Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Self–discipline & Self-direction
  • Independence of mind and initiative
  • Capacity for reflexive learning
  • Analytical ability and the capacity to formulate questions and solve problems
  • Team work skills

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: IMPROVISATION FOR CREATIVITY (QAA 1,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • Cultivate an entrepreneurial mind-set.
  • Recognize limitations of entrepreneurial thinking (what holds one back).
  • Practice improvisation for idea generation and creativity.

Overview:

This series of three short improvisational exercises offers students the opportunity to identify personal limitations to idea generation and reflect on situations where creativity may have been stifled. Students will consider their personal abilities and reactions to their improvisational abilities, as well as approaches to incorporate improvisational thinking in entrepreneurial endeavours. The overall goal is to demonstrate how students can develop an entrepreneurial mind-set through improvisation. Such exercises are routinely used for developing improvisational actors as well as for pre-show warm- ups for the actors. This methodology was created in the 1960s and remains the standard by which individuals learn to improvise. Improvisation is an important component of the entrepreneurship method because idea generation and the ability to incorporate relevant, timely information are critical skills for developing new ventures that will not only survive but thrive.

Usage Suggestions 

These exercises work for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, or practitioner. It is particularly relevant for new venture creation courses, entrepreneurial creativity and/or leadership courses, entrepreneurship boot-camps, and workshops.

Activity:

Pre-Work Required by Students

The optional readings may be used for pre-work or post-work, depending on the audience (see ‘Theoretical Foundation in ‘References’).

Time Plan (1 hour)

This exercise can be extended to longer sessions so that students can begin brainstorming entrepreneurial ventures. For the purposes of an initial introduction to improvisation, this teaching note has been written so that the exercise requires at least 60 minutes.

Introduction 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes)

Begin the exercise by introducing the concept of improvisation: Ask students generally if they know what improvisation means. Opening questions for the discussion can include:

  • What does improvisation mean to you? 
  • Where have you seen improvisation? 
  • Has anyone performed improvisation? Seen it performed?

Overview 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes)

Explain how the students will learn the basics of improvisation and see how they could apply it to entrepreneurship, in particular idea generation and creating new ventures. The instructor can show examples of comedy improvisation performance (either live or through video clips from YouTube. Some good short examples include scenes from the ABC show Whose Line Is It Anyway? An example clip can be found at http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v5Qd8bvNW9_h4).

After sharing an example, discuss how performing improvisation can be learned: there are lessons offered for comedy improvisation and improvisational acting performance in improv theatres worldwide. An established framework exists to learn how to improvise. For this class, improvisation equals thinking on your feet. They will now be “in” an improv classroom, and every improvisation theatre class begins with warm-ups. In order to think on their feet, they have to get up on their feet.

Warm-Up 1 0:15–0:20 (5 minutes)

  • Tell them to begin walking around the classroom and to observe every single object in the room.
  • Then tell them to point at objects as they walk past them.
  • As they point at each object they are to say what it is out loud – only they cannot call it what it actually is. They are to label it something it is not. And they are to do it quickly. Provide a quick example by pointing to an object in the room like the board and then say out loud “dog,” and then point at another object like the desk and call it “potato” or whatever comes to mind.
  • After one to two minutes of them walking and pointing and labeling out loud, ask them to stop and be silent wherever they are for a group discussion. When they stop, have them discuss how the experience of labeling objects was for them. Try to push them to explain what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief: 
  • How was this experience?
  • Did you find this exercise difficult to do? Why?

Summary of Warm-Up 1

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • How difficult it is to break away from known “answers”;
  • How frequently they can get stuck in known patterns of thinking;
  • The ease with which they start creating patterns with a known grouping (e.g. eggplant, cucumber, tomato, lettuce), which is a way to make the experience easier (get the “right” answer) as opposed to pushing and fostering creativity;
  • The need for students to want to be in control, rather than searching for newness or playing;
  • Feeling the sense of awkwardness in saying the “wrong” label out loud, but having others around doing a similar activity makes the exercise less awkward;
  • How easy it can be just to listen to others and follow their answers rather than coming up with their own new idea.

Warm-Up 2 0:20–0:25 (5 minutes)

  • Tell them to begin walking around the classroom again.
  • When they come up to another student, they are to point at another student and name an animal, any animal that comes to mind, e.g. two students face each other and one points at the other and says “horse.”
  • Then tell them that the student who has been pointed at and labelled with a type of animal has to make the sound of the animal. If they do not know what sound the animal makes, they are to make it up and make some sort of sound.
  • Then they switch, and the student who just produced the animal sound – in this example, the horse sounds – points at the first student and names an animal, e.g. “cat.” This student then makes the sounds of whatever animal he or she was given.
  • Once the interaction is completed, and both students in the pair have completed their animal sounds, they are to find new partners and repeat the warm-up exercise with two or three other students.
  • After two to three minutes of animal sounds, ask them to stop and be silent wherever they are for a group discussion. Have them discuss how the experience of making animal sounds was for them. Try to push them again to explain what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief:
  • How was this experience? Did you find this exercise difficult to do? Why? 

Summary of Warm-Up 2

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • Feeling a great sense of awkwardness – they are doing something they would normally be comfortable doing with children, but typically have never done in a classroom of adults or peers;
  • Not knowing the right “answer” or sound a particular animal makes, they would feel very frustrated, and then forget the instruction they were given to just make it up;
  • Once again, the ease with which they follow patterns – patterns offer a way to make the exercise “easier,” as they offer a means to come up with an answer or a label quickly rather than pushing creativity;
  • How difficult it is for them to have no control as to what they have to do, rather than stepping back, enjoying the ambiguity, and searching for newness or playing;
  • The fear they have of being “foolish” in a professional setting, how they do not want to be embarrassed by acting silly in front of others, and, in addition, the fear of feeling guilty, foolish, or rude for labelling others as certain types of animals with distinct connotations;
  • This fear leads to self-judging and/or editing before they label their peer with an animal or before making the corresponding animal sound.

Warm-Up 3 0:25–0:35 (10 minutes)

  • Tell them to form groups of four wherever they are in the room.
  • Then instruct them to play a game of word association, where anyone can go first, say a word, whatever word comes to mind.
  • The person to the left listens to the word and then says a word that comes to mind based on the word he or she just heard.
  • They continue in this way until you stop them, and they are to go as fast as they can (tell them to listen for further instruction).
  • Once they get started, let them go for a minute or so, and then very loudly instruct them to “Switch directions!”

After another one to two minutes of word association, ask them to stop and be silent. You can have them return to their seats at this point or have them stay where they are for the final group discussion. Now have them discuss how the word association experience was for them. Most will say this was easier to do, as they were in a group setting. So push them to explain what was happening rather than what they were feeling. Some of the following questions can be used for this debrief: 

  • How was this experience? If this was easier than the last two warm- ups, why?
  • If you found this exercise more difficult than the last two, why?
  • What happened when you were told to change directions? Why did this happen?

Summary of Warm-Up 3

Students should experience and be able to articulate:

  • The ease again they experienced of getting into routines or patterns – how much they wanted to “control” the situation and outcomes;
  • How much they were trying to be clever, or funny, rather than just coming up with any word that came to mind and following the exercise;
  • Typically they do not enjoy the ambiguity and opportunity to play and explore newness;
  • Self- judging occurs again, they feel limited in the direction for the exercise, and what words they allow themselves to say owing to their need to feel included or pressure to continue established patterns rather than pushing creativity and undefined randomness;
  • Students typically are not listening to the last word they just heard, and instead they focus on the words that people two ahead of them in the exercise are saying, as this way they can plan their response (this is highlighted with the change directions instruction).

Discussion 0:35–1:00 (25 minutes)

Once the students return to their seats, have them form groups of three to four and discuss what might be preventing their idea generation efforts related to initial new venture concepts. They should explore what holds them back when considering what they might do. Have them discuss the specific difficulties they experienced personally during the improvisation exercises and how they might get past these limitations to develop a more entrepreneurial mind-set. Have a member of each group report out one recommendation for fostering creativity through improvisation. A closing discussion should include how to incorporate improvisation in their idea generation practices.

Teaching Tips

It is important to keep the warm-up exercises moving fast. It might be helpful to tell the students before they begin the exercises that they will feel really uncomfortable, but feeling uncomfortable is the point of the exercise. In the debrief discussions, some students will genuinely enjoy the exercises and will say they found nothing in them difficult. Asking for a show of hands of those who found the exercise difficult to do first is often a better way to begin the debrief, before asking about how they found the experience (in case the students who enjoyed the exercises stifle the discussion). In warm- up 3 it is very helpful to move around the room encouraging groups to speed up their words so that there are no long pauses. It is important for them to think quickly and see how to come up with new ideas rather than thinking or planning and judging their ideas before they see where the new ideas can take them.

Skill Development:

Key Takeaways

  • How to incorporate improvisation to develop an entrepreneurial mind-set: being quick on your feet and adapting or reacting rather than planning and pre-judging.
  • Identifying and recognizing personal limitations to entrepreneurial thinking (why students are held back from creativity in idea generation, what their personal pitfalls are).
  • How to develop an entrepreneurial mind-set by incorporating tenets of fast and free thinking through improvisation for idea generation and creativity.

Resources:

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.118 - 124). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Attribution

  • These exercises are based on foundational exercises used in improvisational training, widely taught in improvisational theatre courses worldwide.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Spolin, V. 1959. Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Johnstone, K. 1999. Impro for Storytellers. New York: Routledge/Theatre Arts Books.
  • Hmieleski, K.M., and Corbett, A.C. 2008. The contrasting interaction effects of improvisational behaviour with entrepreneurial self-efficacy on new venture performance and entrepreneur work satisfaction. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(4), 482–96.
  • Neck, H.M. 2010. Idea generation. In B. Bygrave and A. Zacharakis (eds.), Portable MBA in Entrepreneurship (pp. 27–52). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Balachandra, L., and Wheeler, M. 2006. What negotiators can learn from improv comedy. Negotiation, 9, 1–3.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.118 - 124). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub, and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Lakshmi Balachandra.

Problem Solving and Consenus Building (QAA 1,2,3,4,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

The learner will be able to explore an idea or concept as openly as possible to gather a wide range of solutions through the power of group work and seek to build a consensus through: 

  • Developing problem-solving skills as team members 
  • Analysing information (and working with limited information) 
  • Negotiating and cooperating with one another.
  • Listening and leading 
  • Group Decision making (consensus building) 

Overview:

The focus within this task is open idea generation within a team, pooling the expertise/wisdom of the group to create ideas that can then be evaluated and explored.

Within this scenario, participants must pretend that they've been shipwrecked and are stranded in a life boat. Each team has a box of matches, and a number of items that they've salvaged from the sinking ship but they can’t keep them all within the lifeboat. Members must agree which items are most important for their survival as they need to prioritise.  

Activity:

The challenge should be issued to the group, and time given to the challenge individually.  This is important in creating the challenge of consensus building as it allows to think about the problem individually; continues the cycle of presentation and discussion in groups evaluate the process to draw out their experiences until the whole team has had a chance to voice their opinions and how teams arrive at consensus decision where everyone's opinion is heard.

Time:         Flexible, but normally between 25 and 40 minutes
Number:     Up to 5 people in each group

Instructions

1. Divide participants into their small teams, and provide everyone with a ranking sheet (with two columns).

2. Ask team members to take 10 minutes on their own to rank the items in order of importance. They should do this in the second column of their sheet.

3. Give the teams a further 10 minutes to confer and decide on their group rankings. Once agreed, they should list them in the third column of their sheets.

4. Ask each group to compare their individual rankings with their collective ones, and consider why any scores differ. Did anyone change their mind about their own rankings during the team discussions? How much were people influenced by the group conversation?

5. Now read out the "correct" order, collated by the experts at the US Coast Guard (from most to least important): 

    1. Shaving mirror. (One of your most powerful tools, because you can use it to signal your location by reflecting the sun.) 
    2. Can of petrol. (Again, potentially vital for signalling as petrol floats on water and can be lit by your matches.)  
    3. Water container. (Essential for collecting water to restore your lost fluids.) 
    4. Emergency rations. (Valuable for basic food intake.) 
    5. Plastic sheet. (Could be used for shelter, or to collect rainwater.) 
    6. Chocolate bars. (A handy food supply.) 
    7. Fishing rod. (Potentially useful, but there is no guarantee that you're able to catch fish. Could also feasibly double as a tent pole.) 
    8. Rope. (Handy for tying equipment together, but not necessarily vital for survival.) 
    9. Floating seat or cushion. (Useful as a life preserver.) 
    10. Shark repellent. (Potentially important when in the water.) 
    11. Bottle of rum. (Could be useful as an antiseptic for treating injuries, but will only dehydrate you if you drink it.) 
    12. Radio. (Chances are that you're out of range of any signal, anyway.) 
    13. Sea chart. (Worthless without navigational equipment.) 
    14. Mosquito net. (Assuming that you've been shipwrecked in the Atlantic, where there are no mosquitoes, this is pretty much useless.) 
    15. Sextant. (Impractical without relevant tables or a chronometer.)

Once the general discussion relating to the individual scoring has died away, draw the discussion to the team approach and explore issues of leadership, listening, negotiation, decision-making and consensus building.

Skill Development:

It is typical of many ice-breaker tasks that the learning is not within the task objective, but within the team process and often the desire to complete the task can mask the transferable learning that has been gained.  It is therefore key, that once the discussion of the challenge itself is complete, that the debrief explore the skill development within the task and team work itself.

Either within the groups themselves, and then as a larger group, or working directly with the full group, seek reflections and comment on what they have learnt about:

  1. Listening  
  2. Negotiating   
  3. Decision-making skills,  
  4. Creativity skills for thinking "outside the box 
  5. Consensus building

As a facilitator, it is important that you allow them to explore their team process and find the learning within that.  This can involve team members sharing difficult feelings about not being listened to, and this needs to be acknowledged, accepted and the lessons drawn from it (would it have been a better process to take view from each member and vote? Should individuals have been more forthcoming if they had strong views and how do they ensure they are heard in the future?). The lessons from each group can be usefully heard by the wider group, in order to understand and learn from different approaches as this allows deeper reflection as to how to approach similar challenges in the future to be explored.

Resources:

Develop a simple chart for each team member. This should comprise six columns. The first simply lists each item (see below). The second is empty so that each team member can rank the items. The third is for group rankings. The fourth is for the "correct" rankings, which are revealed at the end of the exercise. And the fifth and sixth are for the team to enter the difference between their individual and correct score, and the team and correct rankings, respectively. 

If this cant be done in advance and handed out, then it can be drawn by each team member at the start of the challenge.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Huda.

Communication Icebreaker (Physical) (QAA 4,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives: 

  • Ice breaker (which builds a connection between pairs)
  • Participants will have to interact and adapt their communication skills to help their team member 
  • Participants will reflect and evaluate their performance as a pair
  • Improve communication and listening skills and to highlight the importance of trust when working in a team or pair

Overview: 

This physical task engages the whole person in supporting a colleague and ensuring their safety through good communication.  The activity can be used at any time during the session, however it is highly effective as and ice breaker.  It is a fun method to start participants communicating and is simple to deliver in an appropriate environment and can be adjusted depending upon group size, age etc. However health and safety is paramount and you must consider the appropriateness of the group and room for this challenge.

Activity:

You should initiative this activity by stressing the nature of the challenge and stressing that the safety of those involved is paramount.  You can also agree across the group that “stop” can be initiated by any member of the team by raising a hand if they don’t feel that it is safe to proceed.  This can be actioned by anyone and will not result in any penalties.

To run the task, gather the group outside the room and:

  1. Scatter furniture that can be used as obstacles but ensuring that safety is not compromised. 
  2. Put team members into pairs and should decide amongst them who is to be blindfolded first. 
  3. The sighted and blindfolded member should stand at one end of the room. 
  4. Aim of the task is for the sighted individual to guide their partner across the room and giving concise information to avoid the obstacles. 
  5. Once each team reaches the other side, the pairs are to swap roles 

It could also be possible to create a preferred route or course (as seen in horse show jumping) which they need to accomplish (if you didn’t wish to use obstacles for safety or mobility reasons) which would lead the pair to particular numbers/letters indicated on the wall.

Subject specialisms could also be tested by placing knowledge based answers on the walls and asking the pairs to walk to their answer through the course (see QAARunaround for details of how to do a multiple choice but don’t mix the games in play for safety reasons).

Skill Development: 

This task requires listening and communication skills and also helps builds trust and connections across the pairings.  However the skill development and improved future practice comes from evaluating performance across the group and understanding how and when particular techniques were effective and what lessons that provides for the future.  It is important to acknowledge fears and concerns, or frustrations between the pairings but keep the discussion to the general learning, rather than focusing upon particular experiences of individual pairings as the depth of learning will come from the lessons that can be applied in future group work or communication challenges.  These lessons include clear communication; agreeing ground rules for working together; recognising the need of feedback or support; understanding the importance of clear short messages within these circumstances etc.

Resources:

  • Blindfolds
  • Large room  - large, safe, open space
  • Items that can be used as obstacles which will act as safe barriers (not fall over; not hurt if walked into – no sharp edges)

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Developing Self-Awareness in Teams (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To enhance self-awareness in team work through reflective practice
  • To reflect upon individual behaviour and practice
  • To explore individual approaches to team work
  • To develop approaches to improved future team working

Overview 

This reflective activity is based upon 'open questioning' to encourage students to explore their own behaviour in a group. As this activity focuses upon the individual it can be run effectively in any learning space and with any group size, however there are modifications available if the group has worked together before. 

Activity

Students are asked to work alone to complete the following sentences in relation to yourself when working in teams:

My greatest skill in teams is

A skill in teams which I could handle better is

My quality which team members respond to best is

I respond best to team members who

If there is one thing I do too much of, it is

If there is one thing I could do more of, it is

Team members find my manner predominantly

Students are asked to attempt this task individually (3-5 minutes) making notes for their own use.
Then they are invited to turn to the person next to them and ask them 'How did you get on?'.
This question is worded that way in case anyone does not want to talk about the specifics of what they have put down but still talk about how difficult or otherwise they found the exercise.
After they have discussed for 5 minutes or so, the tutor should ask the whole group the question, 'How did you get on?'
Individuals respond by exploring the difficulties they found in answering this and collectively the group seeks to identify three pre-requisites for developing self-awareness. 
These are:

  1. you have to be curious about yourself: many have never really thought about their behaviour or attitude in teams;
  2. you have to willing and able to seek information (feedback) about yourself from others;
  3. you have be prepared to consider and process all feedback; many are concerned about how they will handle the information (inclined to filter out the 'good' news or the 'bad' news)

Modification: If the group have worked together before you can ask them to undertake this task in pairs. First answering for themselves and secondly answering for their partners.

Then they can discuss/compare perceptions, and hopefully learn about the accuracy of individual self-awareness.
This deepens their skill development as will require effective interpersonal skills.

Modification 2: Completing a list of prescribed incomplete sentences can be a simple but very powerful tool for getting started on the reflective process. You can issue similar open questions after presentations or group work for individuals to reflect on. For example:

  • What I like most about my performance is ..
  • I have most difficulty when I ..
  • The bit I look forward to most is ..
  • If I could change one thing about my approach it would be ..

Here are some incomplete sentences for use by a student or lecturer in reflecting on a teaching /presentation session:

The part of the session that I found most rewarding was ..
The one part I would do differently if I had the chance would be ..
I was at my most uncertain when ..
I was most relaxed when ..
I felt anxious when ..
I was pleased with ..
I felt awkward when ..
One part of what I said that I could have worded differently was ..

Skill Development

Developing effective reflective skills requires practice and repetition. These open questions, together with the opportunity to share and comment, create the space for students to review their approach and consider the future lessons for their practice/behaviour. The technique of 'open questions' supports reflective practice and can be adapted to review many of the individual and group activities that students are challenged to undertake. Collective debriefing on personal reflection is also incredibly useful in helping the students appreciate wider viewpoints or to deepen their own practice. However it may be helpful to share clear ground rules regarding personal disclosure during these discussions to ensure that individuals only share elements of their reflection that they are comfortable with. 

Resources:

None

References:

Mortiboys, A. (2012) Teaching with Emotional Intelligence 2nd edition London: Routledge
Paperback www.alanmortiboys.co.uk

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alan Mortiboys (Higher Education Consultant (Emotional Intelligence)).

Understanding Enterprise Skill Development through Reflective Practice (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

To provide student group with the underpinning to support the development of their own personal reflective practice

To embed reflective practice into student learning

To evidence the skills that learners have already developed 

Overview:

This quick activity works well as an ice-breaker in any large group where you are seeking to establish a practice of reflection and build skills through your teaching. Most learners benefit from really understanding this within the context of their own experience, recognising that they bring to their formal education, a wide range of prior learning. 

Activity:

By introducing the words "enterprise" and "entrepreneurship" ask the students to write down their initial thoughts. Ask them first to write down when they have been either enterprising or entrepreneurial and consider if there have been other examples in their lives. Question them to consider whether they are different, and what does it make them think about (you can include TV programmes, role models, famous people, current news topics etc) to encourage everyone to have made a note of something (such as Dragon's Den, Richard Branson, Anita Roddick, etc).

Ask them to share these initial notes (withholding any personal stories they wish) and then share again (if the room permits, you can ask them to share in a group of 4- 6 but within a lecture theatre you can ask them to share "left" to create small discussion groups).

As tutor, you now need to seek feedback from the group to create a clear understanding of what makes something/someone enterprising or entrepreneurial (attempting to define the words).

Seeking feedback can be done verbally in a small group, using flip chart with the tutor seeking comments from each group to help form an understanding of these terms. However in a lecture theatre, it is possible to provide each person with a post-it (use different colours for the different words or ask them to write at the top of the note what they are defining) to write down what they consider to be a component of enterprise or entrepreneurship. Collate these responses and explore with the group through discussion examples (famous and personal experiences of prior learning) of what constitutes these terms.

It can be fruitful to allow the groups (or 2s) to discuss this wider response in the context of their thinking and experience and reflect upon this together. Invite them to make notes and share any key learning.

Introduce the QAA Guidance terminology and themes and ask whether the group to comment on these, against their group and team understanding. Ask them to consider (in groups or 2s) how this relates to their subject or profession and whether these skills and behaviours are useful to professionals working in their field.

You can use the definitions within the QAA Guidance or the Enterprise Graduate Outcomes Themes which underpin the ETC Toolkit (below).

Creativity and Innovation

Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation

Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement

Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Reflection and Action

Interpersonal Skills

Communication and Strategy Skill

Draw their discussion to a close with an invitation to do further consideration and reflection on their own approach to problem solving, creativity, judgement and evaluation etc and to consider why reflection, and action, are a key element.

Ask them to determine what action they will take from their own reflection in this area (to keep a learning diary / skills journal or to reconsider their CV or profile; to reflect more regularly; to consider prior experience within learning tasks and challenges etc) and if possible, return to this commitment to act in future weeks to remind them of their individual challenge and to comment on progress.

Skill Development:

This activity is designed to draw out fears, thoughts, ideas and practice as quickly as possible. Using post-its to collate ideas can be powerful in depersonalising the comments made, and still encouraging every student to participate. However the wider impact of this activity is the reflection and challenge to reflect and act.

By connecting education/topics to their lived experience, students are more engaged with the subject and can start to make connections which typically they refer to in other classes.

By referencing this activity and inviting students to reconsider their understanding, you are building their exposure to reflection and developing a "habit" which is transferable across their learning. It can be difficult as a tutor (time keeping) to ensure that you retain sufficient time at the end of any class or activity to reflect, but by having this tangible group experience to make reference to, the group can be invited to discuss this further each week in their friendship groups and comments can be taken at the start of the following week, as well at the end of the task.

Resources:

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price, Enterprise Evolution.

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Case Examples

Consumer Psychology Selling Videos (QAA 1,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

(See Introduction)

Introduction:

Professor James Intriligator, Bangor University;

“In my “Consumer Psychology” module I teach students about advertising, marketing, and things like that. We watch lots of TV adverts and look at many posters, newspapers, websites, etc. We talk about the psychology behind all that.

 

Activity:

As part of their assessment they have a final project:  to develop a video to help sell “something”.  This something can be either THEMSELVES (to their next job), or a product (something they love), or a service (e.g. Bangor University, a surf guide, etc.).  They can do this either working alone or in a group of fewer than three. 

Impact:

(See learner outcome)

Learner Outcome:

“The students love this assignment and I have had some astonishingly good submissions. In fact, most of the submissions are of far higher calibre than
the written work our students typically develop (this generation seems more adept at video-storytelling)

Many students have used this material to help get them their next job – or at very least to think about their next job. They have learned a variety of enterprise-related skills, including team working, project planning, persuasion & communication, to name but a few.”

The examples of curriculum development for enterprise related outcomes were originally outlined by Neil Coles at the International Enterprise Educators Conference under the heading 'From Archaeology to Zoology; an A-Z of enterprise in the curriculum'. For his work in contextualising enterprise for any subject, Neil won the 2013 National Enterprise Educator Award.

Resources:

N/A

References:

Author/Contact Details:

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Neil Coles (Senior Enterprise Learning Officer, Cardiff University). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- enterprise@cardiff.ac.uk.

Creating comics to develop enterprising behaviours (QAA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

 

  • To provide final year illustration students with a holistic enterprise experience, from concept to market.
  • To provide final year illustration students with the opportunity to develop, focus group, test trade and promote their own products.
  • To equip final year illustration students with a wide-range of enterprising skills, for business and employment.
  • To develop relationships in between Glyndwr University, schools and third sector organisations.
  • To promote positive female role models in traditionally made dominated professions, amongst 8 – 12 year olds in North Wales.

 

Introduction:

Illustration students at Glyndwr University engage in ‘Negotiated Study’ modules in the final year of their undergraduate programme, engaging in real-world projects to develop their portfolio and equip them for the labour market. The nature of the creative sector entails that the vast majority of illustration graduates will encounter self-employment during their careers, and so well developed enterprising behaviours, and a strong entrepreneurial mind-set, are essential to their future success.

In 2011, three such students who had developed their own educational comic book ‘Clockwork Express’, partnered with science discovery centre Techniquest Glyndwr to develop their product, engage with its target audience, and to test the market. The project saw the students develop a wide range of enterprising behaviours, having to create ideas and identify opportunities, design and manage a multi-faceted project, respond to problems and moving parameters in real time, communicate effectively and establish numerous professional relationships, and work in a high pressure, uncertain environment. 

The project took the form of a comic book competition for school pupils, preceded by educational workshops, and succeeded by a public art exhibition.

It was a success, and served to propel the students on their chosen career paths.

Activity:

The project comprised of the development of original artwork and literature in the form of ‘Clockwork Express,’ and educational comic promoting positive female role-models to children, the concept for which had been developed by the group of students throughout their previous years of academic study. This was supported by the delivery of educational outreach throughout regional schools, and a multi-schools competition, eligible to all 8 – 12 year olds and inviting them to create their own original comic art inspired by the lives and achievements of female scientists.

The project was instigated by the students during the 2011 summer vacation, and culminated on International Women’s Day 2012.

The chronology of the project’s development was as follows;

1. Planning (Summer 2011 – September 2011)

 

  • During the summer vacation of 2011, three students (who were soon to commence their final year of study in BA Illustration) met with Techniquest Glyndwr regarding collaboration. The students’ desire to promote positive female role models to children in male dominated professions coincided will with Techniquest Glyndwr’s own aims, and so the organisation were able to agree on a set of mutual aims and objectives going forward.
  • The students (supported by Techniquest Glyndwr) identified a funding stream for their project (Arts Council of Wales), met with their representative, designed a project plan and budget, submitted a grant application, and were successful in securing a grant to deliver their project (commencing in September 2011).
  • All persons involved with the project were then consulted to ensure their participation, and the specifics of the schedule devised prior to the funding application being submitted were agreed to.
  • It was decided at this stage that the project would take a separate name to the comic itself, and hereafter the project was referred to as ‘She Inspired –with Clockwork Express.’

 

2. Promotion and Securing Schools Involvement (3rd October – 25th November)

  • The students supported the development of promotional materials to launch the project, inclusive of a press release, mail shot to local school, and the development of bespoke pages on the Techniquest Glyndwr website (for which the students supplied the designs). As the project was being publically funded in Wales, the students worked with Techniquest Glyndwr to ensure that all of their copy was produced bilingually.

3. Development of Artistic Product and CPD (September 2011 – December 2011)

  • The students researched and developed an original edition of the comic, as well as developing an educational outreach presentation – bringing the stories told within the comic to life and engaging children with the arts and sciences.  
  • To support them in this, the artists received CPD support and presentation training from writers and presenters at Techniquest Glyndwr. 

Original Artworks

Figure 1: Original Artworks created for the 'Clockwork Express' comic

4. Confirmation of Participating Schools and Competition Packs (December 2011)

  • Students developed a ‘Competition Pack’ for participating schools. These were sent to schools via email bilingually, and through the post on request.
  • Take up by schools at this stage was lower than had been anticipated. Students identified potential reasons for this, including; a lack of existing arts contacts within regional schools; mail out not reaching the relevant contacts with schools; Christmas priorities taking precedence over spring term planning when participation was being sought, amongst others. The students had to implement changes to respond to this difficulty (delay competition closing dates, widen catchment area for entrants etc.) and ultimately exceeded the participation targets they had set.

5. Educational Outreach (January 2012 – March 2012)

  • The three students, acting as workshop leaders, delivered to participating schools an interactive educational outreach presentation, bringing the stories of those female scientists featured in the comic to life, explaining and demonstrating their creative process, and inviting children to engage with the competition aspect of the project.

6. Competition (January 2012 – March 2012)

  • Participating children conducted independent research into the lives and achievements of female scientists past and present, and produced comic illustrations to bring these stories to life.
  • During this period the upcoming exhibition was also marketed, through press releases disseminated via a number of mailing lists, mail out to participating schools, internal communications at Glyndwr University, the establishment of an International Women’s Day account via their web site, and the creation of Clockwork Express social media accounts which the students managed.

Comp Entries

 

Figure 2: Competition Entries from School Pupils

7. Exhibition (8th – 31st March)

  • The exhibition’s opening evening (Thursday 8th March) corresponded with International Women’s Day 2012. 
  • On display was the work of the children selected as competition winners, original artwork from Clockwork Express, and displays of all entries submitted to the competition. The exhibitions were accessible to all Techniquest Glyndwr visitors for no extra cost, and every child who entered the competition received a voucher allowing them to visit Techniquest Glyndwr and the exhibition free of charge.
  • Schools who entered the competition were also offered free centre visits to view the exhibition. Special Editions of Clockwork Express, containing the work of the winning children, were compiled and printed at this stage, and sent to schools along with free editions of Clockwork Express itself.

Awards

 

Figure 3: School pupils receiving certificates at exhibition opening

8. Evaluation

  • After the project’s completion, students conducted a thorough evaluation, based on their own reflective experiences, and feedback gathered from school children, teachers and other partners. This evaluation contributed to the academic assessment of the project, and formed the basis of the evaluation required by the grant funders. 

Impact:

In total, over 1,950 people visited the exhibition of work created by the students and school pupils, and over 320 school pupils participated in the students’ outreach workshops.

To assess the quality of their work, the students gathered evaluation via forms, qualitative feedback, and consultation with participants throughout the projects duration.

Aim – “to use art as a means to promote female role models in traditionally male dominated fields, amongst 8 to 12 year olds in North East Wales”

  • Both boys and girls responded positively and enthusiastically to Clockwork Express’ female protagonists, both during the educational outreach presentations and in producing their own work, and far from choosing to focus on a few obvious scientists, children uncovered the stories of a large number of females (22 scientists featured in total).
  • Via formal evaluation, the statement ‘The project helped to promote positive female role models for my pupils’ scored an average of 5/5, and the statement ‘the aspirations of my pupils have improved as a result of the project’ scored an average of 4.3/5.

Aim - “to encourage children to create their own original art works and literature, providing opportunity for these being put into print and on public display”

  • Through formal evaluation, the statement ‘I feel that the project helped to promote independent learning and research amongst my pupils’ scored an average of 4.7/5.
  • The public exhibition was well attended with the total attendance figure comfortably exceeding the upper estimate off 1,500 visitors (approximately 1,950 visitors viewed the exhibition during its installation).
  • The children’s work was also published, as promised, with copies of Clockwork Express, as well as a special edition containing the art work of children, being circulated to the regions schools.

Aim – “to promote and focus group the magazine ‘Clockwork Express’ and the use of sequential art to support broader curriculum areas and after school reading”

  • The project raised awareness of Clockwork Express amongst local schools, education bodies and various education and gender equality organisations.
  • The experience gained, and resources developed by the artists during the project have equipped them to promote their work at various comic conventions and conferences thereafter. Through formal evaluation, the statement ‘I feel that the Clockwork Express magazine would be a valuable resource within my class room’ scored an average of 4.7/5, and the statement ‘If projects such as this were to run again, I would be interested in my school talking part’ likewise, 4.7/5.

Partner feedback included;

  • Lianne Evans – Teacher, Barker’s Lane Primary School Wrexham – “The children enjoyed every part of it [she inspired]. Thanks again!”
  • Laura Sanderson – Art Teacher, Ysgol John Bright Llandudno – “Students gained a lot of knowledge about positive female role models and from the independent learning tasks and research skills. A positive for us as a secondary art department was also the cross curricular links with the science department.”
  • Linda Sawyer– Teacher, St. Mary’s RC Primary School Wrexham – “The initial presentation inspired the children to find out more, the website was excellent as a resource to promote independent learning and the children all enjoyed researching women in science. They didn’t, along with myself, realise there were so many. The comic style appealed greatly to all of them and this was a lovely way to combine with our language and ICT work. The exhibition of all the children’s work was excellent and I’m sure all our children will enjoy visiting Techniquest to see it. I actually don’t think there was a least valuable. It was all very worthwhile. I think that if we have copies of the magazine in school this would inspire future classes and give them a model to work to. A really exciting project and we at St Mary’s look forward to working with you again.”
  • Angela Davies – ContinYou Cymru – “[the She Inspired artists] approach and attitude to science is inspirational and although not scientists per se they would make excellent science ambassadors (especially for young girls).”

Learner outcome:

The students reported finding the project a real challenge, yet a worthwhile and rewarding one.

The broad scope of the project far outstretched the requirements of their academic assessment, and allowed the students to test a product which they were passionate about, with its’ target audience in a real environment.

Many aspects of the project brought the students out of their comfort zone (from presenting workshops to school children, to conducting interviews with the press), and all found great confidence, and exceeded their own expectations with regards to their achievements.

The evaluation and final reporting of the project formed the basis of a paper, which was delivered by the students at national academic conferences on comics in education.

The students built upon the experience of the project in the development of their own careers thereafter.

Resources:

  • Guidance of various aspects of this Case Example can be found in ‘How To Guides.’ For example, see ‘Workshop: How to speak in public’ for guidance on developing educational outreach presentations.
  • Project of this nature can take many forms, with no specific resources which will be essential in every instance. However, in the case outlined above, the participation of an external partner (with strong existing networks with schools), and the successful grant application for funding to facilitate the project, were essential.

References:

Author:

www.macorcoran.com

With thanks to the North Wales School of Art and Design, Glyndwr University, to Techniquest Glyndwr, and to the fantastic students who led the project.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Teaching the Teachers

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To successfully embed essential procedural knowledge.
  • To enliven a traditionally dry area of the curriculum.
  • To expose students to working within a high pressure, novel, real-world environment.
  • To develop students presentation and communication skills.
  • To develop students teamwork and interpersonal skills.
  • To develop students ability to communicate information effectively to diverse audiences.

Introduction:

In the first year of the Forensic Science undergraduate degree programme at Glyndwr University, students undertake a module in ‘Crime Scene Investigation.’ This module is a core module for all Forensic Science Students, and an elective module popular with students from various degree programmes including media, psychology and the humanities. Students studying this module have a broad range of career ambitions, including work within forensic science and associated services, the police force, criminology and criminal psychology, as well as many others looking to develop broader skills for future graduate level employment and self-employment.

A key part of the module is the learning of the rigorous practices and procedures that must be followed, for example, when handling evidence, or attending a scene of crime, something which can traditionally be one of the drier areas of the course. In working life, a forensic scientist is exposed to unpredictable and high pressure environments, is required to work with diverse teams, where clearly designated roles and effective decision making are essential, and will potentially be required to communicate complex and sensitive information in a number of settings to a diverse range of individuals. As such, we look to embed each of these skills into module delivery throughout the programme. Each of course, is also an enterprising behaviour, which will well equip students irrespective of their future career path.

To enliven this area of the module delivery, we partnered Science Discovery Centre Techniquest Glyndwr (who offer practical workshops on forensic science themes to high school students), and invited our students to train Techniquest Glyndwr’s presenters on various areas of procedural practice.

Activity:

The activity was delivered over a three hour period, with a group of approximately 20 students. Prior to the session, students had been made aware that the subject of the session would be procedural practice (something which had been covered in a traditional lecture format in previous weeks), and recommended key texts to read in preparation, but were given no further information regards the session’s content.

Upon arrival, students were told that in precisely 2 hours’ time, a group of professional educators from Techniquest Glyndwr would be attending, to receive training from the students themselves, on various aspects of procedure (handling evidence, attending a crime scene etc.).

Students were then instructed to organise themselves into small groups (of three to five individuals), select an aspect of procedure from those made available, and to prepare a 10 minute presentation on their chosen aspect. The students were encouraged to use the University library, phones, computers and other resources as they saw fit and report back to the classroom 15 minutes in advance of their presentations. A selection of props, and other presentation materials were provided for groups to use at their discretion.

Once two hours had passed, the students then each presented to their invited audience in turn, with groups observing one another, and fielding conducting a short Q and A at the end of their presentations. The presentation period was an hour in length.

Though the work was not summative, a formative assessment was made for each group.

Impact:

The activity, though simple to organise and deliver, served its purpose in both bringing to life an important, yet dry, area of the curriculum, and in developing the essential enterprise skills needed of the graduates. Though group presentations are often valuable in their own right, key elements that added to the impact of the exercise in this care were the fact that groups were presenting to an external audience, not only their peers, and that groups were given only 2 hours’ notice of the task, and so had to meet the challenge under a particular pressure.

Through its novelty it proved to serve as a strong aide memoir, and was able to support students in the completion of their summative assessed work on the themes covered too.

The activity also served to develop the relationship between the degree programme and the science discovery centre, leading to further opportunities for students to gain professional work experience thereafter.

Learner outcome:

When presented with the challenge, the initial response of the majority of students was one of trepidation, due to the unfamiliar situation into which they were being placed. However, the high pressure environment, novel circumstances, strict time constraints, and real-world context (with presentations being delivered to externals), served to focus the minds of the learners, with students remaining on task, focused, and coordinating responsibilities amongst their groups well.

Students came through their presentations successfully without exception, developing their communication skills and confidence in the process, and the activity ensured that the procedural knowledge was better remembered going forward.

After the activity had taken place, all students reflected that they had found the experience to be an enjoyable and worthwhile one.

Resources:

  • Access to appropriate materials for students to prepare a presentation (i.e. reference books, computers etc.).
  • Rooms with suitable space both for preparation, and group presentation.
  • An appropriate captive audience for students to present their work to.
  • For a step-by-step guide to this activity, see How To Guide ‘Teaching the Teachers.’

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

How To Speak In Public

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group, Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To give engineering students an insight into the importance and relevance of public speaking, presentation, and communication skills to their subject area.
  • To equip students with insights, strategies and skills to become more effective communicators.
  • To allow students to reflect on the diverse environments in which they will require public speaking skills in the future, and to reflect on the most effective strategies to employ in each instance.
  • To provide students with a practical opportunity to nurture and develop their communication skills.

Introduction:

In the working world, engineers are required to work with numerous stakeholders, from their own sector and from others, based locally, nationally and internationally. Engineering students will find themselves in many interview and presentation scenarios at the seek employments throughout their career, and clarity in communication will be essential in all areas of their professional practice. To that end, skills in public speaking, presenting and effective communication are essential.

An hour long session was run for a group of approximately 20 first year engineering students at Glyndwr University (studying on the Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies BEng programme), as an introduction to these skills, to be built on and consolidated throughout the rest of their time at the University.

The session formed part of a larger programme of guest speakers and practical workshops for the students (See How to Guide on Guest Speakers), designed specifically to give the students skills for employability and self-employment, and a greater appreciation of the real world context for their studies. It was delivered by the University’s ZONE Enterprise Hub Manager, on the invitation of the course tutor.

Activity:

The session followed the format which can be found in the ‘Workshop - How to Speak in Public’ How to Guide.

The students began the session with an introduction to the themes which would be covered, namely; how to structure a presentation, how to use tools effectively; how to present clearly; how to control and manage nerves, and how to deal with questions.

A brief discussion initiated the session, whereby students offered their thoughts on why public speaking skills were relevant in their sector, and how they might employ them in the future. From here, each of the themes above was covered in turn (with discussion following the pattern as outlined in the How to Guide).

At each stage, examples were chosen which were appropriate to the audience in hand. For example, in discussing structure and tools, a presentation on solar power was considered, and in discussing use of the appropriate language, thought was given to how an engineer would discuss the same technical point, with various expert and non-expert clients.

At the end of the one hour session, the key themes covered were re-capped, and students were offered the opportunity to ask questions, and directed to further support, links and reading if they wished to explore the issues further.

Impact:

Though the session was limited to one hour only, it still made a valuable impact upon the students. Through initial discussions, students had a clear understanding of the purpose of the session, and its direct relevance and appropriateness to them.

As new undergraduates, many had limited experience of presentation and interview environments, and so the session was timely, giving a broad overview to key points, with clear direction on how to consolidate what was learned. However, the lasting impact of the session will be sustained if the students are offered continued opportunities to explore, hone and develop these skills in a variety of simulated and real-world environments.

Learner outcome:

Immediately after the session, students reported feeling more relaxed about public speaking, more confident, and better equipped going forward. Feedback comments included;

“Very useful”

“Very good. Gained knowledge to help for future presentations.”

“Really good presentation. Well structured, paced, and encouraged audience participation.”

“Good presentation on presentation.”

“Great presentation; well prepared, greatly delivered, well explained.”

“Very informative. Thank you!”

Resources:

  • For a step-by-step guide to this activity, see How To Guide 'Workshop: How To Speak In Public.'
  • YouTube Video of How to Speak in Public Workshop, Creative Futures Conference, March 2015 > https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA. [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236).
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148).
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Student Mentoring

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To support students’ personal development
  • To support the development of students intra and extra-curricular projects and enterprises.
  • To provide students with opportunities to develop ideas, take actions and reflect on progress.
  • To assist students in identifying and exploiting networks and support available to them.

Introduction:

At Glyndwr University, every student and graduate is offered the support of a dedicated mentor to support them in their enterprising endeavours, facilitated through the University’s ZONE Enterprise Hub (this mentoring has been both core funded by the institution, and supported through the pan-Wales HEFCW funded Enterprise Support Programme).

zone

Figure 1: ZONE Enterprise Hub at Glyndwr University

In the period July 2014 – July 2015, 158 such mentoring appointments were conducted, supporting the creation and development of 40 new businesses.

This mentoring takes many forms, and plays a vital role in students’ development in a number of ways. This can range from supporting the development of clear and original ideas, to facilitating effective reflection and evaluation on progress, to providing specific contacts and information to address a problem, or exploit an opportunity.

This mentoring has been delivered one-to-one, and one-to-many, sometimes as a standalone occurrence, and sometimes developing into relationships that persist for a considerable length of time.

Beneficiaries of this mentoring service have come from all programmes and levels of study, with enquiries ranging from looking to launch businesses, to requiring support with enterprising projects related to their academic study, to those looking for broader personal development.

The following is an indicative example of how the mentoring service has been utilised by one such student.

Activity:

Mentee – BSc (Hons) Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies Student

A mature student and fresher of the Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies Undergraduate Programme at Glyndwr University utilised the mentoring service available through ZONE Enterprise Hub, looking for support for an enterprising extra-curricular project.

The student desired to sell free-range eggs and organic vegetables to students at the University. The student had good contacts with the local community of growers and suppliers, had a small holding of his own, and a vast amount of experience in growing and supplying organic produce.

However, as a fresher, the student had no links or contacts with staff or students at the institution, and no experience of marketing to a student audience.

The mentor, in virtue to ZONE Enterprise Hub’s relationship with staff and students at the University, was able to support the students in addressing these issues. This was inclusive of providing contact information and introductions to key internal stakeholders at the University (for example, the manager required to grant permission to sell produce on campus, the manager responsible for the University’s green policies, the marketing department, the President of the Students Guild etc.), and brainstorming ideas for promoting the sale of produce to the University community (via social media, student / staff newsletters, poster campaigns etc.).

The mentor and student met periodically over a period of several months, to discuss progress, and solutions to specific problems as they arose. The mentor was able to draw on their personal experience of similar project which had run at the University in the past, to advise the student as to the courses of action they may consider taking.

Impact:

The student is now selling free-range eggs and organic vegetables on a weekly basis from the main University campus. Regular news bulletins regarding the sales are posted to staff and students, and changes to the promotional strategy are made on a trial and error basis to ensure continuous improvement in awareness and sales.

Through the connections established by the mentor, the student was able to engage with a number of students with similar interests, able to offer support not only in the promotion and selling of produce, but also in the growing of vegetables for sale.

Resources:

For more examples of mentoring, see case examples in Education Studies and Veterinary Nursing.

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

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If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Details of "Running an Entrepreneurial Consultancy" can be found here

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf