Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Problem solving skills
  • Communication skills
  • Analytical skills
  • Ability to work independently
  • Use their initiative and to organise themselves to meet deadlines
  • Gain experience of group work and be able to interact constructively

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Problem Solving and Consenus Building (QAA 1,2,3,4,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

The learner will be able to explore an idea or concept as openly as possible to gather a wide range of solutions through the power of group work and seek to build a consensus through: 

  • Developing problem-solving skills as team members 
  • Analysing information (and working with limited information) 
  • Negotiating and cooperating with one another.
  • Listening and leading 
  • Group Decision making (consensus building) 

Overview:

The focus within this task is open idea generation within a team, pooling the expertise/wisdom of the group to create ideas that can then be evaluated and explored.

Within this scenario, participants must pretend that they've been shipwrecked and are stranded in a life boat. Each team has a box of matches, and a number of items that they've salvaged from the sinking ship but they can’t keep them all within the lifeboat. Members must agree which items are most important for their survival as they need to prioritise.  

Activity:

The challenge should be issued to the group, and time given to the challenge individually.  This is important in creating the challenge of consensus building as it allows to think about the problem individually; continues the cycle of presentation and discussion in groups evaluate the process to draw out their experiences until the whole team has had a chance to voice their opinions and how teams arrive at consensus decision where everyone's opinion is heard.

Time:         Flexible, but normally between 25 and 40 minutes
Number:     Up to 5 people in each group

Instructions

1. Divide participants into their small teams, and provide everyone with a ranking sheet (with two columns).

2. Ask team members to take 10 minutes on their own to rank the items in order of importance. They should do this in the second column of their sheet.

3. Give the teams a further 10 minutes to confer and decide on their group rankings. Once agreed, they should list them in the third column of their sheets.

4. Ask each group to compare their individual rankings with their collective ones, and consider why any scores differ. Did anyone change their mind about their own rankings during the team discussions? How much were people influenced by the group conversation?

5. Now read out the "correct" order, collated by the experts at the US Coast Guard (from most to least important): 

    1. Shaving mirror. (One of your most powerful tools, because you can use it to signal your location by reflecting the sun.) 
    2. Can of petrol. (Again, potentially vital for signalling as petrol floats on water and can be lit by your matches.)  
    3. Water container. (Essential for collecting water to restore your lost fluids.) 
    4. Emergency rations. (Valuable for basic food intake.) 
    5. Plastic sheet. (Could be used for shelter, or to collect rainwater.) 
    6. Chocolate bars. (A handy food supply.) 
    7. Fishing rod. (Potentially useful, but there is no guarantee that you're able to catch fish. Could also feasibly double as a tent pole.) 
    8. Rope. (Handy for tying equipment together, but not necessarily vital for survival.) 
    9. Floating seat or cushion. (Useful as a life preserver.) 
    10. Shark repellent. (Potentially important when in the water.) 
    11. Bottle of rum. (Could be useful as an antiseptic for treating injuries, but will only dehydrate you if you drink it.) 
    12. Radio. (Chances are that you're out of range of any signal, anyway.) 
    13. Sea chart. (Worthless without navigational equipment.) 
    14. Mosquito net. (Assuming that you've been shipwrecked in the Atlantic, where there are no mosquitoes, this is pretty much useless.) 
    15. Sextant. (Impractical without relevant tables or a chronometer.)

Once the general discussion relating to the individual scoring has died away, draw the discussion to the team approach and explore issues of leadership, listening, negotiation, decision-making and consensus building.

Skill Development:

It is typical of many ice-breaker tasks that the learning is not within the task objective, but within the team process and often the desire to complete the task can mask the transferable learning that has been gained.  It is therefore key, that once the discussion of the challenge itself is complete, that the debrief explore the skill development within the task and team work itself.

Either within the groups themselves, and then as a larger group, or working directly with the full group, seek reflections and comment on what they have learnt about:

  1. Listening  
  2. Negotiating   
  3. Decision-making skills,  
  4. Creativity skills for thinking "outside the box 
  5. Consensus building

As a facilitator, it is important that you allow them to explore their team process and find the learning within that.  This can involve team members sharing difficult feelings about not being listened to, and this needs to be acknowledged, accepted and the lessons drawn from it (would it have been a better process to take view from each member and vote? Should individuals have been more forthcoming if they had strong views and how do they ensure they are heard in the future?). The lessons from each group can be usefully heard by the wider group, in order to understand and learn from different approaches as this allows deeper reflection as to how to approach similar challenges in the future to be explored.

Resources:

Develop a simple chart for each team member. This should comprise six columns. The first simply lists each item (see below). The second is empty so that each team member can rank the items. The third is for group rankings. The fourth is for the "correct" rankings, which are revealed at the end of the exercise. And the fifth and sixth are for the team to enter the difference between their individual and correct score, and the team and correct rankings, respectively. 

If this cant be done in advance and handed out, then it can be drawn by each team member at the start of the challenge.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Huda.

Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: BUILDING THE CULTURE OF YOUR BUSINESS WITH THE SIMS (QAA 2,3,4,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Use and explain the critical interdisciplinary definitions related to organizational culture and entrepreneurship.
  • Describe the relationship between organizational culture, structure, and leadership.
  • Evaluate personal approaches to a professional work-life.
  • Design and assess an emerging organizational culture.
  • Critically evaluate the approaches to the intentional creation of organizational culture.

Overview:

By the time most enterprise founders start thinking about ensuring a healthy culture in their business, it is usually too late. The culture has already emerged and is not always the most conducive to the health of the founder and employees, or even the enterprise itself. The culture of the enterprise emerges from the mind, values, and practices of the founder(s) while the business is being created, a time when the founder generally places more priority on the creation of economic value than the creation of culture. This exercise is based on a combination of organization and entrepreneurship theory and uses an off-the- shelf computer game, The Sims: Open for Business™, to investigate the core values, assumptions, interpretations, and approaches that combine to define the culture of a new venture. The students are assigned to play the game for a minimum of two hours outside of class, with no introduction given around the concept of culture. The heart of the exercise is the in-class debrief (including viewing the game), which reveals the culture that was created, what it means for all stakeholders, and what actions could be taken to adjust that culture.

Usage Suggestions

This content of the exercise works for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, executive, or practitioner. The delivery requires that the students have access to the game and are able to play it before the discussion. The exercise lends itself well to online courses, as the debrief and illustration can also be done online, preferably in a synchronous mode, although asynchronous will work too. The exercise works best when each student is able to log on to his orher game for the debrief. This exercise is positioned in the course when emphasis is on resources. Culture is presented as a resource that can either add to or detract from the value of the company.

Activity:

Pre-Work Required by Students

  • Play The Sims: Open for Business™ for a minimum of two hours.

Time Plan (90 minutes)

This 90- minute exercise can be adapted to fit various time schedules, including an entire class. Prior to the exercise the students would have been told to play the game for two hours. No other instructions are given. In this way, playing the game provides a shared experience and serves as the live case for the discussion.

Step 1 (Introduction) 0:00–0:10 (10 minutes)

Ask the students to open their laptops and log on to their games. Each game should open at the point at which the student left the game. The opening or warm- up questions should be about just playing the game:

  • How many of you had played some version of The Sims before? Anyone played this particular expansion version?
  • How was it? Did you enjoy it? If so, why? If not, why?
  • Were there any particular challenges?
  • Where there any particular surprises?
  • How long did you actually play? (Probe for who played the longest and why.)

Step 2 0:10–0:40 (30 minutes)

Divide students into groups of five to six and give them the following directions: “Please select a scribe and a reporter to first capture the themes of your work and then be ready to report out to the full class on your work. First, individually, each write down the answer to this question: What is the culture of the business you created – and how can you tell? You have five minutes for this individual work. After five minutes, and I’ll tell you when the time is up, we’ll switch to working with your team. 

  1. First, each student please share with your group the business you created.
  2. Second, as a group create your list of criteria that create an organizational culture.
  3. Third, please describe the impact of how people will carry out work given the culture you have created.

Step 3 (First report out and discussion) 0:40–1:10 (30 minutes)

Start with the first table and have the reporter share their top two criteria, along with an explanation and illustration of each. Then ask each table to add two criteria to the ones already listed. If desired, you can take a hand count at the end to establish what was considered as most important, and so on. The board map should match the theoretical criteria of your choice. For the purposes of this teaching note the primary source is Schein (1983) and focuses on the basic underlying assumptions around which cultural paradigms form. Examples include:

  • The organization’s relationship to its environment: Is recycling important?
  • The nature of reality and truth: How important is time?
  • The nature of human nature: how employees (insiders) are treated and how customers (outsiders) are treated.
  • The nature of human activity: the physical design of the employee break room.
  • The nature of human relationships: Is the focus on competition or cooperation?

Summary and Close 1:10–1:30 (20 minutes)

Ask the students to again work individually and list the three things they would keep about their culture and the three things they would change, along with how they would implement that change. Lead the closing discussion in such a way that the students discover:

  1. What types of cultural approaches are common across most businesses?
  2. What is the role of fit between the founder, the company, and the environment in creating culture?
  3. How does culture become a positive resource for your business?

Teaching Tips

The game generally has to be ordered online, so you need to allow students time to order and receive it. The ideal experience is for the classroom to have wireless internet access and for each student to have a laptop. However, if teaching students with no access to computers or ability to buy the game, the instructor can lead the class in playing the game as a group, with one computer and the screen projected on the wall.

Skill Development:

Key Takeaways

  • The importance of intentionally creating organizational culture during firm emergence.
  • Organizational culture can be a positive or negative firm resource.
  • Organizational culture needs to be a fit between the founder, the firm, and the environment.

Resources: 

Materials List

  • Video game: The Sims and the expansion packet The Sims: Open for Business™.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.110 – 113). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Suggested assigned reading:

  • Schein, Edgar H. 2010. Organizational Culture and Leadership, Vol. 2, Chapters 1 and 11. Wiley.com.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Barney, J.B. 1986. Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustainable competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11, 656–65.
  • Brush, C.G., Greene, P.G., and Hart, M.M. 2001. From initial idea to unique advantage: The entrepreneurial challenge of constructing a resource base. Academy of Management Executive, 15(1), 64–78.
  • Cameron, K.S., and Quinn, R.R. 1999. Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework, Chapters 2 and 3 only. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley.
  • Schein, E. 1983. The role of the founder in the creation of organizational culture.
  • Stinchcombe, A.L. 1965. Social structure and organizations. In J.G. March (ed.), Handbook of Organizations (pp. 142–93). Chicago: Rand- McNally.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.110 – 113). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub. and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Patricia G. Green.

Team Development through Skills Analysis (QAA 2,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

The learner seek to recognise the skills inherent within a team or are needed for a group to achieve a goal/complete a task.

To recognise difference and how contributes to overall success.

Overview:

An exercise to understand the different skills needed by different individuals working within an organisation and how each person is integral to the overall mission.

Activity:

By presenting a group challenge (which could be an assessment or in-class group activity) ask the students in groups to identify the roles needed to achieve and deliver this task.

The task could be a research study, a group project or a live case from an employer. They can be actual/live or "typical" to your sector and industry or could be created from tender/proposals or research opportunities that you are aware of. This activity can assist a group if they are starting a long term project or assessment together or can be a stand-alone activity which helps them think through roles and responsibilities and underpins future group work.

Firstly ask them to identity the number and type of roles required to deliver the proposal, project, tender or group challenge. Typically they will focus on the project deliverables, but ensure that they also think of the skills needed within the project, such as communication; team leader; organised; patient; good listener. 

Using flip chart paper, they can start to shape these responsibilities into roles or jobs.

Some of their skills may link directly to roles, others may be standalone elements that they wish to see in the team and these can be identified on post its.

Provide outline images of people or a new piece of flip chart and ask them to present the roles required to deliver the job/meet the challenge. This can be presented to the group, or a poster-showcase can be created which includes the brief/project and their proposed solutions (job roles and skills).

Skill Development:

In order to review the skills developed in this task it is important to review the process with the group as well the outcome. They will have had to make judgements and rely on expertise and leadership from within the group and it can be powerful to explore their group dynamics against those they have created in their "dream team". Reflection questions can include:

  • Who demonstrated leadership?
  • Who analysed the task most effectively?
  • How did you overcome any barriers – or "stops" in your work?
  • What resources did you rely on? What networking skills supported this task

Ask the group to reflect upon the skills analysis they have undertaken and their ability to meet the challenge/task. What do they need within their team to be the "dream team" and what qualities would they need? What steps do they need to take (personally and professionally) in order to develop their skills to become a team player for this challenge?

Resources:

Scenarios or group challenges for the groups to tackle (can be different or the same) created from a proposal or tender, or the group assessment.

Flip chart, pens

(optional: outline of a person to create their "job description" with)

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

A Compendium of Pedagogies: THE USE OF PANELS (QAA 2,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

Ideas are stimulated by exposure to experience. The animation arising from this approach creates stimulation to the affective and co native aspects of learning. Contacts are made and barriers to external relationship development are broken down.

Overview:

A Panel is a means of fronting a debate or forming the basis for a process of questioning or collecting opinion/experience on certain issues, problems or opportunities. The Panel may be composed of 'externals' or may be used as an internal 'review' group for a particular issue. It is often also used as an alternative to inviting presentations from external speakers. 

Activity: 

Panels are often misused in that they become a vehicle for a series of speeches by panel members in response to a number of questions asked by the chair or harvested from the audience; however panels can be used in different ways.

The 'Expert Panel' is used to provide comment on a particular issue about which the panel have relevant experience. Here, the optimum format is where the panel very briefly addresses questions from the audience collected either beforehand or spontaneously. Engagement of the audience in the debate is important. The chairperson's role in stimulating audience participation, provoking cross-panel debate, keeping comments short, summarising and ensuring that the debate is to the point is critical. The panel should be carefully chosen to bring different perspectives to the theme. For example in debating issues concerning the 'entrepreneurial university', a panel might have a Vice Chancellor, an articulate student perhaps representing a student body, an entrepreneur with some experience of interacting with a university, a representative of a regional development authority or local government and someone from the Department of Education.

An Expert Panel can also be used with small groups to evaluate or comment upon the ideas, proposals and plans of participants.

Participant Panels can be formed to role-play stakeholders or simply to comment upon the work of other participants, individual or groups; for example, to advice on marketing plans.

A Representative Panel, for example, a small group of entrepreneurs from a particular sector, or a group sharing a common environment or experience (for example all having taken up external equity) can be used to explore the experience via a process of questioning by participants (often after briefing from programme input).

Skill Development:

The emphasis is upon exposure to tacit learning, enabling assessment of 'how things are seen and done' in the world of practice. If chaired properly it can also provide a strong measure of learning by interaction. It can also provide a vehicle for testing out concepts in practice.

Resources:

  • A Compendium of Pedagogies for Teaching Entrepreneurship. Professor Alan Gibb and Professor Alison Price - Download (PDF) 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Allan Gibb and Professor Alison Price.

Production Line (QAA 4,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objectives:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • To explore and establish methods of production for a simple products
  • To understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation
  • Understanding processes and procedures
  • Replicating methods

Overview

This task focuses a group of people to organise themselves to set up a production line to exactly replicate an existing product as many times as possible in set amount of time. They are giveqaan the opportunity to reflect on and improve their approach twice to increase efficiency, quality and productivity. This gives participants and others the opportunity to see how their own and other behaviour, ideas, approach affects the development and outcome of the task and how by working together and reflecting and analysing a situation it can be adapted and improved going forward.

Activity:

This activity could take from 30 minutes to a couple of hours depending on how much review, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

Group gathers around a table with all the resources on it. There is a sample product : a booklet with 13 squares of paper 10cm x 10cm, secured with 2 staples in a x shape in the top left hand corner of the booklet.

The group is asked to put together a production line replicating this booklet. They will have 2 minutes to discuss how they think they could best do thisand to allocate roles. Then 3 minutes to put this into practice and produce as many booklets as possible. When the time is up the facilitator then countsand inspects the finished products, looking for quality and accuracy ie:

  • Correct number of sheets
  • Correct size
  • Cut lines are straight
  • There are 2 staples
  • Staples are in the right place
  • Staples are crossed correctly

The group then gets 2 minutes to discuss and review their methods, systems and procedures and come up with improvements or a different approach. They then get another 3 minutes on the production line to best their last score.

The above process is then repeated for a third time.

This could be done with any size group as long as there are sufficient facilitators to split into smaller groups. The optimum numbers in each group wouldbe between 6 and 10, however multiple groups could be working at the same time. They would have to work at the same time so as not to hear the discussion of other groups.

Skill Development:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Efficiency/Productivity
  • Quality Control
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

As has been described this task involves many different skills and objectives on all different levels and can be assessed and analysed either briefly or in great depth across some or all of the objectives. For example, if this is an exercise for managers or recruiters to assess staff skills and abilities it can be finished there at the end of the last count. However it can be extended further, so each team then breaks off with a facilitator to analyse what happened at each stage and why.

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the review and analysis go, who took the lead, someone different? How were news ideas taken on board.
  • What changed the next time, was there an improvement, if so why
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

For example : the focus could just be on the outcomes, ie the quality and quantity of the finished products. Often the first time, people are rushing and slapdash and may do quite a few but get a lot rejected, so need to slow down. Or get them all passed but do a small number, so need to speed up. So it's finding that balance between speed and quality/accuracy.

Or the focus can be on the review and reflection, how the method was changed or improved each time to give better results.

Or the focus can be on the team dynamics how they evolved through each stage, or on the leadership and management of the task and how that changed and fluctuated at each stage, how the balance of power shifted as the task went along.

Or it could very much focus on the individual, the role they played, how this evolved, how they felt, how they were affected by the different characters,how they affected other members in the group, positively or negatively what they would do differently next time.

Depending on whether the focus is on 1 or 2 of the objectives and skills or all of them, all of these and more angles can be identified and explored after the task.

Resources:

Large sheets of paper (A3 or larger, could use old newspapers) minimum of 60 sheets per team, pens, pencils, markers, rulers, scissors, staplers.

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

How Can You Create Value from Freely Available Resources? (QAA 1,2,3,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will be able to explore an idea or concept as openly as possible to gather a wide range of solutions
  • To evidence the power of group work as more ideas are created through team work
  • To explore the potential of networks and social connections

Overview

This group task challenges the teams to generate ideas within constraints. This task engages students by allowing them to draw upon their knowledge, connections, hobbies, subject experience, social networks etc. The open brief allows them to be creative but the constraints of time and “no spend” heighten their creativity.

Activity

There is an abundant supply of free-to-use resources which are not readily considered by those addressing a task. This challenge asks “How can you use one or more of these to provide an innovative product, service or experience which creates value for its users?” and seeks to engage the learners to consider the multiple forms of value creation - financial, economic, social, cultural, environmental, aesthetic.

Process – By placing your students into small working groups, suggest the following challenges to them:

  1. BRAINSTORM: Identify by listing or brainstorming all the ‘freely available resources’ you can think of. These must be resources you can use for free, without being challenged or acting illegally or irresponsibly. They may include physical, virtual, human, financial and knowledge resources, for example. (Note: you are asking them to draw together resources that will not ‘cost’ so whilst it is recognised that their time ought to be valued and compensated, for the purposes of this task, we are seeking access to resources that they can reach for free at this moment).
  2. COMBINATION: Using this “brain stormed” list, ask the group to combine selected resources to provide products, services or experiences which create new value? Aim to identify at least 3 innovative combinations.
  3. EVALUATION: ask the groups to select the best option. Who will the innovation be of value to? Whose problem does it solve?
  4. REFLECTION and REVIEW: What forms of value are you creating from the list above.
  5. REFLECTION: How can you ‘make it happen’ to implement the innovation?
  6. COMMUNICATE: Communicate your idea as effectively you can, using available resources, to the group, outlining the need they are addressing.

Depending upon time and the skills that you wish to develop, you can run this task within 1 session or extend the communication and reflection stages to create a half day task or a task that runs over 2 weeks. This allows the groups to access their resources and showcase their ideas in the presentation the following week.

Skill Development:

Within the group work, a range of skills are developed and as the tutor, you can place the emphasis on different areas, depending upon the time you have available. The core skills being developed are around idea generation and evaluation, however it is possible to extend this task to include deeper reflection and communication skills where the groups are required to analyse the challenge and their response to it, as well as present their idea. This reflection can either form part of the presentation brief so that the teams are both presenting their ideas and exploring their experience of the challenge, or you can draw the group together after the presentation-showcase to reflect collectively on:

  • How the groups worked?
  • What frustrations were caused by the constraints and open brief – and how were they handled?
  • How did you address the stages of the challenge?
  • How did the stages of the brain-storming/problem solving process help you meet the challenge?
  • How would you address such a challenge in the future?
  • Which group was most creative in their solution? Why is that your view? How do you assess creativity? 

And you can finally explore issues of cost with the group by recognising that some of these resources could be accessed once for free, but not repeatedly. Ask them to consider how they could achieve the same output/outcome regularly and attempt to cost this.

Resources:

(if available – flip chart or post its for brain storming; pens etc)
Resources to assist with presentation – access to powerpoint; flip charts etc

References:

http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/opportunity-centred-entrepreneurship-david-rae/?sf1=barcode&st1=9781137474100
Rae, D (2015) “Opportunity-Centred Entrepreneurship” Palgrave

About the Author
This guide was produced by David Rae.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Frontiers of Physics and Entrepreneurial Skills (QAA 1, 2, 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

The goal is to teach students problem-solving, creative thinking, research skills, analytical skills, presentation skills, teamwork and leadership, and to give experience of the application of physics to “real” problems (particularly in the type of situation they may face in a workplace environment). The linking of the project to the guest judges helps to add an industrial aspect and motivates the students to think of physics beyond just reading textbooks.

Introduction:

As part of a first-year module (Frontiers of Physics and Entrepreneurial Skills) at the University of Salford, designed to develop a range of skills, students are given the task of generating an idea that will “save resources”. Students are encouraged to focus on energy as this is a key area of the University’sresearch strategy, and the project includes a tour of the University’s “Energy House”.

Activity:

The project is undertaken in small groups and lasts 7 weeks, culminating in a “proposal”, which is presented – Dragons’-Den-style – to a panel of external judges from industry. The presentation is to include a prototype (or preliminary results) of the idea to demonstrate its feasibility. Factors that should be taken into consideration include the organisation and planning of the research and development, the relevance to any stake-holders, the target markets and competition, and the cost-effectiveness of the idea.

Impact:

N/A

Learner Outcome:

The examples of curriculum development for enterprise related outcomes were originally outlined by Neil Coles at the International Enterprise Educators Conference under the heading 'From Archaeology to Zoology; an A-Z of enterprise in the curriculum'.  For his work in contextualising enterprise for any subject, Neil won the 2013 National Enterprise Educator Award. 

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Jenny Warburton, Martin Dawson, Richard Pilkington (with thanks to Neil Coles) (School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- enterprise@cardiff.ac.uk.

Physics in an Enterprise Culture (QAA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide students with opportunities for authentic problem enquiry and response. 
  • To provide students with opportunities to be innovative and creative. 
  • To provide students with opportunities to take risks, and take actions. 
  • To provide students with opportunities for true collaboration.

Introduction:

PHY 447/347 Physics in an Enterprise Culture is a level 3/4 optional module, where students are asked to develop an innovative product, based on their subject knowledge of Physics and Astronomy. They have to work within a brief, which differs from year to year. In the latest instance of this module, students were asked to investigate the funding competitions and priorities that the UK Government support through Innovate UK (specifically the ‘future Cities’ and ‘Satellite Applications’ themes), and develop a business idea for a technological product that would fulfil their criteria and attract funding.

The students then present their ideas to a panel of judges, with backgrounds in business and the subject area. What makes this module different is the attention given to the process of coming up with ideas, not just at the beginning of the module but throughout.

Activity:

Key elements are;

Authentic Problem Enquiry and Response

Students are given details of a real business and funding opportunity, as provided by Innovate UK. Students must identify and work within the constraints and opportunities offered by this brief. Considering Physics and Astronomy through the lens of UK government priorities and funding streams helps students to situate their subject knowledge, well developed by this stage of their studies, within a wider context.

Innovation and Creativity

There is a particular focus in this module on guiding students through a process of ‘double diamond’ innovation. Students are first asked to identify as many problems/opportunities as possible, along with as many potential solutions as possible. Students then select one idea and submit this to a feedback panel composed of module staff, USE staff and peers. Students then use this feedback to examine all the possible pitfalls and opportunities associated with their selected idea. They then refine their idea based on this analysis, for the final presentation.

Risk Taking

Students have to choose one idea based on many that they initially generated – they can choose how and whether to implement the phase one feedback provided by staff and peers. This involves risk analysis, and students are supported by both the academic members of staff and guest speakers from industry to understand and fully evaluate risks, and make decisions based on this.

Taking Action

Students work individually in this module, and so work largely in a self-directed manner, choosing their own project and directing its development. Students are made aware that they have access to a vast wealth of knowledge and support from the module tutors, other departmental staff, and University of Sheffield Enterprise, but that it is up to them to take advantage of this opportunity.

True Collaboration

Peer critique and feedback forms an integral part of this module. By participating in this ‘crit’ process, students learn to evaluate their ideas by listening to the fresh perspectives of others. This is a type of collaboration that moves beyond that which students may have experienced in the
past, but which is highly relevant to their future careers. Students are also guided in the process of effectuation, leveraging their social capital to develop ideas with a chance of success. Finally, students have to present their ideas to a non-specialist audience, adapting their ideas accordingly.

Impact:

N/A

Learner Outcome:

N/A

Resources:

N/A

References:

N/A

Author/Contact Details:

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Prof. David Lidzey and Dr. Alastair Buckley (Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield ).

Creating Commercially Aware and Industry Ready Cardiff University Physics Graduates (QAA 1, 2, 5, 6, 7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • A discipline specific 10 credit commercialisation module developed as part of the Cardiff University Enterprise commercialisation module framework.
  • The module utilises a range of contemporary pedagogical approaches aimed at developing innovative and commercially aware physics graduates.

Introduction:

2013 saw the adoption of an enterprise education module entitled ‘Commercialising Innovation’ by the Cardiff School of Physics and Astronomy, making it available to 21 students from the physics cohort. Delivered via an innovative collaboration between Cardiff University enterprise, engineering and physics staff, the module encourages elements of cross disciplinary cooperation between students.

Cardiff University Enterprise worked closely with Dr. Annabel Cartwright, Dr. Jeremy Hall and Dr. Peter Hargrave, all supportive advocates for the adoption of the module by the Cardiff School of Physics and Astronomy.

The adoption of the Commercialising Innovation module provides Cardiff University students of physics with an applied introduction to the commercial process whilst providing opportunity for the development of practical enterprise and employability skills intended for application within industrial contexts.

During the first year of delivery a partnership between Cardiff Schools of Engineering and Physics reflects the needs of industry for graduates who are experienced and have the appropriate skills in order to work collaboratively with colleagues from a variety of differing disciplinary specialisms in order to take innovative ideas to market. Exposure to one another’s discipline in the context of the commercialisation module provides both physics and engineering students with broader insight into the potential modes of application of their own disciplinary learning within an industry based context.

Examples include; 

  • Drawing upon data which shows the number of registered businesses in physics based sectors as increasing by 31% between 2005 and 2010, the Institute of Physics 2012 report ‘The Importance of Physics to the UK Economy’ (authored by Deloitte) identifies the application of physics to commercial activities as potentially playing an important role in creating new business and being an engine of enterprise within the UK.
  • The QAA subject benchmarks document for Physics published in 2008 identifies a range of skills and aptitudes expected of a Physics graduate in the UK. These skills include creativity, problem solving, communication and collaboration, investigation, analysis and evaluation and project work – all key enterprise skills developed within the Commercialising Innovation module. 

Activity:

  • Drawing upon previous iterations of the Commercialising Innovation module delivered in the Cardiff School of Engineering for the previous two years, the physics implementation of the module utilises the innovative pedagogical approaches employed by the Cardiff University Enterprise commercialisation module framework.
  • The component active learning tasks are approached by students in the context of ‘company teams’, providing fertile ground for the development of practical enterprise and employability skills. 
  • Theoretical and practical learning is further contextualised by the use of real world examples of discipline/sector specific innovation commercialisation, communicated to learners by experienced and relevant external speakers and the use of pertinent case studies. 
  • Students engage with a comprehensive range of enterprise skills and associated learning outcomes. Summative assessment for the module required learners (as part of ‘company teams’) to generate a feasibility study, deliver a presentational pitch for their (simulated) company and commercialisation and submit an individual reflective report requiring them to analyse and evaluate their own personal learning development during the learning programme.

Students in Action

Impact:

  • In its first year of availability across Physics and Astronomy, the module attracted 19 students, while in during its second year 40 students opted to take the module.

Learner Outcome:

Examples of student reflection;

“I really feel that this project, because it has been so different from a usual physics course, has developed my character in a way I wouldn’t have otherwise been exposed to.”

“Aside from acquiring business knowledge, I also feel that through the completion of this module I have developed a skill set that is essential for life after university.”

"I would highly recommend this module to others, as I think it is a nice change from the normal modules, but it is also very beneficial in teaching skills required for the future in jobs or other presentation based modules.”

The examples of curriculum development for enterprise related outcomes were originally outlined by Neil Coles at the International Enterprise Educators Conference under the heading 'From Archaeology to Zoology; an A-Z of enterprise in the curriculum'. For his work in contextualising enterprise for any subject, Neil won the 2013 National Enterprise Educator Award.

Resources:

References:

Author/Contact Details:

  • Neil Coles, Senior Enterprise Learning Officer, Cardiff University

About the Author
This guide was produced by Neil Coles (Senior Enterprise Learning Officer, Cardiff University ). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- enterprise@cardiff.ac.uk.

Using Higher Order Thinking Skills in Teaching and Learning

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation

Download 'Learning and Teaching: Sharing Good Practice' here.

 

 UHOTS

About the Author
This guide was produced by Grwp Llandrillo Menai.

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Preparing a Sales Forecast (QAA3,4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

  • Understand the factors to consider when producing a sales forecast for their business
  • Understand the implications of variations from forecasts, particularly in terms of receiving payments

Overview: 

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for the entrepreneur / small business owner to develop their forecasting skills and consider different scenarios of their business performance, specifically in terms of potential sales. 

Activity:

To consider and collate information to produce informed sale forecasts, gather the relevant information:


The Sales Forecast Checklist

  1. Details of any orders secured
  2. List all customers you expect to sell to over the forecast period, and how much you expect to sell to each.
  3. Market research data to support or verify these forecasts. What information have you gathered from potential customers?
  4. Supporting information such as examples from other similar ventures started recently, and drawing from company accounts and other sources.

Using this information prepare a sales forecast by value and volume for each major product group (e.g. for a hotel: bedrooms, restaurant) throughout the period of the business plan – at least 12 months.

 Month 1Month 2Month 3TotalNotes & Assumptions
Product 1          
Unit price          
No. of units sold        0  
Sales income (a) - - - -  
Product 1          
Unit price          
No. of units sold        0  
Sales income (b) - - - -  
Product 1           
Unit price          
No. of units sold        0  
Sales income (c) - - - -  
Total sales (a + b + c) - - - -  

Skill Development: 

This breaks down some of the key thinking and skills of the entrepreneur and allows the students to work through their assumptions.  This can be conducted in groups, or as individuals, allowing students to focus on start-up.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Assessing Readiness and Discovering Potential for Internationalisation (QAA3,4,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

To develop an understanding of their capacity to undertake internationalisation as a way to grow their business.

Overview: 

Entering a foreign market could help your business reach new heights in terms of growth, revenue and longevity.  This evaluation of a small business’s capabilities will reveal its potential for growth.

Activity: 

Instructions

Invite the entrepreneur / small business owner to consider the business from 3 perspectives to analyse their business’s ability to seize opportunities in foreign markets.

Organisational Structure Assessment & Actions
Does the small business have the structure and capability to expand?
Do the internationalisation plans contribute to and fit with the business mission and objectives?
Does the business model take internationalisation into consideration?
Are marketing and sales activities / plans in place to reach international markets?
Are products and services suitable for the international market?
Do they introduce innovation to the international market?
Does the small business staff team have the skills, knowledge and commitment to implement the internationalisation plans?

What actions are needed to support the internationalisation plans?

Financial HealthAssessment and Actions
Does the small business have the financial resources needed to support its international goals?
How much will the internationalisation activities cost?
Does the business have the cash / working capital to meet these costs?
Have alternative / additional sources of finance to internationalisation been explored?
Can the business afford to repay any debt incurred with international activities?

What actions are needed to support the internationalisation plans?

Leadership Assessment and Actions
Does the entrepreneur and their team have the commitment and understanding of what’s involved?
Is the entrepreneur or small business owner committed to internationalisation?
Do they have the support of their team?
Does the team have knowledge and experience of the international market?
Has advice been sought from experts and others with experience of internationalisation?

What actions are needed to support the internationalisation plans?

Skill Development:

This activity draws together the key skills of an entrepreneur in terms of information handling and decision making.  By using research skills and entrepreneurial effectiveness, this task invites the learner to determine actions based upon their own judgement. 

Resources: 

  • Post-its or similar sticky pads  
  • Pens  
Teaching Entrepreneurship A Practice Based Approach Exercise Business Model Canvas Game (QAA 1,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Reflect on the meaning and importance of the nine business model components. 
  • Demonstrate how the ordering on the canvas categorizes components as generating value or creating efficiency to deliver value. 
  • Discuss and debate the ordering proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010).

Overview:

The Business Model Canvas (http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/ canvas) has become a popular teaching tool in entrepreneurship classrooms. It is not my intention here to introduce the canvas or illustrate how it works. Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) do a magnificent job explaining the canvas, articulating the theory behind the canvas, and offering many ways to use the canvas. This exercise is a quick game to help students reflect on the nature and ordering of the nine business model components found on the canvas as proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works well for both undergraduate and graduate audiences. The exercise is best used in a course or class session where the Business Model Canvas is first being introduced.

Activity:

Pre- Work Required by Students - None.

Time Plan (30 minutes)

The Game Setup 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes) 

Before introducing the canvas, simply introduce that there are nine components of a business model. I typically show a PowerPoint slide with the nine components listed in random order. Tell the students that there is a particular order to the components, but they need to figure out what the order is. In other words, they need to determine which of the components should be considered first, second, and so on. What’s most important to start with and what’s least important? Separate students into teams of five (maximum).

The Game 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes) 

Give each team a deck of cards (see resources) and ask them to place them in order from one to nine (10 minutes). After 10 minutes, give each team a long piece of masking tape and have them tape the order of their cards to the wall or board, so everyone can see the differences across the team.

The Discussion 0:15–0:30 (15 minutes) 

Now it is time to introduce the ordering that Osterwalder and Pigneur use. Their book (see Theoretical Foundations) is quite helpful if you are not familiar with the canvas. I typically give out a copy of the Business Model Canvas to each student prior to disclosing the order. The ordering of the components is: 

  1. Customer segments
  2. Value proposition
  3. Channels
  4. Customer relationships
  5. Revenue streams
  6. Key resources
  7. Key activities
  8. Key partners
  9. Cost structure

Usually student teams will have either customer segments or value propositions first and this creates a wonderful debate in the class. Introduce the order of the components one by one while also explaining what each component is. After walking through the components and discussing the differences in order created by each team I end the exercise with a brief discussion summarizing the order. At the end of the day, the ordering really does not matter because the canvas is meant to be an iterative, working document that will continuously change as you learn new information from every action taken or experiment conducted. What is most interesting about the design of the canvas and its ordering is found when you fold the canvas in half (left to right). 

According to Osterwalder and Pigneur, the right side of the canvas is concerned with creating and generating value. The left side of the canvas is concerned with generating efficiencies to deliver that value. As such, an entrepreneur needs to first determine or create the value and then develop the approach to deliver that value. Innovation, novelty, creativity, and competitive advantage are most often found in the value creation. So, start on the right!

Teaching Tips

The most important reason that I do this exercise is to get the students thinking about each component on their own in teams rather than just “telling” them about each component. Expect raging debates about customer segments versus value propositions as being first in the order. It is always a great conversation to have.

Skill Development: 

Key Takeaways

  • It is important to think about the ordering of the components but not be wedded to one particular ordering. 
  • A business model is about value creation, delivery, and capture – but start with creation and think about cost last. 
  • Focusing too soon on cost structure and resources can diminish the innovativeness of new ideas. This can happen when we start on the left side of the canvas.

Resources: 

Materials List

Instructors will need to create decks of “business model component cards.” One deck is needed per team in the class. Each deck is comprised of nine index cards. On each card should be one of the nine business model components: customer segments, value propositions, channels, customer relationships, revenue streams, key resources, key activities, key partners, cost structure. Given that this is the actual order recommended by Osterwalder & Pigneur, it is important that the cards in the deck are not in this order. You may also want to have copies of the Business Model Canvas to distribute as well, but after the game. A copy of the canvas can be obtained at http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695 

References:

This exercise is taken from;

•Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.136 – 138). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Theoretical Foundations

•Osterwalder, A., and Pigneur, Y. 2010. Business Model Generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Heidi M. Neck.

Workshop: Business Planning (QAA 1,2,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To provide students with an opportunity to identify and reflect on their own skills.
  • To provide students with an opportunity to generate business ideas, and identify opportunities.
  • To provide students with knowledge and understanding of how to write and structure a business plan.
  • To provide students with an understanding of how to use a business plan effectively.
  • To provide students with an awareness of the advice, resources and support available to them.

Overview:

A well-structured, well-research and well-written business plan is an invaluable asset to any new enterprise. Yet many students considering starting up report difficulty in developing business plans and in particular, plans which actively work for them and their business.

Business Planning is a workshop serving as an introduction to the subject, inclusive of opportunities to reflect on skills and generate ideas, and information regarding how to build a strong and cohesive plan around those ideas, and advice regarding using that plan, to turn those ideas into successful businesses.
 
The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, but inclusive of ample opportunities for extension, through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, and could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. It is designed to be appropriate for students of any level or programme of study. It was originally developed through the HEFCW funded pan-Wales Enterprise Support Programme.

Lesson plans and AV presentations for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the ‘ZONE Enterprise Hub’ webpages listed in ‘References’ and ‘Resources.’

Activity:

The activity follows the structure outlined in the ‘Business Planning’ PowerPoint presentation, inclusive of all links and examples.

  

Figure 1. PowerPoint presentation which accompanies this activity.

Pre-Activity

Students are not required to prepare anything in advance of this workshop. For workshop leaders, preparation is minimal, other than ensuring supporting AV resources are displaying correctly.

Introduction

  • Students are welcomed and introduced to the themes that will be covered during the workshop.
  • The group may be invited to share their own business experience or business ideas.

Why Bother?

  • Students are asked to discuss and share where they see their ideas and business endeavours 10 years from now.
  • Students are provided with a basic definition of a business plan.
  • Students discuss the purpose of a business plan. Points are suggested and debated.

What to think about?

  • Students are asked to reflect on the skills which they possess.
  • Students are asked to explore and identify the products and services they can offer, supported by their skill set.
  • Students explore how, by reflecting on a particular product or service, they can consider pricing, branding, marketing and sales.
  • An indicative example is offered within the PowerPoint presentation to illustrate this. If desired, you may wish to reinforce this by working through a real example offered by a member of the audience.
  • (An activity allowing students to identify their skills, and explore opportunities in a greater degree of depth can be found in How To Guide ‘Workshop: Breaking Problems Down and Putting Solutions Together.’)

What to write down?

  • The key elements of a basic business plan are covered step by step, with class discussion of the key points at each stage. Namely, the elements covered are; The Executive Summary, The Business Vision, Marketing, Running the Business, Finance.
  • Students are introduced to SWOT analysis. If desired, a member of the audience may be invited to offer their own business idea as an example, which a SWOT analysis can be worked through for collectively.
  • Students are introduced to cash flow forecast. Again if desired, an indicative example may be offered to demonstrate how the forecast works.

Help and support

Students are provided with links and information regarding the support, advice and assistance available to them as they develop their business plans.

Conclusion

The key themes covered in the workshop are re-capped, and students are invited to ask any outstanding questions which they may have.

Post-Activity

This workshop is intended only as an introduction to the subject of Business Planning. Following the activity, students may utilise the information provided to research and develop their plans independently, or each element of the workshop may be revisited and explored in more depth by the group.

Skill Development:

Students will leave the workshop with greater confidence in their ability, with a better understanding of their skills, and how these skills will support the development of their endeavours. They will have a better knowledge and understanding of business plans and how to develop them, and a greater awareness of how to use business plans to effectively support them in their endeavours.

Resources:

PowerPoint Slides accompanying this activity can be downloaded here > Business Planning [PDF]

References:

Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11 . [Accessed 05 August 2015].

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran .

Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: AIRPLANE CONTEST (QAA 1,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group), Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Practice pitching new concepts.
  • Critique pitches for new concepts.
  • Understand the importance of pitch versus idea. 
  • Simulate prototype development and feasibility testing.

Overview:

Rocket pitches or elevator pitches are often the first opportunity for an entrepreneur to convince potential investors that they have an idea that represents a profitable opportunity. These are often only one to five minute presentations, but they can have a significant impact on the entrepreneur’s ability to attract investors as well as other potential stakeholders. This can be particularly true in the early stages of a venture before the entrepreneur has a viable product, and he or she has to quickly convince potential stakeholders of his or her vision and the potential of the idea. Entrepreneurs often think that their idea is the most important aspect of the pitch, but studies have shown that U.S. venture capitalists consider personal characteristics such as the entrepreneur’s ability to articulate his or her venture to be critical in determining whether or not they will reject an entrepreneur’s plan.

In this exercise, students design a paper airplane that must be capable of carrying a predetermined amount of currency in the form of coins. The airplanes will compete in two categories – time that the plane can stay aloft and the distance it can travel. However, students pitch their design to their classmates (the investors) in an effort to convince them their design is the best before the contest takes place. 

The exercise has worked well for illustrating the importance of a good pitch and helps students to better understand what constitutes a good pitch from an investor’s perspective.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works with both undergraduate and graduate students. It is appropriate for new venture creation courses, entrepreneurship boot-camps, or workshops. The session is best positioned after students have identified a venture concept, project, or family or corporate initiative to pursue and are preparing for an elevator speech or rocket pitch type presentation. Technology entrepreneurship or innovation classes are also appropriate.

Activity:

Pre- Work Required by Students

Students are to be given the following instructions in the class period prior to running the exercise: “You are to design and create a new paper airplane capable of keeping one U.S. dollar of coins aloft for as long (time) as possible while simultaneously transporting the coins as far (distance) as possible. The assignment is as follows:

  1. You may work individually or in a group of up to four students; the only group-related implication is that your airplane design must use the same number of standard size sheets as the number of people in the group (for example, a group of four must create an airplane that uses four sheets of paper in its design). 
  2. Your plane must be designed to transport one U.S. dollar of coinage (or other local currency). You may choose the number and denominations of coins used; your only constraint is that their total value be exactly one dollar. 
  3. You may not simply crumple the paper into a ball, as this would constitute a projectile rather than an aerodynamically sensitive aircraft- based design.

You will be required to pitch your design to your classmates. You will have two minutes to convince your classmates that your design will perform the best. Performance on the exercise will be based on a combination of actual performance of your airplane and the number of votes your design gets from your classmates in each category (time and distance).”

Time Plan (80 minutes)

Because each team will pitch their idea, the time required for the exercise will vary with class and team size. The timing outlined here is based on a class size of 30 students and ten teams.

Step 1 0:00–0:02 (2 minutes) 

Begin the exercise by explaining the voting rules to the students. Students are allowed to vote for only one team (excluding their own) in each of the two categories (distance and time). They are not required to vote for the same design in each category. It helps to provide a sheet for each of the students to record their votes, or, if your students have computers and internet access, you can use an online voting system (this will require you to set it up before the class).

Step 2 0:02–0:27 (25 minutes) 

Next, have each team pitch their idea to their classmates. Teams should be strictly limited to two minutes each.

Step 3 0:27–0:32 (5 minutes) 

Have the students record their votes for the design they think will perform best in each category. Remind them that they cannot vote for their own design.

Step 4 0:32–0:52 (20 minutes)

Take the class to an open area in which to conduct the actual flights. An indoor area such as a gymnasium works best, but you can run it outdoors as well (which can introduce additional uncertainty into the performance for the students). Each team gets one throw. You should have a line that they cannot cross for throwing, and you should record the time that their plane stays aloft. After the plane has landed, measure and record the distance. It helps if you assign this task to one or more of the students.

Step 5 0:52–1:00 (8 minutes) 

Return to the classroom. Record the votes and the actual performance for each team on the board.

Step 6 (exercise debrief) 1:00–1:20 (20 minutes) 

If time allows, you can have a short discussion about their process with regard to creating their design. This can help to illustrate how an entrepreneur can take a constraint and turn it into an opportunity. Additionally, this can highlight the importance of prototyping and learning from failure, and many of the teams that perform well often trial several different designs. Some possible questions include:

  • How did they view the issue of the coins? 
  • Did they see it as a negative constraint? Why? 
  • Did they see it as an opportunity to incorporate it into the design and improve its performance? 
  • How did they try to differentiate their design? 
  • Did they try to optimize for time or distance or try both? 
  • Did they prototype and test designs?

Next, discuss the aspect of effective pitching. The idea here is to get them to appreciate the importance of the entrepreneur and his or her pitch to investors. Owing to the uncertainty inherent in many early- stage entrepreneurial ventures, investors will typically put more emphasis on the entrepreneur and his or her ability to “sell” the idea, as well as their confidence in the entrepreneur’s ability to execute on his or her pitch – one has to be careful not to oversell the concept.

  • How did it feel to try to “sell” your classmates on your design?
  • What were the biggest challenges? 
  • How did you decide to invest? 
  • How important was the way in which they presented the concept? 
  • Confidence? 
  • What was compelling about the pitch or the entrepreneur? 
  • Why do you think people did or did not vote for your design?
  • What would you do to improve your pitch?

Wrap the discussion up with a summary of the importance of clearly articulating your idea and convincing the audience of your ability to execute on your idea.

Post- Work

Have the students read the following articles (this can be done beforehand if you prefer):

  • Elsbach, K.D. 2003. How to pitch a brilliant idea. Harvard Business Review, 81(9), 117–23. 
  • Santinelli, A., and Brush, C. 2013. Designing and Delivering the Perfect Pitch. Wellesley, MA: Babson College Case Collection.

Teaching Tips

Students will often try to game the system (depending on how much freedom you give them). For example, they may choose to use different weights of paper or design a flying disc as opposed to a traditional airplane. You can decide how vague you want to be. If you want to have more discussion on the creative process and pushing the boundaries, then being more vague in the instructions can lead to a good discussion on how entrepreneurs try to push the rules and boundaries. Some students will feel “cheated,” but this can still provide a good learning point.

Skill Development: 

Key Takeaways

  • Ability to quickly and clearly articulate an idea is often more important than the idea itself. 
  • Investors often focus on their belief in the entrepreneur’s ability to execute on the idea rather than the idea itself – particularly under conditions of uncertainty. 
  • Prototyping can be an effective way to deal with an unknown environment and develop your product or service.

Resources: 

Materials List

Provide students with paper for their airplanes in order to maintain a standard paper type and weight. Alternatively, you can leave this open to interpretation as a means of encouraging greater creativity among the teams. You will need a tape measure and a stopwatch for the actual competition.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695 

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.131 – 135). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Attribution

  • Reginald A. Litz, Dell McStay, Sergio Janczak, and Carolyn Birmingham, “Kitty hawk in the classroom: A simulation exercise for facilitating creative and entrepreneurial behavior,” United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (USASBE) 2011 conference – Entrepreneurship: Changing the Present, Creating the Future, South Carolina, United States, January 2011.

Theoretical Foundations

MacMillan, I.C., Siegel, R., and Subba Narisimha, P.N. 1985. Criteria used by venture capitalists to evaluate new venture proposals. Journal of Business Venturing, 1, 119–28. 

Ries, E. 2011. The Lean Startup: How Today’s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. New York: Crown Publishing.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Bradley George.

Your How To Guide Here

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Case Examples

New Applications for Lab Practice (QAA 1,2)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation

Objective

  • To practice key techniques in the lab
  • To apply experimental practice to ‘real world’ environment
  • To explore for new opportunities and applications of key skills in new settings and commercial environments

Introduction

This ‘revamp’ of pre-existing module has been highly successful in broadening the students approach and experience of the ‘real world’ application, without requiring revalidation of the module objectives. The traditional approach of weekly lab-practicals was typically delivered with a method sheet and work plan for the students to follow in order to refresh their practical lab skills. Additional information relating to the application of these techniques within local small businesses or as global opportunities for new markets, has refreshed the programme and created opportunities for idea creation and evaluation.

Activity

This final year module was traditionally offered to refresh lab techniques and reinforce key methods. In order to deepen the skill development, it was possible to find a ‘real-world’ application of each technique and provide a small vignette about each company using this approach. Details were provided regarding the potential market, income stream and how this process added value, together with the traditional lab/method outline. During their practical work student groups were encouraged to consider.

  • Possible new markets for this technique
  • Extensions of the product offer
  • Development of the technique (to reduce cost; improve speed and safety on a commercial scale)

And invited to research the company and approach during the week, for discussion at the next practical. This allowed for additional market research to be included in their proposed approach and their understanding of the market-use of their skills be deepened.

Impact

The impact was significant as this ‘revision’ model was enlivened by the real-world examples and discussions that then naturally occurred between the teams and across the group. Quick research (from smart phones and tablets) within the groups allowed for ideas to be developed or dismissed and extensions of thinking develop from undertaking the process.

The impact was beneficial in terms of the commercial understanding of the students, but also improved their interest and retention of this module.

Learner Outcome

The outcomes for the students saw the revision of their practical skills firmly anchored in the ‘real-world’. For final year students, this learning supported the transition out of the University and into first jobs and felt very relevant. All the students responded well to the new information and absorbed the additional task within the traditional time allowed.

Resources

Lab practical – undertaken in lab with pre-drafted method and notes – supported by the creation of individual vignettes relating to the commercial or practical use of each technique.

This are created through research (desk) as well as through contacts with business and industry (local companies using the approaches and techniques).

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price (Enterprise Evolution).

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Cases Studies of Good Practice

can be found in

Higher Education Academy booklet (2014) Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education Case Studies

New Directions Enterprise Skills for Physics Undergraduates (HEA) delivered as a 3hour workshop

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf