen improvisation? 
  • Has anyone performed improvisation? Seen it performed?

Overview 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes)

Explain how the students will learn the basics of improvisation and see how they could apply it to entrepreneurship, in particular idea generation and creating new ventures. The instructor can show examples of comedy improvisation performance (either live or through video clips from YouTube. Some good short examples include scenes from the ABC show Whose Line Is It Anyway? An example clip can be found at http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v5Qd8bvNW9_h4).

After sharing an example, discuss how performing improvisation can be learned: there are lessons offered for comedy improvisation and improvisational acting performance in improv theatres worldwide. An established framework exists to learn how to improvise. For this class, improvisation equals thinking on your feet. They will now be “in” an improv classroom, and every improvisation theatre class begins with warm-ups. In order to think on their feet, they have to get up on their feet.

Warm-Up 1 0:15–0:20 (5 minutes)

  • Tell them to begin walking around the classroom and to observe every single object in the room.
  • Then tell them to point at objects as they walk past them.
  • As they point at each object they are to say what it is out loud – only they cannot call it what it actually is. They are to label it something it is not. And they are to do it quickly. Provide a quick example by pointing to an object in the room like the board and then say out loud “dog,” and then point at another object like the desk and call it “potato” or whatever comes to mind.
  • After one to two minutes of them walking and pointing and labeling out loud, ask them to stop and be silent wherever they are for a group discussion. When they stop, have them discuss how the experience of labeling objects was for them. Try to push them to explain what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief: 
  • How was this experience?
  • Did you find this exercise difficult to do? Why?

Summary of Warm-Up 1

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • How difficult it is to break away from known “answers”;
  • How frequently they can get stuck in known patterns of thinking;
  • The ease with which they start creating patterns with a known grouping (e.g. eggplant, cucumber, tomato, lettuce), which is a way to make the experience easier (get the “right” answer) as opposed to pushing and fostering creativity;
  • The need for students to want to be in control, rather than searching for newness or playing;
  • Feeling the sense of awkwardness in saying the “wrong” label out loud, but having others around doing a similar activity makes the exercise less awkward;
  • How easy it can be just to listen to others and follow their answers rather than coming up with their own new idea.

Warm-Up 2 0:20–0:25 (5 minutes)

  • Tell them to begin walking around the classroom again.
  • When they come up to another student, they are to point at another student and name an animal, any animal that comes to mind, e.g. two students face each other and one points at the other and says “horse.”
  • Then tell them that the student who has been pointed at and labelled with a type of animal has to make the sound of the animal. If they do not know what sound the animal makes, they are to make it up and make some sort of sound.
  • Then they switch, and the student who just produced the animal sound – in this example, the horse sounds – points at the first student and names an animal, e.g. “cat.” This student then makes the sounds of whatever animal he or she was given.
  • Once the interaction is completed, and both students in the pair have completed their animal sounds, they are to find new partners and repeat the warm-up exercise with two or three other students.
  • After two to three minutes of animal sounds, ask them to stop and be silent wherever they are for a group discussion. Have them discuss how the experience of making animal sounds was for them. Try to push them again to explain what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief:
  • How was this experience? Did you find this exercise difficult to do? Why? 

Summary of Warm-Up 2

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • Feeling a great sense of awkwardness – they are doing something they would normally be comfortable doing with children, but typically have never done in a classroom of adults or peers;
  • Not knowing the right “answer” or sound a particular animal makes, they would feel very frustrated, and then forget the instruction they were given to just make it up;
  • Once again, the ease with which they follow patterns – patterns offer a way to make the exercise “easier,” as they offer a means to come up with an answer or a label quickly rather than pushing creativity;
  • How difficult it is for them to have no control as to what they have to do, rather than stepping back, enjoying the ambiguity, and searching for newness or playing;
  • The fear they have of being “foolish” in a professional setting, how they do not want to be embarrassed by acting silly in front of others, and, in addition, the fear of feeling guilty, foolish, or rude for labelling others as certain types of animals with distinct connotations;
  • This fear leads to self-judging and/or editing before they label their peer with an animal or before making the corresponding animal sound.

Warm-Up 3 0:25–0:35 (10 minutes)

  • Tell them to form groups of four wherever they are in the room.
  • Then instruct them to play a game of word association, where anyone can go first, say a word, whatever word comes to mind.
  • The person to the left listens to the word and then says a word that comes to mind based on the word he or she just heard.
  • They continue in this way until you stop them, and they are to go as fast as they can (tell them to listen for further instruction).
  • Once they get started, let them go for a minute or so, and then very loudly instruct them to “Switch directions!”

After another one to two minutes of word association, ask them to stop and be silent. You can have them return to their seats at this point or have them stay where they are for the final group discussion. Now have them discuss how the word association experience was for them. Most will say this was easier to do, as they were in a group setting. So push them to explain what was happening rather than what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief: 

  • How was this experience? If this was easier than the last two warm- ups, why?
  • If you found this exercise more difficult than the last two, why?
  • What happened when you were told to change directions? Why did this happen?

Summary of Warm-Up 3

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • The ease again they experienced of getting into routines or patterns – how much they wanted to “control” the situation and outcomes;
  • How much they were trying to be clever, or funny, rather than just coming up with any word that came to mind and following the exercise;
  • Typically they do not enjoy the ambiguity and opportunity to play and explore newness;
  • Self- judging occurs again, they feel limited in the direction for the exercise, and what words they allow themselves to say owing to their need to feel included or pressure to continue established patterns rather than pushing creativity and undefined randomness;
  • Students typically are not listening to the last word they just heard, and instead they focus on the words that people two ahead of them in the exercise are saying, as this way they can plan their response (this is highlighted with the change directions instruction).

Discussion 0:35–1:00 (25 minutes)

Once the students return to their seats, have them form groups of three to four and discuss what might be preventing their idea generation efforts related to initial new venture concepts. They should explore what holds them back when considering what they might do. Have them discuss the specific difficulties they experienced personally during the improvisation exercises and how they might get past these limitations to develop a more entrepreneurial mind-set. Have a member of each group report out one recommendation for fostering creativity through improvisation. A closing discussion should include how to incorporate improvisation in their idea generation practices.

Teaching Tips

It is important to keep the warm-up exercises moving fast. It might be helpful to tell the students before they begin the exercises that they will feel really uncomfortable, but feeling uncomfortable is the point of the exercise. In the debrief discussions, some students will genuinely enjoy the exercises and will say they found nothing in them difficult. Asking for a show of hands of those who found the exercise difficult to do first is often a better way to begin the debrief, before asking about how they found the experience (in case the students who enjoyed the exercises stifle the discussion). In warm- up 3 it is very helpful to move around the room encouraging groups to speed up their words so that there are no long pauses. It is important for them to think quickly and see how to come up with new ideas rather than thinking or planning and judging their ideas before they see where the new ideas can take them.

Skill Development:

Key Takeaways

  • How to incorporate improvisation to develop an entrepreneurial mind-set: being quick on your feet and adapting or reacting rather than planning and pre-judging.
  • Identifying and recognizing personal limitations to entrepreneurial thinking (why students are held back from creativity in idea generation, what their personal pitfalls are).
  • How to develop an entrepreneurial mind-set by incorporating tenets of fast and free thinking through improvisation for idea generation and creativity.

Resources:

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.118 - 124). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Attribution

  • These exercises are based on foundational exercises used in improvisational training, widely taught in improvisational theatre courses worldwide.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Spolin, V. 1959. Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Johnstone, K. 1999. Impro for Storytellers. New York: Routledge/Theatre Arts Books.
  • Hmieleski, K.M., and Corbett, A.C. 2008. The contrasting interaction effects of improvisational behaviour with entrepreneurial self-efficacy on new venture performance and entrepreneur work satisfaction. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(4), 482–96.
  • Neck, H.M. 2010. Idea generation. In B. Bygrave and A. Zacharakis (eds.), Portable MBA in Entrepreneurship (pp. 27–52). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Balachandra, L., and Wheeler, M. 2006. What negotiators can learn from improv comedy. Negotiation, 9, 1–3.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.118 - 124). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub, and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Lakshmi Balachandra.

A Compendium of Pedagogies: THE USE OF HOT SEATS (QAA 5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Participants gain confidence in responding to questioning under pressure. They may importantly also learn that they need to ‘act’ differently with different stakeholders. They learn quickly to adapt to others’ point of view.

Overview:

This is a group exercise. Members of the group in turn are put in the ‘Hot Seat’ to respond to intensive questioning from other group members. Traditionally, this ‘Hot Seating’ technique is used by actors to help them identify with the character they are playing. It is used in entrepreneurship education to enable participants to get inside the culture and values of stakeholders with whom they might have to deal. But it can also be used for intensive questioning of an individual’s own personal aims, objectives and plans including business plans. Other participant’s (the group) act as interrogators in this exercise; note: it can be useful to agree ground rules as what is appropriate in terms of questioning and approach within this task.

Activity:

The hot seat itself is in the middle of a semi-circle of chairs. The person in the ‘Hot Seat’ can be himself/herself or represent a client or stakeholder. Dependent upon the role, questions fired rapidly may relate to personal issues; business/organisational problems or community activities (part of ground rules).

Example Hot Seat: Business/plan/idea

The individual is surrounded by those role playing different stakeholders which the plan might need to convince. The aim is to create recognition that the plan will be seen very differently by very different stakeholders. Interrogators may, for example, play the roles of bankers, venture capitalists, family, local government officials offering grants; a potential large customer who will be judging whether to include the client on a buying list or a major potential supplier who may be asked for credit.

Other participants can then be similarly hot seated. At the end of the hot seating there can be a review of what has been learned about the business plan as a relationship management instrument and how it might be best developed to meet different needs.

Example Hot Seat: different stakeholders
Using the same focus of the business plan; hot seater’s, in turn, can be asked to play the roles of different stakeholders, as above, and are quizzed about what they are looking for and why?

Example Hot Seating: on a problem
The technique can be used to role-play individuals from a case study with the aim of creating lively personalised discussion of major points for learningfrom the case. It can also be used to focus discussion on how to deal with a particular problem set out in a simple brief.

Skill Development:

This is an exercise in thinking and responding under pressure. It also is designed to stimulate understanding of relationship management and the value ofthinking empathetically. It can be used to throw light on the ‘organisational cultures’ of different stakeholders that make them see the same things in different ways.

Resources

A Compendium of Pedagogies for Teaching Entrepreneurship. Professor Alan Gibb and Professor Alison Price - Download (PDF) 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Allan Gibb and Professor Alison Price .

Timelines (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • The learner will develop reflection techniques transferring this information into a group self development/ action plan
  • Experience of discovery through interactive learning processes including learning from failure.

Overview:

(small paragraph/ 2 -3 sentence)

The focus of this task is group reflection, understanding and learning from experience when faced with challenges.

Activity:

As a tutor you will need to prepare in advance to deliver this activity.

PREPERATION:

Depending on class size the activity timings is 2 hrs when working with 4-5 groups of learners. The exercise can be assessed or used as a reflection exercise within a group assignment. You will need to make sure the room is suitable with moving space and tables which can accommodate seating of each group. To deliver the session you will have a box of materials (listed in resources) prepared including laminated titles from 5 sections discussed below.

This activity is divided into 5 sections: -

  • Past – What have you done?
  • Barriers/Pathways – What barriers did you face/ what pathways did you experience?
  • Present – Where are you now?
  • You (Your Opportunity Unrealised) – What did you learn/ what opportunities did you miss?
  • Future – Action plan/ group self development looking forward

Each section is introduced in a timed sequence of 10 minutes per section/ 50 minutes. The group are tasked with creating a “time line” using materials and space provided. The timeline will be created based on group discussion and reflection after each of the sections. Each group will share their timeline, ideally one learner per topic.

Skill Development:

short – focus on reflection; review; feedback; learning

Opportunity to focus and reflect on group working, learning through reflection with chance to put this understanding into practice as the group work for assignment continues.

Resources:

  • String
  • Scissors
  • Selotape
  • Flip Chart
  • Paper
  • Newspaper
  • Post-its or similar sticky pads
  • Pens
  • Cardboard boxes 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Penny Matthews Coleg Llandrillo Enterprise Coordinator, Grwp Llandrillo Menai.

Stimulating Creative Thinking: Magic Paper (QAA 1)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation

Objective:

  • To stimulate creative and lateral thinking
  • To encourage creative thoughts and behaviour
  • To develop problem conceptualisation, and problem solving capacity

Overview:

Could you cut a hole in a piece of A4 paper, large enough that you could climb all the way through, without breaking the paper?!

This is a simple activity suitable for groups of any size or ability.

Taking approximately 5 minutes to complete, it encourages learners find a solution to an unfamiliar problem. The problem can only be solved through novel and creative solutions.

The activity serves to stimulate students’ creative thinking and problem solving capabilities, and serves as a light-hearted ice breaker / introduction.

Activity:

1.Provide each student with a single piece of A4 Paper, and a pair of scissors.

2.Challenge students to ‘Cut a hole in the piece of, large enough to climb all the way through, without breaking the paper!’

3.Tell students they have 5 minutes to complete the challenge. You may invite students to work individually, in pairs, or in small groups to do this. (Many students will begin by cutting a circular hole in the rectangular sheet of paper, before realising this is far too small to be a plausible option. You may wish to provide students with extra paper so they can conduct a number of trails. Re-assure students that the challenge is entirely possible, and that it is not a trick question. If anyone completes the challenge quickly, ask them not to reveal their solution to the class until the time is up. If the group are looking for clues, suggest ‘snowflakes and decorations we used to make as children’).

4.When 5 minutes have passed, invite students to stop working, and invite them to attempt to climb through their paper! (Usually, you will find that at least one team have come up with a solution).

5.If no team have successfully completed the challenge, demonstrate a solution to the class (solution outlined below). Invite a small group of student to all climb through the hole simultaneously!

Solution

Figure 1. Challenge Solution

  • To solve the challenge, fold the A4 paper in half along its length (as indicated by the blue perforated line on the diagram).
  • Use the scissors to cut the paper with a comb effect, starting from the centre of the paper and working towards its edge.
  • Make similar cuts, this time working from the edge towards the centre, in between the incisions previously made.
  • Make cuts along with fold line of the paper, with the exception of the edges to the extreme of the incisions.
  • (All cuts are indicated by red lines on the diagram).
  • Carefully unfold the paper, and a continuous, large ribbon is produced, comfortably large enough to climb through.
  • The closer together and deeper the cuts made are, the larger the hole will be when the paper is unfolded.
  • A film demonstrating this can be viewed here > https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jBUwH-TfqQ

Skill Development:

After this activity, students should be more attuned to looking for creative solutions to problems, and warmed up for any following creative / problem solving activity.

Resources:

  • A4 paper
  • Scissors

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Networking Connections (QAA 6, 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Outside

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • An icebreaker (25 minutes) for a module or great background activity for a networking event
  • To ensure the group engages in networking activities
  • To introduce the importance of physical networking and hints and tips on how to go about it

Introduction:

A fun and interactive session that encourages networking which can be underpinned by theory and practical advice and support on how to improve physical networking. Each participant is given a card from a standard 52 deck. The participants keep their card for the duration of the game. Initially they find someone to pair up with to form a starting hand. The pair of participants then queue to visit the dealer who deals a Texas Hold'em hand and each participant is awarded points based upon the final hand obtained. Participants then have to find another partner to form a new starting hand and join the back of the queue. The gamification of networking encourages participants to meet as many people as possible and look to identify where they have commonality that could lead to mutual value. Each relationship is not equal as suits could represent sectors, face value could represent job roles. Yet sometimes cards that do not seem to have any strong connection can lead to a useful networking connection (and score in the game). The individual with the top score will win a prize; this is not always the person who made the most connections although playing as many scoring hands as possible (putting in the effort) obviously helps. Successful players are therefore selective in who they form a starting hand with. Through playing the game and talking whilst queuing to see the dealer, participants do engage in real networking as the conversation inevitable moves away from just game participation.

After a winner has been announced the sessions can be underpinned by introducing theory or practical tips.

Activity:

This session works well as an icebreaker at the beginning of a new module or extracurricular enterprise intervention or equally well at a formal networking event. This has been used with local Chamber of Commerce organisations, UGs, PGs and staff with excellent results. Please note a basic understanding of Texas Hold'em poker and hand dynamics does add value to the participant's experience. If the educator is not confident then it is likely a student or member of the group has the necessary knowledge to help.

Resources:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Jon Powell (Enterprise Team Manager, EEUK Board Member). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- j.e.powell@lancaster.ac.uk.

Gather learners’ expectations and needs (using post-its) (QAA 1, 2)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation

Objectives:


• To allow learners to contribute to the agenda for large-group teaching sessions;
• To allow teachers to find out ‘where a group of learners is at’ at the start of a large-group session
• To gather details of ‘learning incomes’ for a group – what the learners can already do, what they already know, and what their potential problems may be.


Overview

This is a plenary activity using post-its in a large-group setting, for example in a lecture theatre, at the start of a lecture, or at the start of a series of lectures. Each learner is given a post-it, and asked to respond privately to a given starter-question. Learners are then asked to swap post-its, and a few volunteers are invited to read out what’s on the post-it they now have (in the comfort of relative anonymity). Then learners are asked to stick up all the post-its on one or more flipcharts, to serve as an exhibit for the rest of the lecture, and to be taken away by the teacher/lecturer at the end of the session for further exploration.


Activity


1. Show a slide indicating very broadly what the session is going to be about, or give a very short oral introduction to the session.
2. Issue post-its, one to everyone (rectangular ones are best for this)
3. Picking a main topic from what’s going to be addressed in the session, indicate the starter statement on a slide ‘Xxxx would be much better for me if only I ….’ and ask everyone to jot down, in good handwriting, quick completions of this starter on their post-its.
4. Ask everyone to swap post-its, till they’ve lost track who may have their own.
5. Find a volunteer to read out, loudly, whatever’s on the post-it they now have. Explain that there’s no risk, as if the post-it is ‘silly’ it’s not the fault of the person who now has it.
6. Ask the volunteer to pick any other learner (e.g. by what colour they’re wearing or any other way), and get them to read out what’s on their post-it.
7. Repeat till between 6 and 10 post-its have been read out.
8. Ask for the post-its all to be stuck onto a flipchart (or two) at the front of the room, e.g. ‘folk at the end of rows please bring them and stick them up’.
9. Look briefly at the exhibit, picking out trends, praising a couple of really good ‘if only’s, and reading out any amusing ones.
10. From time to time during the session, address things that were listed on the ‘if only’ post-its.
11. Peel off all the post-its and take them with you at the end of the session, and if you have time sort out what the most frequently occurring ones are, and start of your next session with the class by addressing one or two of these directly. From the whole collection, gain an idea of how much (or little) the group seems to already know about the topic (the ‘learning incomes’ – what they’re bringing to the topic).

Skill Development

This exercise helps teacher and students develop the following skills:
• Teacher: skill at finding out ‘where a group is at’ regarding a new topic, or an (important) subtopic.
• Teacher: a way of starting a lecture where it matters little if a few stragglers are still arriving during the activity.
• Teacher: a resource to re-visit before running a new session on the same topic with another group in future.
• Learners: the feeling that their views, fears, and ideas are being collected and addressed by the teacher.
• Learners: a quick, anonymous, safe way of admitting things they think will be difficult or challenging.
• Learners: the opportunity to think quickly around a new topic, and pick something they would like to get out of it being covered in the session.


Resources

• One or more pads of post-its.
• Something on which post-its can be stuck by learners towards the end of the activity; a flipchart is ideal, but doors, windows, whiteboards and walls can be used as necessary, testing them first to ensure post-its will actually stick to them.
• A few pens or pencils to give away to those learners who haven’t one with them. 


References:


Race, P. (2014) ‘Making Learning Happen: 3rd edition’, London: Sage.
https://iad4learnteach.wordpress.com/2014/01/10/making-learning-happen-the-power-of-the-post-it-note/
Race, P. (2015) ‘The Lecturer’s Toolkit; 4th edition’, Abingdon: Routledge.
http://phil-race.co.uk

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Phil Race.

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Case Examples

Architecture Live Projects (QAA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

To develop attributes in, and offer experience of, the following to students;

  • Authentic problem enquiry and response
  • Innovation and Creativity
  • Risk-taking
  • Taking action
  • True collaboration

Introduction:

Module Title: ARC552 Live Projects

This module is a core module for students on the Masters in Architecture. Students work together in groups over six weeks to complete a community design project. Live Projects were born out of a desire to open up opportunities for students to work with community groups out in the city and further afield while still being supported by the School of Architecture. Students are encouraged to explore how people can effectively participate in the designand construction of the buildings that affect them. Students leave the course with an unusual blend of design skills. Being able to talk to clients, work collaboratively, develop briefs, and work with people in a real project, helps students to stand out.

Activity:

Authentic problem enquiry and response: Students are given a brief which comes from a real client – usually from the public sector or from non-profit organisations that otherwise wouldn’t be able to afford to fund an architectural project. Students have to investigate and incorporate the experiences and needs of a real group of people. They also work with real constraints – they have a tight deadline, and have to consider the resources available both to themselves and the client.

This is fundamentally a design project, and the challenge for students is to come up with an innovative design that still meets the needs of their clients.

With this challenge, there is no ‘right’ answer. Students may produce iterations of their design that then receive poor feedback from the client. They have to learn from this feedback and continue to develop their ideas. Students also need to consider the potential impact their project would have on real communities and stakeholders.

Students work as self-directed groups, and have to show initiative in their interactions with the client, with communities, and with each other.

Students to interact professionally and productively with the client. They also have to work together as strong, professional teams.

Impact:

See ‘Learner Outcome’ section.

Learner Outcome:

Student feedback included;

“My experience of the Live Projects was invaluable. The Live Projects demand ideas which contain depth, creativity and logic and most importantly a confidence to present ideas to real life clients – this kind of experience is often hard to acquire even after years of being in practice. Even now, it is still proving to be something of an ace card during interviews.”

Resources:

References:

Author/Contact Details:

 

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alexandra Jones (School of Architecture, The University of Sheffield ).

Building contacts and widening circles (QAA 2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To get students engaged in networking
  • To get students to understand what networking is
  • To get students to see the value of networking
  • To get students to acquire networking skills and techniques

Introduction

It goes without saying that networking is a really important activity. Yet students are often reluctant to engage in relationships beyond their immediatecircle. They have powerful aversions to networking partly based upon fears and misconceptions about what it is: selling (it’s all about selling yourself and pitching), that it is about being an extrovert (sociable and bubbly), that they as students have nothing to offer (‘who would want to talk to me?’), that it seems pointless (students will have stories about going to events collecting business cards and nothing ever happening). They will have a multitude of good reasons why they can’t and shouldn’t do it. The challenge is to turn round these misconceptions and show students that networking is valuable, doable and indeed enjoyable.

Activity

This activity has been delivered with 3rd year Design and Visual Arts student, 2nd year Photography students and MA Contemporary Art students at Coventry University.

The first task is to get the misconception and fears about networking out into the open and to introduce different versions of what networking might be. This can’t be done by asking students about their fears and why they don’t currently engage in networking: this is sensitive and students may feel embarrassed talking about it.

The session begins with the value of networks and networking. This should be interactive, talking to students about their networks, how they found opportunities, but also using statistics about how many jobs are filled via networks rather than open advertising. This part of the session functions as a warm up and should get students feeling positive about networking.
The second activity is to get them into groups and ask them to draw a ‘good’ networker. This will bring out some of the negative misconceptions about it:students will draw someone who is extroverted, experienced, knowledgeable, valuable, confident, good at pitching – all the things they may not be good at. This is your opportunity to demonstrate that a good networker is someone who is good at listening, (not talking), it is someone who is genuine and open (rather than focussed on their own agenda) and that it is about building trust and rapport leading to a lasting relationship. It’s an opportunity todiscuss their value as students – which they are very anxious about as they have little work experience. Here a discussion about their value in terms of innovation, fresh thinking, new ways of doing things is important.

The third activity is a group brainstorm around how to create rapport with someone: suggestions will include, smiling, shaking hands, complementing people, being helpful, listening to what people have to say. This section could include a listening activity, for example where individuals have to listen to partners and paraphrase.

The final session involves practical activity. The students will network amongst themselves. It’s important that they shake hands here: this is partly about creating the rapport, discussed earlier, but also about adopting a more professional outlook and attitude. The students will find this both fun and challenging and some students will become anxious about it so it is worth doing a bit of role play to try it out: i.e. demonstrations of how to shake hands and introduce yourself. The result is that students will feel more professional

The assignment is:
Find a person, introduce yourself: impress upon them your integrity and openness
Reflect on what you did and report: One positive technique; One negative technique

The feedback will draw out feelings about handshaking, observations about body language, about personalising conversations by using the other person’s name.

Impact:

Students’ misconceptions about networking are reversed.
They feel more comfortable with the idea of networking – they thought it was all about sales and the pitch but find it is actually something they could do. Some students struggle with the handshake, they find it very unusual but with a bit of practice and shift in attitude, do get it.
A group of students who know one another is not as good as a mixed group where they might be introducing themselves to strangers. However, the practical element can be modified by asking students to find out something new about their colleagues, or to find out a shared interest they didn’t know they had with a colleague which will help build rapport.

Learner outcome:

Students understand the networking is a skill that they can practice and develop. They learn the importance of networks and collaboration. They learn that networking and professionalism is a ‘performance’ which they can adopt when necessary – in this context it can be useful to talk about wearing different hats as they often think of themselves as ‘students’ which can carry a lot of negative connotations.

Resources:

Classroom and tables

References:

Key authors

Books

Links

www.

www.

www.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Dr Peter McLuskie. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- Peter.McLukie@coventry.ac.uk.

HOME: The Charity Shop Project

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

•To provide creative industries students with a real-world context in which to apply their skills.

•To provide students with real-world opportunities for creative problem solving.

•To provide students with experience of operating within a high pressure environment.

•To provide students with experience of managing risk, uncertainty, and being responsive to changing parameters.

•To provide students with experience of delivering a project according to strict time and budgetary constraints.

•To provide students with experience of managing a project, from inception to completion.

•To provide opportunities for students to develop their interpersonal skills through working with a variety of stakeholders.

Introduction:

‘HOME’ saw two students studying towards an MA in design practice gain invaluable industry experience, develop their professional skills and networks in a challenging and changeable environment, and put their academic theories into practice in a real world context. It saw numerous art and design students gain experience of working in, exhibiting and selling art, many for the very first time, and it saw a North Wales charity receive a huge boost from the creativity, energy and expertise of students.

This project was initiated as a collaboration between various departments at Glyndwr University (namely, the Students’ Guild, Student Services, and the School of Art, Media and Design), when an opportunity arose to offer a fantastic opportunity to students to develop their enterprise and entrepreneurial skills and awareness, and to support a valuable local charity in the process. 

Student Services had been in discussion with NE Wales based charity 'Save the Family’. The charity’s shop (based approximately 12 miles from the main University campus in Mold, NE Wales) was struggling to turn a profit, threatened with immanent closure, and the charity hoped that the expertise of students from the University may be able to help.

Through discussions between Student Services, the Students’ Guild, and School of Art, Media and Design, it was decided that students studying towards an MA in Design Practice would be good candidates for the collaboration, and furthermore, it was known that students from this programme were actively seeking real-world projects to engage with. 

With such a large proportion of art, media and design students going on to work in a freelance capacity upon graduation, skills in enterprise and entrepreneurship are essential to their future success, and so all are encouraged to engage in enterprising projects in a variety of ways. This project had the potential to offer students a holistic real-world context in which to apply their academically developed skills, and fit within the existing structure of their Masters programme through the optional modules available (students on this programme are obliged to engage in real-world practice of some shape or form, on which they are assessed).  

The project was initiated by way of an informal meeting between the students and key University staff, and all subsequent activity was developed thereafter. 

•To provide opportunities for students to develop their communication skills.

•To support the University’s community obligations through giving support to a local charity. 

Activity:

The activity associated with the project extended over a 14 week period. Key elements throughout that period were as follows;

1.Initial Introductions 

Through discussions between the charity and University, it was established that MA Design Practice students would be well suited to meet the brief, and two students from that programme were identified who were looking for a project to engage with at that time. A meeting was arranged with these students to discuss the brief (which appealed to them), and to sketch out a broad plan of action going forward. A staff member from Student Services acted as a project contact for students, but the students themselves were given decision making powers with regards the forward direction of the project.

2.Research and Planning (6 weeks approximately)

In this phase, the students visited the charity shop space, met with its volunteers and managers, and conducted their own research, before presenting their conclusions as to why the shop was struggling to remain solvent. They then took these conclusions, and supported by further discussions and research, proposed measures which could be taken to transform the charities fortunes. Namely, they proposed to ‘curate’ the shop, up-cycling goods and giving the shop a ‘boutique’ feel, whilst integrating designated spaces for small workshops, performances and discussions. In line with the charities own objectives and ideals, ‘home’ was taken to be the shops theme. This proposal had to be sold to the shops managers, and amendments and changes agreed upon before the project could be carried forward. 

Throughout this period, the University supported the students in a tutoring and mentoring capacity, financially by way of nominal travel and subsistence expenses, and attended meetings with the students and charity representatives on the students’ request, whilst ensuring the students maintained project management control. 

3.Installation (2 weeks approximately)

During this period, the shop was closed to the public, and completely redesigned. Students were required to work with the materials provided, and within the budgets set by the charity for this work, with additional materials being offered in kind by the University. Fellow art, media and design students (from various programmes and levels of study) were invited to support this process, by volunteering time, and by offering their own works to either exhibit or sell (all coordinated by the students themselves). Marketing materials for re-launch were produced and disseminated at this time too. 

Figure 1. Project PR (Flintshire Chronicle press cutting)


4.Launch

A launch event was held, with invited VIPs, press, charity and University representatives. This presented an opportunity for the students to receive feedback and recognition on their progress to date.

5.Trading (6 weeks approximately)

For the following 6 weeks, the shop was staffed by volunteers and open for businesses. The students made regular visits to the premises, met periodically with the shops managers, and monitored its performance, being responsive to circumstances and implementing changes wherever necessary. Throughout this period, the students continued to blog, market via social, print and digital media, and organise small events within the shop.

6.Final Report 

At the end of their 6 week tenure, the students reflected on the success of their project, documenting their findings for academic assessment, and presenting them to the charity’s team, and other interested third parties.


Figure 2. Left - project marketing material, Centre - shop image before, Right, shop image after.

Impact:
 
The project had a significant impact on all students and stakeholders involved.

Film 1. A video documenting the project (produced by www.filmage.co.uk )

 

For the two MA students coordinating, the project endowed them with a wealth of invaluable real-world experience, a network of arts, media and third sector contacts, greater confidence and self-belief in their abilities, and an understanding of the wide ranging applications of their own skill sets.

For students participating through volunteering, exhibiting and selling work within the space, the project presented an opportunity to gain professional experience, be part of a team, and to network with colleagues from other degree programmes, other levels of study, and professionals working within their sector.

For the charity the impact was a significant increase (over 100%) in the shops profits, far greater media coverage for the charity and it’s initiatives, and a repositioning of the charities branding and marketing going forward, with an emphasis on positivity (See figure 3 – the charity’s post project re-brand)

 

Figure 3. Re-brand: Top - charity's logo pre-project. Bottom – charity’s logo post-project.

Learner outcome: 

For the two learners primarily involved in leading the project, it was a challenging, but rewarding experience.

It was the first time the students had to bring together such a wide range of skills into one, cohesive project. Ultimate decision making authority, the need to stick to strict time and budgetary constraints, and the fact that there were real stakes riding on every decision added an additional element of pressure, one that would not be easily replicable in a simulation setting.

The students reported that their most significant difficulties were overcoming points of contention regarding their plans with the charities own managers, and negotiating compromises where necessary, effectively managing their time with a workload of many disparate tasks, and maintaining a strong working relationship with one another, in what could sometimes be a stressful environment. 

In overcoming each of these obstacles amongst many others, seeing the impact of their work, and establishing networks with a wide range of people, the overall project experience was a very positive one for the students, both of whom secured professional opportunities as a direct result of their participation.

Resources: 

•A team of key individuals within the institution, who can support the various aspects of project management (academic tuition / risk assessment etc.).

• A partnership with an external charity / business / community group who can benefit from student creativity and expertise.

•A nominal budget to cover any travel, subsistence and essential material costs incurred by students in project delivery.

References:

•A project diary kept by participating student, Heather Wilson > http://missheather.co.uk/blog/tag/save-the-family 

•The students’ Wordpress blog, documenting the project > https://savethefamilyshop.wordpress.com/ 

•A video showcase of the project, produced by www.filmage.co.uk > https://vimeo.com/66924191

•A news article on the project from www.thisproject.co.uk > http://thisproject.co.uk/articles/save-the-family-shop-home/

 

 

 

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Enterprise Clubs: Guest Speakers In Practice (QAA 1,2,3,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • To provide learners with opportunities to network and learn from their peers.
  • To provide learners with opportunities to network with industry relevant experts.
  • To provide learners with opportunities to enhance their subject relevant skills and knowledge.
  • To provide learners with opportunities to reflect, and to plan.
  • To improve learners confidence and self-belief.
  • To support learners in setting up and growing their own Enterprises.

Introduction:

In north east Wales a number of criminology students (along with peers from a variety of degree programmes) develop their enterprise skills by engaging with expert guest speakers, facilitated by the Business Entrepreneurship Network.

The Business Entrepreneurship Network for Wrexham and Flintshire is a network of businesses, business support organisations, entrepreneurs and education institutions with a shared interest in supporting individuals (especially young people and those from disadvantaged backgrounds), in developing their confidence, aspirations and abilities, and supporting them through the process of starting up their own businesses.

The network was established by Askar Sheibani, CEO of Comtek Network Systems LTD, and an appointed 'Entrepreneurship Champion' to Welsh Government. In 2014, having been successfully developed in Flintshire, the Network's provision was extended to Wrexham. Speaking at the launch of the Wrexham Network, Mr Sheibani said, "The aim is to increase the number of business start-ups in Wales and this trial in Wrexham will give us a better ideaof how the Flintshire model can be improved and applied in other regions. The Wrexham trial is supported by the Welsh Government and we are confident that the model – which was developed within the community at a grass roots level - will prove to be a practical and innovative way to increase the level of entrepreneurship and business start-ups in Wales."

Amongst the ways in which the Business Entrepreneurship Network supports entrepreneurs, is via fortnightly 'Enterprise Clubs.' These clubs are coordinated in Wrexham by NE Wales based further education institution Coleg Cambria, and feature presentations by invited guest speakers, followed by informal networking.

The use of guest speakers at enterprise clubs has been of tremendous value to learners. The clubs are held at Wrexham Library, a centrally located and publicly accessible venue, and are open to students, graduates and members of the public free of charge.

A number of regular attendees are current NE Wales based undergraduate students, from a wide-variety of degree programmes. Attendees range from those setting up their own businesses, to students looking to develop their networks and skills for employment, to those simply wishing to develop their confidence and find out more.

Activity:

Planning Guest Speaker Sessions

There is no budget to facilitate guest speakers to the Enterprise Club. As such, appropriate speakers are identified from a variety of sources, including;

  • Contacts from the professional networks for the Business Entrepreneurship Network and its supporters.
  • Representatives from a variety of business support organisations (who are able to cover their costs from their own funds).
  • Funded schemes, for examples, the Welsh Government funded 'Big Ideas Wales Role Model' network.
  • Experts from further and higher education (able to offer their time in kind).

Club members are invited to suggest the topics and themes they would like the club to cover in the coming weeks and months, and speakers are sourced to meet these specific needs, ensuring sessions are always relevant to their audience. Speakers are generally confirmed two weeks prior to a club meeting, allowing for the sessions to be promoted through a club mailing list, through professional networks, through general press release, and through social media.

Facilitating Guest Speaker Sessions

Enterprise Club

Figure 1. Attendees discussing ideas at the BEN Enterprise Club

Enterprise Club sessions last for 2 hours. The general running order is as follows;

  • The club’s facilitator (Lynn Williams, Business Lecturer at Coleg Cambria) welcomes attendees.
  • The speaker is introduced to the group.
  • The speaker delivers a talk / workshop for approximately 1 hour. AV presentation facilities are provided for speakers who require them. (The majority of guest speakers deliver sessions inclusive of amble discussion points and break away activities).
  • The facilitator invites Q and A from the group at the end of the talk.
  • For the second hour of the session, refreshments are provided, and guest speakers and club members are invited to stay, discuss the content covered in the session, and informally discuss problems, achievements and ideas.
  • The facilitator thanks for guest speaker and group for their attendance, and the group are invited to suggest topics they would like to visit at the club in the weeks and months ahead.
  • The details of the following club presentation are promoted to the group, and the club is brought to a close.

Impact:

The guest speaker sessions have made a huge impact on the club attendees. The first hand, up-to-date, and relevant knowledge and expertise which speakers have passed on to club members, is directly applicable to the groups of needs and endeavours, and the opportunity to network with speakers and fellow club attendees has led to numerous mentoring relationships and collaborative projects, and allowed members of the group to identify bespoke solutions to their own specific problems.

Approximately 100 unique individuals have participated in the guest speaker sessions to date, with average attendances of 10 participants at each club meeting, and with many new enterprises being launched by club members.

Learner outcome:

Comments from regular club attendees have included;

"The staff, the entrepreneurs and the members have helped me out a lot and not just with my business. They have boosted my confidence and made me feel like I could really achieve my dreams."

"BEN has helped me a great deal with starting up my business and I have been given so much positive feedback from both mentors and fellow members."

"The BEN Club has allowed me to work with a great mentor and meet great people with passion for business."

Resources:

  • An appropriate meeting venue.
  • A network from which guest speakers can be provided.
  • For a How-To Guide and utilising guest speakers, see 'Guest Speaker Guidance.'

References:

Author:

www.macorcoran.com

With thanks to Lynn Williams, Coleg Cambria – lynn.williams@cambria.ac.uk

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Pitching to a Financier – Business Pitch (QAA3,4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

Construct and deliver a focused and precise summary of their business proposal, that is attractive and engaging to a potential financer.

Prepare the entrepreneur for opportunities to present their business proposal, formally and informally, in a short space of time.

Overview: 

An ‘Elevator Pitch’ is a succinct summary of business opportunity for example, 1 minute or in no more than 300 words. The term is typically used in the context of an entrepreneur pitching an idea to a potential investor.  This task invites the student to prepare for a minute pitch.

Activity: 

Invite the entrepreneur/small business owner to prepare a 3 minute pitch for their business The challenge for many entrepreneurs is how to describe their proposal in such a short space of time and what aspects of their business model and plan to focus on. A useful approach is to use Sahlman’s recommended four critical factors.

The People

Who’s involved?
What are their mission and aspirations?
What skills, know-how and experience do they have?

The Opportunity

What will the business sell?
Who are its customers?
What problem is it solving?
Why is it better than existing solutions (competition)?

The Context

What’s the bigger picture?
What trends e.g. economic, social, technological, political affect the business?

Risk and Rewards

What are the main risks?
How can they be mitigated?
What are the potential financial, and other, rewards?

Entrepreneurs/small business owners should be given time to prepare their pitch, either working independently at home or within a training programme. In a group situation this should take no more than 20 mins.

Entrepreneurs should then be invited to pitch their business with a strict time limit. This can be done in a number of ways depending on the environment, for example,

  • For a small number of entrepreneurs, invite them to line up to encourage swift movement from one to another
  • In large groups, invite entrepreneurs to move around the room to meet other participants who they do not know and pitch to each other
  • In large groups, participants are invited to pitch to their neighbour, or others at a table/in their group
  • In a competitive environment, where entrepreneurs are invited to pitch to an expert judging panel.

Skill Development:

This activity helps the entrepreneur to focus how they think about their business and provides a safe environment in which to develop their communication and presentation skills, whilst refining their business pitch. 

It can help the entrepreneur /small business owner effectively present their business proposal in both informal and unexpected situations and confidently to a potential financier.  Repetition of this type of exercise builds confidence and expertise.  

To provide formative experiences of pitching, before any assessment, you can create sub-groups within which the students pitch to each other, giving and receiving constructive criticism, before conducting the final presentation.

Resources:

VC Pitching

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Defining your Customer Base (QAA4,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Develop and demonstrate their understanding of their customers, by describing their characteristics and motivations.

Overview: 

This activity should be undertaken individually by the entrepreneur, then to be discussed with the business development provider or peers in a group situation.  Asking the entrepreneur to explain their answers will help them to deepen their understanding of their customers, help to identify where there are information gaps and therefore what additional market research may be required.

Activity: 

Instructions

Invite the entrepreneurs / small business owner to consider their customers and to describe them in terms of each of the following categories:

  • Demographic, who are your customers?  What is their typical profile in terms of age, gender, income, employment status etc.? 
  • Geographic, where are your customers and where do they buy your products / services?
  • Psychographic, what’s important to your customers? What are their values and aspirations; what kind of lifestyle do they have? 
  • Behaviour, how often and when do your customers buy?

And then describe what the benefits the product or service brings to customers.

My customers …..

The benefit of my product / service to my customers is …..

Skill Development:

By developing analytical and reasoning skills within entrepreneurial learners, it is possible to test assumptions and explore research findings with a clear context of start-up.  This activity focuses upon the understanding of the potential customer and requires research and reflective skills.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Lisa McMullan.

Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.  It aims to provide inspiration, information and support to being your own boss!

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf