Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Communication skills
  • Problem solving skills
  • Basic interpersonal skills
  • Other relevant professional skills such as business awareness

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Bock’s Innovation Marketplace (QAA 1,2,3,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • To generate ideas to meet a brief
  • To explore opportunities by comparing and evaluating peer work
  • To evaluate innovations within a limited time frame
  • To develop judgement in order to make decisions to complete the task

Overview:

This surprisingly easy and fun classroom activity simulates an innovation marketplace. Students generate a topic-specific innovation and participate in amarketplace of ideas. The results demonstrate how and why the best innovations are not guaranteed market entry or success, emphasizing the human and social nature of entrepreneurial action. This fast paced marketplace activity works with large numbers of students, in open work spaces and can takes 10-20 minutes.

Activity

Starting the activity:

The instructor should ask students to generate an innovation within a short time frame (2-5 minutes maximum). It is recommended that all students generate an innovation related to a familiar topic to facilitate comparison. A useful question, which may also provide valuable feedback to the instructor or the institution generally, is: "How could your student experience [in this class / at this university] be improved?" Additional guidance is suggested:

  • Encourage students to be creative or provocative, but suggest that the innovation be within the realm of reality. For example, the student experience might be improved by receiving £1 million on completing the course, but such an outcome isn't realistic.
  • Ask students to write the innovation down in one short sentence. This helps commit the student to the idea, which plays a key role in the simulation.
  • Encourage students to come up with one idea, and reassure them it does not need to be "spectacular" if they are struggling.

Running the marketplace: The instructor should ask all students to stand up. The instructor should read the rules and, if possible, display them on a screen. Students should be told that the activity runs for a limited time. Recommended marketplace times are: 10-25 students should take 5 minutes; 25-100 students takes 10 minutes; 100+ students will take 10-15 minutes.

Market Place Rules:

  • Talk to anyone you want.
  • End conversation with that person whenever you want.
  • If someone's innovation is better than yours, for whatever reason, give your notecard/post-it to that person. You are now on that person’s team. 
  • An innovation must have at least one supporter, other than the inventor, to win

The instructor should explicitly initiate the activity, for example by saying "Go!" As the activity starts, the instructor may choose to prompt recalcitrant students to participate. In rare cases, students might attempt to share all their ideas by broadcasting them one at a time. It's best not to intervene, as these usually degrade to individual or small group conversations, but if it appears that true organization is emerging (e.g. sequential pitches and voting) the instructor might choose to break up organised activity by reminding them of the time limit or splitting the group in half.

Stopping the marketplace: The instructor should use good judgement to determine when to end the marketplace. Some small groups converge to a limited set of ideas quickly; large groups are unlikely to converge to only a few ideas within a reasonable time. The instructor should gain the attention of the students and ask them to stand where they are. Remind them that if student A has joined student B's team, then student A should give her notecard to student B. So some students should be holding numerous cards, some students should have their own card, and some students should not have a card.

The instructor should ask students without a card to sit down wherever is convenient.

It generally improves student engagement to list some or all of the "winning" ideas. The instructor may choose to whittle down the set of "winning" ideas depending on the size of the class. For example, in a class with 100 students, there may be 50 students holding cards. The instructor might ask students to sit down if they have less than 2 cards, less than 3 cards, etc. until few enough remain to read out and record. The instructor should ask the remaining "winning" ideas to read out their ideas, and may choose to record them on a board/flipchart. For larger groups, it may be interesting to note how many supporters the top ideas had accrued.

All students may then be asked to sit down as convenient.

The instructor may choose to comment on the winning ideas, especially if some are impossible, unusually inventive, or otherwise noteworthy. The instructor should then ask: "Are we guaranteed that the best idea won?" In many cases, students may note the lack of ideation time. The instructor may choose to address this or not as an unresolvable challenge, since it is not possible to know whether more time would lead to better ideas.

Below are some of the potentially useful lessons from the exercise. Sophisticated student groups may develop some or all of the lessons with limited prompting. Suggested prompts are provided. It may be useful to discuss one general concept, identify its "academic" label, and then move on to the next. The discussion should, obviously, be tailored to the type and number of students (undergrad vs. graduate, technical vs. business)

Concluding the activity: The instructor may remind students:

  • Great ideas and innovations are drivers of technological and economic change.
  • The best innovations are not guaranteed market success.
  • The role of the entrepreneur is critical to the commercialization process, often generating unexpected or entirely unpredictable outcomes (George and Bock 2012).
  • The entrepreneur does not have to be the same person as the inventor.
  • Some drivers of commercialization success may be partly or entirely out of the inventor or entrepreneur's control.

The instructor may choose to collect all of the notecards, especially if the initiating question presents the potential for useful feedback. Instructors are encouraged to make the full set of ideas available to students after the activity for their own edification.

Skill Development:

This fast-paced activity builds student confidence in their decision-making and ability to handle new data within a short time period. The nature of the market place requires interpersonal skills which must be balanced against the time constraints of the challenge itself.

It can be powerful to debrief the whole group on their experience of the task, including their emotional responses to the challenge and how they handled the interpersonal elements. Important reflections can be gained by asking the students to consider:

  • How they handled accessing the information they needed to make decisions?
  • How would they complete the task if they were to conduct it again?
  • How did they handle the speed and experience of the marketplace? And what would they do differently?

By reflecting upon their personal experience, as well as the challenge, the skill development is deepened and potential action points for future practice can be identified (relating to personal learning as to how to handle time pressures; ambiguous tasks; decision making etc).

Resources:

The activity may be conducted with no materials or setup; the use of post-its or notecards, a flipchart, chalkboard, or A/V setup are recommended. Post-its or notecards offer a record of the full set of innovations which may be of separate value.

Instructors should distribute one post-it note or notecard to each student and ensure that writing instruments are available. Similarly, instructors mayprefer a learning space that facilitates ease of student movement, though key lessons may be gained in a space that restricts movement by some or many students. (In addition background on drivers of innovation adoption may be provided at the instructors discretion and pedagogical preference).

Additional Resources

Bock’s Innovation Market Place: Resource Sheet

References:

https://sites.google.com/site/adamjbockentrep/http://launchideas.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/EEEJ-Issue-1.pdf

About the Author
This guide was produced by Adam Bock.

A Compendium of Pedagogies: THE USE OF PANELS (QAA 2,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

Ideas are stimulated by exposure to experience. The animation arising from this approach creates stimulation to the affective and co native aspects of learning. Contacts are made and barriers to external relationship development are broken down.

Overview:

A Panel is a means of fronting a debate or forming the basis for a process of questioning or collecting opinion/experience on certain issues, problems or opportunities. The Panel may be composed of 'externals' or may be used as an internal 'review' group for a particular issue. It is often also used as an alternative to inviting presentations from external speakers. 

Activity: 

Panels are often misused in that they become a vehicle for a series of speeches by panel members in response to a number of questions asked by the chair or harvested from the audience; however panels can be used in different ways.

The 'Expert Panel' is used to provide comment on a particular issue about which the panel have relevant experience. Here, the optimum format is where the panel very briefly addresses questions from the audience collected either beforehand or spontaneously. Engagement of the audience in the debate is important. The chairperson's role in stimulating audience participation, provoking cross-panel debate, keeping comments short, summarising and ensuring that the debate is to the point is critical. The panel should be carefully chosen to bring different perspectives to the theme. For example in debating issues concerning the 'entrepreneurial university', a panel might have a Vice Chancellor, an articulate student perhaps representing a student body, an entrepreneur with some experience of interacting with a university, a representative of a regional development authority or local government and someone from the Department of Education.

An Expert Panel can also be used with small groups to evaluate or comment upon the ideas, proposals and plans of participants.

Participant Panels can be formed to role-play stakeholders or simply to comment upon the work of other participants, individual or groups; for example, to advice on marketing plans.

A Representative Panel, for example, a small group of entrepreneurs from a particular sector, or a group sharing a common environment or experience (for example all having taken up external equity) can be used to explore the experience via a process of questioning by participants (often after briefing from programme input).

Skill Development:

The emphasis is upon exposure to tacit learning, enabling assessment of 'how things are seen and done' in the world of practice. If chaired properly it can also provide a strong measure of learning by interaction. It can also provide a vehicle for testing out concepts in practice.

Resources:

  • A Compendium of Pedagogies for Teaching Entrepreneurship. Professor Alan Gibb and Professor Alison Price - Download (PDF) 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Allan Gibb and Professor Alison Price.

Communication Icebreaker Truth & Lies (QAA 1,2,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Idea generation
Understanding processes and procedure
With opportunities to:

  1. Review the session, understand the concept or steps covered in an interactive way.
  2. Evidence the power of group work as more ideas are created through team work
  3. Understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  4. Understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation.

Overview:

There are times when people’s energy is low during workshops, particular after a long lecture or after a break. After lunch time workshop participants tend to be tired while they are still digesting. It’s fast and fun ways to get participants refocused on the workshop (and topic).  This task can help the group bond or develop their subject knowledge through a “truth and lies” approach to multiple choice statements (right or wrong).

Activity:

  1. Participants write on cards / note pads two truths about themselves and one lie.
  2. The participants then walk around sharing with one another their three statements – during this participants should reveal which of the statement is a lie. During this sharing it is the goal of the participants to:
            a)    Convince others that your lie is true
            b)    Guess the correct lie of the other participants
  3. The participants gather back together in a circle and the first person read aloud their statement to remind everyone.
  4. The group then tries to guess which of the three statements is not true – at the end of each statement ask for a vote through a show of hands. ‘Who thinks this statement is true?’ Raise your hands.
  5. The participant then reveals says which of the statements is untrue.

    Notes:

    •    For large groups (30+), it is best to split into smaller group sizes.
    •    Give example of statements and remind people that they should use short statements.

    This task can be undertaken as a lively energiser, or as a subject based/ discipline focused activity.  By providing a slightly longer time for the students to prepare, the statements can be about a revision topic, or a new topic that is being studied.  It is also possible to pre-prepare a set of two piles of statements and invite the students to take them, research them (this can be for the following week if more complex subject related topics) and convince others of their position.  This could be delivered as a panel in front of the group, who are acting as audience. Inspiration for this type of extension can come from the BBC TV format “Would I lie to you?” but requires subject knowledge to make the truths and lies work and therefore the individual panellists can benefit from working in advance as a team to prepare their statements and answers.  By creating teams, with a panel spokespeople, audience engagement is high.

Skill Development:

It is important to ensure that the student groups recognise that the potential of subtle communication skills deployed in this task (such as empathy; humour; rapport).  Discussing the challenge, and what elements were memorable and effective, can highlight how individuals create effective communication.  Whilst they are opportunities to develop a range of communication skills through practice, it is important to look for “future lessons” from this task to build an understanding of the transferable skills that are being developed.  This might include discussion of Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation; Interpersonal Skills; Communication; Reflection and Action; Team Building and creative thinking skills.  It could be helpful to write up these titles and invite comments on post-its under each title to draw out experiences and feelings. Explore these comments collectively to draw together themes and learning from the whole group.

Resources:

Each participant needs a note pad/card and pen/pencil
If you wish to use this approach to introduce a new topic, or topic extension, then you may wish to pre-prepare the statements for the students in advance for the session – or to issue in the session in advance for learners to research and prepare for the next week panel task.

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Problem Solving and Consenus Building (QAA 1,2,3,4,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

The learner will be able to explore an idea or concept as openly as possible to gather a wide range of solutions through the power of group work and seek to build a consensus through: 

  • Developing problem-solving skills as team members 
  • Analysing information (and working with limited information) 
  • Negotiating and cooperating with one another.
  • Listening and leading 
  • Group Decision making (consensus building) 

Overview:

The focus within this task is open idea generation within a team, pooling the expertise/wisdom of the group to create ideas that can then be evaluated and explored.

Within this scenario, participants must pretend that they've been shipwrecked and are stranded in a life boat. Each team has a box of matches, and a number of items that they've salvaged from the sinking ship but they can’t keep them all within the lifeboat. Members must agree which items are most important for their survival as they need to prioritise.  

Activity:

The challenge should be issued to the group, and time given to the challenge individually.  This is important in creating the challenge of consensus building as it allows to think about the problem individually; continues the cycle of presentation and discussion in groups evaluate the process to draw out their experiences until the whole team has had a chance to voice their opinions and how teams arrive at consensus decision where everyone's opinion is heard.

Time:         Flexible, but normally between 25 and 40 minutes
Number:     Up to 5 people in each group

Instructions

1. Divide participants into their small teams, and provide everyone with a ranking sheet (with two columns).

2. Ask team members to take 10 minutes on their own to rank the items in order of importance. They should do this in the second column of their sheet.

3. Give the teams a further 10 minutes to confer and decide on their group rankings. Once agreed, they should list them in the third column of their sheets.

4. Ask each group to compare their individual rankings with their collective ones, and consider why any scores differ. Did anyone change their mind about their own rankings during the team discussions? How much were people influenced by the group conversation?

5. Now read out the "correct" order, collated by the experts at the US Coast Guard (from most to least important): 

    1. Shaving mirror. (One of your most powerful tools, because you can use it to signal your location by reflecting the sun.) 
    2. Can of petrol. (Again, potentially vital for signalling as petrol floats on water and can be lit by your matches.)  
    3. Water container. (Essential for collecting water to restore your lost fluids.) 
    4. Emergency rations. (Valuable for basic food intake.) 
    5. Plastic sheet. (Could be used for shelter, or to collect rainwater.) 
    6. Chocolate bars. (A handy food supply.) 
    7. Fishing rod. (Potentially useful, but there is no guarantee that you're able to catch fish. Could also feasibly double as a tent pole.) 
    8. Rope. (Handy for tying equipment together, but not necessarily vital for survival.) 
    9. Floating seat or cushion. (Useful as a life preserver.) 
    10. Shark repellent. (Potentially important when in the water.) 
    11. Bottle of rum. (Could be useful as an antiseptic for treating injuries, but will only dehydrate you if you drink it.) 
    12. Radio. (Chances are that you're out of range of any signal, anyway.) 
    13. Sea chart. (Worthless without navigational equipment.) 
    14. Mosquito net. (Assuming that you've been shipwrecked in the Atlantic, where there are no mosquitoes, this is pretty much useless.) 
    15. Sextant. (Impractical without relevant tables or a chronometer.)

Once the general discussion relating to the individual scoring has died away, draw the discussion to the team approach and explore issues of leadership, listening, negotiation, decision-making and consensus building.

Skill Development:

It is typical of many ice-breaker tasks that the learning is not within the task objective, but within the team process and often the desire to complete the task can mask the transferable learning that has been gained.  It is therefore key, that once the discussion of the challenge itself is complete, that the debrief explore the skill development within the task and team work itself.

Either within the groups themselves, and then as a larger group, or working directly with the full group, seek reflections and comment on what they have learnt about:

  1. Listening  
  2. Negotiating   
  3. Decision-making skills,  
  4. Creativity skills for thinking "outside the box 
  5. Consensus building

As a facilitator, it is important that you allow them to explore their team process and find the learning within that.  This can involve team members sharing difficult feelings about not being listened to, and this needs to be acknowledged, accepted and the lessons drawn from it (would it have been a better process to take view from each member and vote? Should individuals have been more forthcoming if they had strong views and how do they ensure they are heard in the future?). The lessons from each group can be usefully heard by the wider group, in order to understand and learn from different approaches as this allows deeper reflection as to how to approach similar challenges in the future to be explored.

Resources:

Develop a simple chart for each team member. This should comprise six columns. The first simply lists each item (see below). The second is empty so that each team member can rank the items. The third is for group rankings. The fourth is for the "correct" rankings, which are revealed at the end of the exercise. And the fifth and sixth are for the team to enter the difference between their individual and correct score, and the team and correct rankings, respectively. 

If this cant be done in advance and handed out, then it can be drawn by each team member at the start of the challenge.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Huda.

Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: PUZZLES AND QUILTS (QAA 1,2,3,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Experience the difference between managerial and entrepreneurial thinking.
  • Engage with conditions of uncertainty and ambiguity.
  • Illustrate how entrepreneurs think.

Overview:

Given the unprecedented level of uncertainty in business and entrepreneurship, students must learn how to navigate effectively in an increasingly uncertain world. The exercise consists of students starting in one room with the task of completing a jigsaw puzzle. Students are systematically moved toanother room, where they are asked to create a quilt from a selection of fabric pieces. The debrief explores jigsaw puzzles as managerial thinking and quilt making as entrepreneurial thinking. There is an optional debrief that includes leadership.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, or practitioner. Ideally the exercise should be done on day one of a general entrepreneurship course as a way to set up how entrepreneurs think and the difference between entrepreneurial and managerial thinking.

Activity:

Pre-Work Required by Students

None.

Time Plan (60–80 minutes)

The exercise begins in a room with tables for each team. Students are asked to clear their table in preparation. The second room required is a large empty space. A table (fairly long) is placed in front of this room or space, and fabric pieces are piled on the table. The piles should be messy, with all the fabrics mixed up (not sorted by size, colour, or any other dimension).

Puzzle time 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes)

Divide students into groups of five to seven and give them the following directions: “Your task is quite easy but you don’t have a lot of time. Your goal is to put together the puzzle that is sitting on the table as fast as you possibly can. It’s only 300 pieces! You can do it. Get started. You are being timed. Don’t worry; there are no cameras in the room!”

Random Pull - Out to Quilting Room 0:05–0:30 (25 minutes)

Pull students at random from the puzzle room, one at a time, asking for one volunteer from each group. The individual volunteered or selected from each group is taken to the empty room with the table of fabric.

At the fabric table the first group is told: “Your new task is quite easy but you don’t have a lot of time. You are now designated quilt leaders. Your goal is to construct a design for a quilt. Choose six pieces of fabric from the table – no more and no less. Select an area in the room and begin to construct a quilt. You may not come back to the table for more or different fabric. No sewing is required. Simply place your fabric on the ground as if you were going to sew patches of fabric together to create the quilt. The goal is to build the best quilt you possibly can. Others will join you a bit later. Have fun!”

Note: Each quilt leader should choose six pieces of fabric, and each will begin his or her own quilt in different areas of the room. Subsequent “volunteers” are taken out of the puzzle rooms at two to three minute intervals and instructed to take six pieces of fabric and join any quilt in progress that interests them. “Your new task is quite easy but you don’t have a lot of time. Join one of the groups in the room. You do not have to stay with the team members from your puzzle group. Your goal is to construct a design for a quilt. Choose six pieces of fabric from the table – no more and no less. Next, join a group to help them build the best quilt you can. You may not exchange fabric once you choose. No sewing is required. Simply place your fabric on the ground as if you were going to sew patches of fabric together to create the quilt. Have fun!” When all individuals are out of the puzzle room and in the quilt room, allow two more minutes to complete the quilts.

Debrief 0:30–1:00 (30 minutes)

The debrief may take place inside the quilt room or back in the classroom depending on group size. If debriefing inside the quilt room, have each quilt leader describe how the design of the quilt emerged. If debriefing outside the quilt room, give students time to walk through the quilt room to study all of the quilt designs before leaving the room. Begin with questions:

  • How many preferred the puzzle? Why?
  • How many preferred the quilt? Why?

Focus on quilts:

  • Ask the leaders about how the design came to be.
  • Ask team members why they joined one team versus another.
  • How did it feel moving from puzzle to quilts?
  • What type of thinking was required for each part of the exercise?

Summary

At this time, it’s important to introduce the concepts of puzzle as managerial thinking and quilts as entrepreneurial thinking. Puzzle as managerial thinking:

  • The goal is well defined (the puzzle picture is typically on the outside of the box).
  • Determine resources to achieve the goal (puzzle pieces).
  • Create a plan (put pieces in piles by colour, and start with the edges).
  • Execute the plan (edges first).
  • Measure progress along the way.
  • Goal achieved – the puzzle looks just like the picture on the front of the box! Well done!

Quilt as entrepreneurial thinking:

  • Entrepreneurs start with what they have rather than what they need (fabric pieces).
  • When entrepreneurs are not sure what to do their only choice is to act (pick a group and get to work)
  • The design of the quilt emerges over time because it’s difficult to plan (the quilt keeps changing every time a new person enters the group and the environment and resources change).
  • You never really know when it’s quite finished.
  • Creating something new requires iteration rather than linear problem solving.

Optional Leadership Debrief 1:00–1:20 (20 minutes)

  • What is leadership? (Ask them to write down their definition.)
  • How did you “see” leadership around you? (Call on several different quilt groups.)
  • How did you “see” followership?
  • Who were the assigned leaders?
  • Did the rest of you know there were assigned leaders?
  • Pick an assigned leader and ask that person to describe his or her experience.
  • When and how do you decide whether to lead or follow?
  • What is the difference between leadership, management, and entrepreneurship?
  • What is entrepreneurial leadership?

Key Takeaways

  • Under conditions of extreme uncertainty the only choice is action.
  • One form of thinking (entrepreneurial or managerial) is not necessarily better than the other, yet it is important to understand the environmental context. If the skills for completing a jigsaw puzzle (managerial thinking) are used to solve a complicated problem in an uncertain environment, students are likely to run into one roadblock after another. However, if students can get more comfortable with quilt making (entrepreneurial thinking), then they may be able to navigate the terrain of entrepreneurship with greater aptitude.
  • Action trumps planning in uncertain environments.

Teaching Tips

It is preferable not to refer to the exercise as the “quilt exercise” prior to conducting the exercise, as it rather gives away the punch line. Pacing is very important. As soon as the quilt leaders have placed their fabric on the ground, volunteers should be pulled out of the puzzle room approximately every three minutes. Fast pace is much better than a slow pace.

Skill Development:

This exercise is an interactive challenge designed to help raise student awareness of the difference between managerial and entrepreneurial thinking. It also is a strong illustration of how to gain a better understanding of the impact of increasing degrees of uncertainty on the entrepreneurial process.

Resources:

Materials List

  • Jigsaw puzzles (one per group, 300 pieces).
  • Fabric remnants (approximately six pieces per person).
  • Two rooms (one with tables equal to number of groups and one empty).
  • The exercise is adapted from Saras Sarasvathy’s crazy quilt principle within her work on effectual entrepreneurship.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.105 – 109). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Neck, H.M. 2011. Cognitive ambidexterity: The underlying mental model of the entrepreneurial leader. In D. Greenberg, K. McKone- Sweet, and H.J. Wilson (eds.)The New Entrepreneurial Leader: Developing Leaders Who Will Shape Social and Economic Opportunities (pp. 24–42). San Francisco: Berrett- Koehler.
  • Sarasvathy, S. 2008. Effectuation: Elements of Entrepreneurial Expertise. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Schlesinger, L., and Kieffer, C. 2012. Just Start. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.105 – 109). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub. and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.,

About the Author
This guide was produced by Heidi M. Neck & Patricia G. Green..

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Case Examples

Chemistry in Practice : Final Year Module

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation

Objective:

  • To practice key techniques in the lab
  • To apply experimental practice to ‘real world’ environment
  • To explore for new opportunities and applications of key skills in new settings and commercial environments

Introduction:

This ‘revamp’ of pre-existing module has been highly successful in broadening the students approach and experience of the ‘real world’ application, without requiring revalidation of the module objectives. The traditional approach of weekly lab-practicals was typically delivered with a method sheet and work plan for the students to follow in order to refresh their practical lab skills.  Additional information relating to the application of these techniques within local small businesses or as global opportunities for new markets, has refreshed the programme and created opportunities for idea creation and evaluation.

Activity:
 
This final year module was traditionally offered to refresh lab techniques and reinforce key methods.  In order to deepen the skill development, it was possible to find a ‘real-world’ application of each technique and provide a small vignette about each company using this approach.  Details were provided regarding the potential market, income stream and how this process added value, together with the traditional lab/method outline.  During their practical work student groups were encouraged to consider:

  • Possible new markets for this technique
  • Extensions of the product offer
  • Development of the technique (to reduce cost; improve speed and safety on a commercial scale)

And invited to research the company and approach during the week, for discussion at the next practical.  This allowed for additional market research to be included in their proposed approach and their understanding of the market-use of their skills be deepened.

Impact:

The impact was significant as this ‘revision’ model was enlivened by the real-world examples and discussions that then naturally occurred between the teams and across the group. Quick research (from smart phones and tablets) within the groups allowed for ideas to be developed or dismissed and extensions of thinking develop from undertaking the process. 
The impact was beneficial in terms of the commercial understanding of the students, but also improved their interest and retention of this module.

Learner outcome:
 
The outcomes for the students saw the revision of their practical skills firmly anchored in the ‘real-world’. For final year students, this learning supported the transition out of the University and into first jobs and felt very relevant. All the students responded well to the new information and absorbed the additional task within the traditional time allowed.

Resources:

Lab practical – undertaken in lab with pre-drafted method and notes – supported by the creation of individual vignettes relating to the commercial or practical use of each technique. 
This are created through research (desk) as well as through contacts with business and industry (local companies using the approaches and techniques).

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Developing Commercial Awareness Amongst Experienced Chemistry Students

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

Objective:

  • The intervention addressed an identified need for Chemistry students to leave studies with a greater understanding of the potential commercial applications of their knowledge.

Introduction:

During the Autumn term of 2012 Cardiff University Enterprise in conjunction with staff from the Cardiff School of Chemistry carried out an enterprise education intervention delivered as part of a 20 credit module entitled ‘Training in Research Methods’ on which both final year undergraduate and Masters level postgraduate students were enrolled.

The intervention delivered concurrently to a total of 45 students.

The intervention sought to provide experienced Chemistry students who will soon be entering the employment market with an introductory understanding of commercial drivers and processes and an awareness of issues specific to industries which draw upon graduates of Chemistry. Additionally the reflective element of the assessment tasks addressed issues of professional identity and development among learners by requiring them to consider how they might apply their learning in a professional context.

The need for science graduates to enter the workplace with an awareness of the commercial environment and appropriate professional skills has been extensively asserted in recent years.

Examples include:

  • The Wilson Review of business and university collaboration (2012) has asserted the need for further development of curriculum based enterprise skills and business experience provision for students across disciplines.
  • The Royal Society of Chemistry has documented the challenges faced by the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in recruiting and retaining skilled chemical science graduates as a result of the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of the sector and thus drains on talent to other parts of industry (2006).
  • The QAA Chemistry benchmarks document (2007) advocates a range of attributes expected of a chemistry graduate including written and oral communication, problem solving, interpersonal and teamwork, planning and time management, decision making skills and the ability to undertake independent learning for continued professional development. Additionally, a graduate should ‘develop an awareness of issues within chemistry that overlap with other related disciplines’ and should be ‘suitably prepared for contemporary professional practice in the chemical sciences’.

Activity:

The intervention consisted of 6 hours of contact time delivered in 3 x 2 hour sessions over a period of 3 weeks. This was supported by directed reading, provision of relevant documentation and web sources delivered via Learning Central. Teaching content provided an introductory overview of the commercial process, where appropriate highlighting aspects specific to Chemistry related industries and included presentational delivery supported by discipline specific video resources. This was consolidated via class based discussion and active learning tasks which encouraged the application of knowledge and skills addressed in the content delivery.

There were two parts to the enterprise education element of the module assessment, both specifically aligned with delivered content.

The first part was a group assessed experiential learning project requiring students to engage in collaborative enquiry based learning which saw them researching the commercial process as it applied to a product solution of their own creation. The task required students to form their own teams of up to 4 persons, identify a real market need, generate a fictional product solution, identify and research an appropriate real world company that might take such a product to market, write a collaborative feasibility report addressing key aspects of the commercial process, and finally arrive at an informed conclusion as to the business viability of their proposed product.

The second part of the assessment required learners to individually reflect upon the learning they had undertaken via the delivered content and the first part of the assessment. Additionally learners were prompted to consider how such learning might be applied or have relevance within future professional ambitions.

Students in Action

Impact:

The teaching intervention was successful with generally positive student engagement and feedback. A survey of the feasibility report assessment submissions demonstrates a good level of research, interpretation, understanding and application of commercial awareness and associated skills among students. There were several outstanding submissions which demonstrated an impressive level of engagement. A review of student reflective reports further evidences a high level of student learning progression and contextualisation of the subject matter with many communicating insight as to the relevance and importance of commercial awareness with regards to graduate employment opportunities.

It was noted that there had been some initial resistance to the enterprise element of the course from certain student sections. This stemmed from the fact that students had had no contact with enterprise education in any form prior to their final year studies, resulting in the perception that it was not relevant to their theoretical learning. The learning and assessment exercises played a key role in addressing and over turning this perception, with a number of student reflective papers highlighting an increased understanding of the relevance of commercial awareness to the professional application of Chemistry studies. This experience has resulted in the School of Chemistry identifying a need for earlier small scale enterprise interventions in Years 1 and 2 of the Chemistry programme, something Cardiff University Enterprise will be supporting the development of during the next year.

Learner outcome:

Examples of student reflection;

“At the time of commencing the business module, I was confused as to the relevance that enterprise and commercial awareness had on my chemistry degree . . . It soon became apparent that in the post–degree economic working environment, a knowledge and awareness of commercialisation would stand me in good stead for any career path I choose to follow.”

“The module has made me feel more confident in applying the skills associated with business and commercial awareness to my knowledge in Chemistry. The video clips from the RSC about the commercialising of chemical inventions definitely opened my eyes to the great potential of launching a business product using both my Chemistry knowledge, and the processes learnt from the business module.”

“The authoring of the feasibility report has given me much greater awareness of the business process and the importance of a feasibility study prior to committing investment. As a science student I enjoy applying scientific principles of logic and analysis and was pleased to find similar principles in the process of a feasibility study, in that specific criteria, such as viable market, production and distribution cost are applied to a concept to establish its commercial viability.”

“On attending three classes specifically aimed for a student who had not taken any previous business classes I gained answers to questions I did not know I needed to ask. I found the class on intellectual property most interesting as I wish to pursue a career in scientific research I think patenting and protecting new designs and innovation takes a very important role in my potential line of work. I see this as a vital part for any business and it has the up-most priority over other aspects. The implications of patenting a product and such were something I had not thought about before, however I now see the significance of IP.”

“If I was to choose to become an entrepreneur, I would consider taking a Masters course in business management after my degree, as I have found the sessions very inspiring and would like to know more.”

“My learning of the steps required for a product to go to market has increased significantly. I have benefited from this enormously as before I thought it was a lot easier to bring a product to market. I did not understand the finance side or implications on the public. Just to have a good ‘idea’ is not enough and I now have a more clear idea of how, if I wanted to, to go through taking a product to market. There are a lot more financial implications that I previously reasoned with. It was good practise to perform a SWOT analysis for the product and have since done one of my own relating to my future professional career; I feel this is now a good basic process for any person/company to go through.”

“Reflecting back on the audit of my enterprise skills I filled out at the start of this enterprise and entrepreneurship section of the module and how poorly I rated myself in most categories I begin to realise how much I have learned over its duration, especially considering the scepticism I held for it at its introduction. For me the most one of the challenging aspect of the sessions was the introspective learning that arose from analysing my own inadequacies and addressing them. . . I believe that analysing my skills and seeing the improvements that can be made in them in a relatively short space of time as improved my self-confidence, not just in my own enterprise skills but generally.”

“Having analysed my personal learning outcomes of these sessions I now feel I have significantly developed my skills in enterprise and improved my understanding of business and entrepreneurship as a whole. Most importantly I have learned their relevance to my professional career and therefore developed an ambition to further improve and develop this skill set in preparation for the challenges I will face in my professional career. This understanding will be essential to me in professional life and I am not yet entirely confident about many aspects of it, I will therefore need to continue to put into practice what I have learned develop these areas further.”

“A section of the report I found most interesting was the research on patents. . . There are so many types and they are applicable to so much more in everyday life than expected. In reference to the pharmaceutical industry in particular, I found how the law limits or prevents certain patents interesting, because as a result, some companies mark up prices to retain profits. This I found especially interesting as it is relevant to my degree. The pharmaceutical industry employs a high number of chemistry graduates and so knowledge will always be beneficial to me, but more so that I identified this as an area where I may actually want to seek further employment.”

These examples of curriculum development for enterprise related outcomes were originally outlined by Neil Coles at the International Enterprise Educators Conference under the heading 'From Archaeology to Zoology; an A-Z of enterprise in the curriculum'.

For his work in contextualising enterprise for any subject, Neil won the 2013 National Enterprise Educator Award.

References

About the Author
This guide was produced by Neil Coles. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- enterprise@cardiff.ac.uk .

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Workshop: Business Planning (QAA 1,2,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To provide students with an opportunity to identify and reflect on their own skills.
  • To provide students with an opportunity to generate business ideas, and identify opportunities.
  • To provide students with knowledge and understanding of how to write and structure a business plan.
  • To provide students with an understanding of how to use a business plan effectively.
  • To provide students with an awareness of the advice, resources and support available to them.

Overview:

A well-structured, well-research and well-written business plan is an invaluable asset to any new enterprise. Yet many students considering starting up report difficulty in developing business plans and in particular, plans which actively work for them and their business.

Business Planning is a workshop serving as an introduction to the subject, inclusive of opportunities to reflect on skills and generate ideas, and information regarding how to build a strong and cohesive plan around those ideas, and advice regarding using that plan, to turn those ideas into successful businesses.
 
The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, but inclusive of ample opportunities for extension, through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, and could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. It is designed to be appropriate for students of any level or programme of study. It was originally developed through the HEFCW funded pan-Wales Enterprise Support Programme.

Lesson plans and AV presentations for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the ‘ZONE Enterprise Hub’ webpages listed in ‘References’ and ‘Resources.’

Activity:

The activity follows the structure outlined in the ‘Business Planning’ PowerPoint presentation, inclusive of all links and examples.

  

Figure 1. PowerPoint presentation which accompanies this activity.

Pre-Activity

Students are not required to prepare anything in advance of this workshop. For workshop leaders, preparation is minimal, other than ensuring supporting AV resources are displaying correctly.

Introduction

  • Students are welcomed and introduced to the themes that will be covered during the workshop.
  • The group may be invited to share their own business experience or business ideas.

Why Bother?

  • Students are asked to discuss and share where they see their ideas and business endeavours 10 years from now.
  • Students are provided with a basic definition of a business plan.
  • Students discuss the purpose of a business plan. Points are suggested and debated.

What to think about?

  • Students are asked to reflect on the skills which they possess.
  • Students are asked to explore and identify the products and services they can offer, supported by their skill set.
  • Students explore how, by reflecting on a particular product or service, they can consider pricing, branding, marketing and sales.
  • An indicative example is offered within the PowerPoint presentation to illustrate this. If desired, you may wish to reinforce this by working through a real example offered by a member of the audience.
  • (An activity allowing students to identify their skills, and explore opportunities in a greater degree of depth can be found in How To Guide ‘Workshop: Breaking Problems Down and Putting Solutions Together.’)

What to write down?

  • The key elements of a basic business plan are covered step by step, with class discussion of the key points at each stage. Namely, the elements covered are; The Executive Summary, The Business Vision, Marketing, Running the Business, Finance.
  • Students are introduced to SWOT analysis. If desired, a member of the audience may be invited to offer their own business idea as an example, which a SWOT analysis can be worked through for collectively.
  • Students are introduced to cash flow forecast. Again if desired, an indicative example may be offered to demonstrate how the forecast works.

Help and support

Students are provided with links and information regarding the support, advice and assistance available to them as they develop their business plans.

Conclusion

The key themes covered in the workshop are re-capped, and students are invited to ask any outstanding questions which they may have.

Post-Activity

This workshop is intended only as an introduction to the subject of Business Planning. Following the activity, students may utilise the information provided to research and develop their plans independently, or each element of the workshop may be revisited and explored in more depth by the group.

Skill Development:

Students will leave the workshop with greater confidence in their ability, with a better understanding of their skills, and how these skills will support the development of their endeavours. They will have a better knowledge and understanding of business plans and how to develop them, and a greater awareness of how to use business plans to effectively support them in their endeavours.

Resources:

PowerPoint Slides accompanying this activity can be downloaded here > Business Planning [PDF]

References:

Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11 . [Accessed 05 August 2015].

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran .

Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Teaching Entrepreneurship A Practice Based Approach Exercise Business Model Canvas Game (QAA 1,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Reflect on the meaning and importance of the nine business model components. 
  • Demonstrate how the ordering on the canvas categorizes components as generating value or creating efficiency to deliver value. 
  • Discuss and debate the ordering proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010).

Overview:

The Business Model Canvas (http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/ canvas) has become a popular teaching tool in entrepreneurship classrooms. It is not my intention here to introduce the canvas or illustrate how it works. Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) do a magnificent job explaining the canvas, articulating the theory behind the canvas, and offering many ways to use the canvas. This exercise is a quick game to help students reflect on the nature and ordering of the nine business model components found on the canvas as proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works well for both undergraduate and graduate audiences. The exercise is best used in a course or class session where the Business Model Canvas is first being introduced.

Activity:

Pre- Work Required by Students - None.

Time Plan (30 minutes)

The Game Setup 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes) 

Before introducing the canvas, simply introduce that there are nine components of a business model. I typically show a PowerPoint slide with the nine components listed in random order. Tell the students that there is a particular order to the components, but they need to figure out what the order is. In other words, they need to determine which of the components should be considered first, second, and so on. What’s most important to start with and what’s least important? Separate students into teams of five (maximum).

The Game 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes) 

Give each team a deck of cards (see resources) and ask them to place them in order from one to nine (10 minutes). After 10 minutes, give each team a long piece of masking tape and have them tape the order of their cards to the wall or board, so everyone can see the differences across the team.

The Discussion 0:15–0:30 (15 minutes) 

Now it is time to introduce the ordering that Osterwalder and Pigneur use. Their book (see Theoretical Foundations) is quite helpful if you are not familiar with the canvas. I typically give out a copy of the Business Model Canvas to each student prior to disclosing the order. The ordering of the components is: 

  1. Customer segments
  2. Value proposition
  3. Channels
  4. Customer relationships
  5. Revenue streams
  6. Key resources
  7. Key activities
  8. Key partners
  9. Cost structure

Usually student teams will have either customer segments or value propositions first and this creates a wonderful debate in the class. Introduce the order of the components one by one while also explaining what each component is. After walking through the components and discussing the differences in order created by each team I end the exercise with a brief discussion summarizing the order. At the end of the day, the ordering really does not matter because the canvas is meant to be an iterative, working document that will continuously change as you learn new information from every action taken or experiment conducted. What is most interesting about the design of the canvas and its ordering is found when you fold the canvas in half (left to right). 

According to Osterwalder and Pigneur, the right side of the canvas is concerned with creating and generating value. The left side of the canvas is concerned with generating efficiencies to deliver that value. As such, an entrepreneur needs to first determine or create the value and then develop the approach to deliver that value. Innovation, novelty, creativity, and competitive advantage are most often found in the value creation. So, start on the right!

Teaching Tips

The most important reason that I do this exercise is to get the students thinking about each component on their own in teams rather than just “telling” them about each component. Expect raging debates about customer segments versus value propositions as being first in the order. It is always a great conversation to have.

Skill Development: 

Key Takeaways

  • It is important to think about the ordering of the components but not be wedded to one particular ordering. 
  • A business model is about value creation, delivery, and capture – but start with creation and think about cost last. 
  • Focusing too soon on cost structure and resources can diminish the innovativeness of new ideas. This can happen when we start on the left side of the canvas.

Resources: 

Materials List

Instructors will need to create decks of “business model component cards.” One deck is needed per team in the class. Each deck is comprised of nine index cards. On each card should be one of the nine business model components: customer segments, value propositions, channels, customer relationships, revenue streams, key resources, key activities, key partners, cost structure. Given that this is the actual order recommended by Osterwalder & Pigneur, it is important that the cards in the deck are not in this order. You may also want to have copies of the Business Model Canvas to distribute as well, but after the game. A copy of the canvas can be obtained at http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695 

References:

This exercise is taken from;

•Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.136 – 138). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Theoretical Foundations

•Osterwalder, A., and Pigneur, Y. 2010. Business Model Generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Heidi M. Neck.

Competitor Analysis: SWOT Analysis (QAA2,3,4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

To create a clear understanding of their competitors, using SW analysis.

Overview: 

A SWOT analysis is a useful tool for analysis, when actions and conclusions are drawn from it.  

Activity: 

Instructions

Invite the entrepreneur / small business owner to identify their key competitors (at least 3), and list the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Examples of strengths and weaknesses for a bicycle manufacturing business,

Strengths 

  • Reliable products
  • Well respected brand 
  • Competitively priced
  • Focussed on specialist market 

Weaknesses

  • Limited capacity to produce 
  • Outdated methods of production
  • Lack of marketing expertise
  • Low profit margin

Consideration should then be given to each of the competitors, and compared with the entrepreneur or small business owners’ view of their own business.

  • What can be learnt from the competitors’ strengths?  
  • What can be done better than the competition?
  • Are there any weaknesses that can be exploited?

This analysis can then inform what approach the entrepreneur / small business owner takes to developing their own business and to understand how they can best create or sustain a competitive advantage.

The key to using SWOT is now determine a course of action from this analysis.

Students can be invited to present their work and comment to provide constructive criticism, which is future focused.  

Skill Development:

By placing a clear focus on future action, rather than analysis, this will build skills of evaluation, decision making and judgement which lend themselves to action.  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Lisa McMullan.

Preparing a Sales Forecast (QAA3,4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

  • Understand the factors to consider when producing a sales forecast for their business
  • Understand the implications of variations from forecasts, particularly in terms of receiving payments

Overview: 

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for the entrepreneur / small business owner to develop their forecasting skills and consider different scenarios of their business performance, specifically in terms of potential sales. 

Activity:

To consider and collate information to produce informed sale forecasts, gather the relevant information:


The Sales Forecast Checklist

  1. Details of any orders secured
  2. List all customers you expect to sell to over the forecast period, and how much you expect to sell to each.
  3. Market research data to support or verify these forecasts. What information have you gathered from potential customers?
  4. Supporting information such as examples from other similar ventures started recently, and drawing from company accounts and other sources.

Using this information prepare a sales forecast by value and volume for each major product group (e.g. for a hotel: bedrooms, restaurant) throughout the period of the business plan – at least 12 months.

 Month 1Month 2Month 3TotalNotes & Assumptions
Product 1          
Unit price          
No. of units sold        0  
Sales income (a) - - - -  
Product 1          
Unit price          
No. of units sold        0  
Sales income (b) - - - -  
Product 1           
Unit price          
No. of units sold        0  
Sales income (c) - - - -  
Total sales (a + b + c) - - - -  

Skill Development: 

This breaks down some of the key thinking and skills of the entrepreneur and allows the students to work through their assumptions.  This can be conducted in groups, or as individuals, allowing students to focus on start-up.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

New Applications for Lab Practice (QAA 1,2)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation

Objective

  • To practice key techniques in the lab
  • To apply experimental practice to ‘real world’ environment
  • To explore for new opportunities and applications of key skills in new settings and commercial environments

Introduction

This ‘revamp’ of pre-existing module has been highly successful in broadening the students approach and experience of the ‘real world’ application, without requiring revalidation of the module objectives. The traditional approach of weekly lab-practicals was typically delivered with a method sheet and work plan for the students to follow in order to refresh their practical lab skills. Additional information relating to the application of these techniques within local small businesses or as global opportunities for new markets, has refreshed the programme and created opportunities for idea creation and evaluation.

Activity

This final year module was traditionally offered to refresh lab techniques and reinforce key methods. In order to deepen the skill development, it was possible to find a ‘real-world’ application of each technique and provide a small vignette about each company using this approach. Details were provided regarding the potential market, income stream and how this process added value, together with the traditional lab/method outline. During their practical work student groups were encouraged to consider.

  • Possible new markets for this technique
  • Extensions of the product offer
  • Development of the technique (to reduce cost; improve speed and safety on a commercial scale)

And invited to research the company and approach during the week, for discussion at the next practical. This allowed for additional market research to be included in their proposed approach and their understanding of the market-use of their skills be deepened.

Impact

The impact was significant as this ‘revision’ model was enlivened by the real-world examples and discussions that then naturally occurred between the teams and across the group. Quick research (from smart phones and tablets) within the groups allowed for ideas to be developed or dismissed and extensions of thinking develop from undertaking the process.

The impact was beneficial in terms of the commercial understanding of the students, but also improved their interest and retention of this module.

Learner Outcome

The outcomes for the students saw the revision of their practical skills firmly anchored in the ‘real-world’. For final year students, this learning supported the transition out of the University and into first jobs and felt very relevant. All the students responded well to the new information and absorbed the additional task within the traditional time allowed.

Resources

Lab practical – undertaken in lab with pre-drafted method and notes – supported by the creation of individual vignettes relating to the commercial or practical use of each technique.

This are created through research (desk) as well as through contacts with business and industry (local companies using the approaches and techniques).

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price (Enterprise Evolution).

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Additional Resources

Cases Studies of Good Practice

can be found in Higher Education Academy booklet (2014) Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education Case Studies and includes an example from University of Reading (BSc Chemistry).

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf