Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Problem solving skills: social policy encourages imagination and flexibility in seeking solutions to social problems
  • Evaluative and analytical skills
  • Communication skills
  • Self-management of learning graduates will be able to organise their learning in terms of planning, timing and presentation
  • Teamwork skills

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Creativity and Evaluation Using Questioning SCAMPER (QAA 1,3,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Creative thinking
  • Structured Group Problem solving
  • Evaluation of ideas through critical analysis and judgement
  • Presentation of ideas (including persuasion)

Overview:

This approach to creative thinking structures thinking through the use of a mnemonic "SCAMPER" and using questioning techniques to generate solutions. This makes an ideal group activity for students to work through the mnemonic and then present their results.

Activity:

Students are placed in small working groups and invited to explore the seven prompts of the SCAMPER mnemonic. Firstly, invite each group to take an existing product or service (or agree one to consider - this could be one that you want to improve, one that you'recurrently having problems with, or one that you think could form future product developments).

Questioning around these themes helps the groups develop creative ideas for developing new products, or services and for improving current ones. SCAMPER is a mnemonic that stands for:

  • Substitute.
  • Combine.
  • Adapt.
  • Modify.
  • Put to another use.
  • Eliminate.
  • Reverse.

Using these headings, invite each group to discuss the questions about the product, using the mnemonic.

By brainstorming as many questions and answers within each group, a rich solution can be produced.

Example Questions which you can share with groups in need of support.

Substitute: Ask "What can you substitute? What can be used instead? Who else instead? What other ingredients? Other material? Other process? Other power? Other place? Other approach? Other sounds? Other forces?"

  • What materials or resources can you substitute or swap to improve the product?
  • What other product or process could you use?
  • What rules could you substitute?
  • Can you use this product somewhere else, or as a substitute for something else?
  • What will happen if you change your feelings or attitude toward this product?

Combine: What can you combine or bring together somehow? How about a blend, an alloy, an assortment, an ensemble? Combine units? Combine purposes? Combine appeals? Combine ideas?

  • What would happen if you combined this product with another, to create something new?
  • What if you combined purposes or objectives?
  • What could you combine to maximize the uses of this product?
  • How could you combine talent and resources to create a new approach to this product?

Adapt: What can you adapt for use as a solution? What else is like this? What other idea does this suggest? Does past offer a parallel? What could I copy? Who could I emulate?

  • How could you adapt or readjust this product to serve another purpose or use?
  • What else is the product like?
  • Who or what could you emulate to adapt this product?
  • What else is like your product?
  • What other context could you put your product into?
  • What other products or ideas could you use for inspiration?

Modify: Can you change the item in some way? Change meaning, colour, motion, sound, smell, form, shape? Other changes? Or Magnify: What can you add? More time? Greater frequency? Stronger? Higher? Longer? Thicker? Extra value? Plus ingredient? Duplicate? Multiply? Exaggerate?

Or 'Minify': What can you remove? Smaller? Condensed? Miniature? Lower? Shorter? Lighter? Omit? Streamline? Split up? Understate?

  • How could you change the shape, look, or feel of your product?
  • What could you add to modify this product?
  • What could you emphasize or highlight to create more value?
  • What element of this product could you strengthen to create something new?

Put to Another Use: Can you use this product somewhere else, perhaps in another industry?

  • Who else could use this product?
  • How would this product behave differently in another setting?
  • Could you recycle the waste from this product to make something new?

Eliminate: What can you eliminate? Remove something? Eliminate waste? Reduce time? Reduce effort? Cut costs?

  • How could you streamline or simplify this product?
  • What features, parts, or rules could you eliminate?
  • What could you understate or tone down?
  • How could you make it smaller, faster, lighter, or more fun?
  • What would happen if you took away part of this product? What would you have in its place?

Reverse: What can be rearranged in some way? Interchange components? Other pattern? Other layout? Other sequence? Transpose cause and effect? Change pace? Change schedule?

  • What would happen if you reversed this process or sequenced things differently?
  • What if you try to do the exact opposite of what you're trying to do now?
  • What components could you substitute to change the order of this product?
  • What roles could you reverse or swap?
  • How could you reorganize this product?

Evaluation:
Once the ideas have been generated, the next stage is evaluation. Through group discussion, ask the student to determine ifany stand out as viable solutions? Could any of them be used to create a new product, or develop an existing one?

All viable ideas can be explored further in order to find one improvement/suggestion for final presentation to the wider group.

A debrief on the solutions, the process and the team working should be included within the session to allow for the skills and emotional aspects of team work to be explored, and the constructs of the mnemonic discussed.

Skill Development:

Although the main focus of this project is idea generation, the discussion and evaluation within the group, which requires presentation and interpersonal skills as well as judgement and critical analysis of opportunities and ideas.

Student groups should be left to work through their discussion, and any difficulties with team working as may occur (intervening only to support the process and move the students on, if time pressures require) however it is important to review the task, the process and the protocols in order to seek guidance for future working or lessons to take forward.

Students should be encouraged to share the frustrations and difficulties of decision making within a group (where one individual may have suggested the idea) and how feedback should be given and shared.

Group dynamics need to be acknowledged and lessons can be shaped for future team working.

References:

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCT_02.htm

http://www.brainstorming.co.uk/tutorials/scampertutorial.html 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Enterprise Evolution.

Creativity (Rich Pictures) (QAA 1,3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To explore, understand and describe a situation or problem
  • To create a collective understanding or meaning from a group
  • To visualise and communicate complex ideas effectively

Overview

This task focuses upon visual representation of problems and how this helps define a situation. It is essentially the transmission of ideas into pictures. It is used to stimulate participants in a programme to express themselves and their ideas in a pictorial form, often with the use of metaphor. It then stands as a basis for discussion of participant ideas and concepts.
This approach is recognised within some subject specialism as a rich picture, as a way to explore, acknowledge and define a situation and express it through diagrams to create a preliminary mental model or visual representation of the situation or challenge. A rich picture helps to open discussion and come to a broad, shared understanding of a situation.

Activity

Participants are asked, usually in groups, to discuss the meaning of a concept or an event or to explore a situation or problem. They are asked to portray this in pictorial form as a basis for presentation and discussion with other participants.

  • The class is divided into small groups and each group is given pens and a flip chart sheet. The group are asked to ‘discover’ their own meaning through discussion and to write down or draw what they see as the key components
  • The group is then asked to draw a picture which they believe encapsulates the meaning or the issue
  • The picture is then shown to the rest of the class and the class (not the group) are asked to describe what it means to them
  • This is then compared with the meaning that the group was trying to portray and the group are asked to explain this to other participants
  • The facilitator notes all the meanings given and attempts to pull these together for discussion of the concept and why it was given different meanings. Academic concepts and research work can be introduced to build wider understanding (and credit can be awarded for its inclusion).

The approach can be used in a number of ways but most importantly to test understanding after readings and discussion and, to harvest pre-conceived views and attitudes relating to a subject as a basis for discussion.

If you wish to focus the activity, you can ask the group to identify opposing elements inherent within their challenge and use these are axis. So a groupmight identify “speed” as a key element of an activity (such as inherent within the eating-out experience) and also “service”. This would create two axis of Fast and Slow (for Speed) and High levels of service with No service. This creates four quadrants that they can seek to describe through a rich picture. This would show what fast, high level of service restaurant experience would be like, against a slow high service experience etc. You can then invite them to title these quadrants and explore them for benefits/costs.

Skill Development:

The exercise aims to stimulate creative expression. It also is designed to give ownership of learning to participants by creating discussion on the basis of their existing knowledge and ideas. With sufficient pens available, there will be no ‘lead author’ and therefore a strong basis for mutual understanding is created. A sense of ownership is given to the group and participation in learning is maximised.
Explore with the whole group the power of visual presentation and their perceptions of their involvement. Explore their satisfaction with the finished product and how well they feel it worked as a mechanism for communicating with a group.

Resources:

  • Flip Chart / large paper
  • Pens

References:

Gibb, A and Price, A “A Compendium of Pedagogies for Teaching Entrepreneurship” ncee 2nd Edition, 2014; first published in 2007
http://ncee.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Compendium-of-Pedagogies.pdf

Seek additional guidance relating to Rich Pictures from work within Soft systems methodology

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Allan Gibb and Alison Price.

Introducing Interactivity in Large Group Teaching (QAA 1,3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Engaging large groups of students in delivery and content interactively can be a challenge, often made more difficult by the lay-out of teaching spaces.  Using the potential of the mobile or smart phone for texting, voting, or twitter can engage all the individuals in the room, allowing them to ask questions that are unlikely to be raised as questions during a traditional lecture format.

Overview:

Engaging students in their learning, particularly in the static environment of large lecture theatres is a challenge.  However learners are likely to have smart phones available to them during class and rather than banning them from the room, it can be more engaging to encourage your students to use their phones to raise questions, vote and share their opinions or indicate their views on specific topics.  By developing your traditional‘lecture’ style to involve decision points, questions or votes, you can check understanding in the room, and if you wish to use specialised text apps or features (such as Twitter or voting apps) you can open your entire input to comment and reaction.

Activity:

This activity can be incorporated into your traditional large group teaching (particularly with large group or in lecture theatre) and although it doesn’t specifically take much time to set up and engage them, you need to ensure that you allocate time for discussion of any points within class to review and clarify the learning.  By creating point of engagement, or inviting students to comment you can change the dynamic of your lectures and develop a ‘conversation’ not only with the learners and yourself, but also across the learners together.

Note of caution: obviously this approach needs consideration relating to the age range and appropriateness of this type of engagement.  There are issues of privacy when using texts (phone numbers) and providing open communication, such as a full twitter ‘wall’ can lead to humour and irrelevant topics appearing on the screen which become distracting to your educational message. You however have the choice to open this screen fully to your students throughout the class, making all communications visible (if using twitter etc) either on a screen or through individual phones or lap tops, or you can keep this dialogue direct to you.  Ownership of accounts (such as in twitter) create a more direct link to individuals without disclosing personal contact details, but it is important to agree ground rules of respect to avoid any trolling of those actively engaging.  Typically students are responsible when engaging with this public forum, but it is important that you are clear about the need to respect contributions and those making them.

Skill Development:

In allowing the learners to voice their concerns, vote on their views and share their feelings or confusion you are opening up their learning experience and showing that other students, as well as themselves as individuals, can develop and deepen their understanding through discussion and clarification.  The skill of concise and effective communication is displayed in the voting and within the precision of short texts or 140 characters in twitter.  This task builds confidence if you, as the tutor, welcome comment and develop the “conversation” with your learners.  It is important to acknowledge questions and areas of concern and respond within the class, or specifically state when you will review this topic further, to create a legitimate feedback loop between yourself and students.

Resources:

Note: Check that students have access to mobile or smart phones and that they are happy to engage in learning by sending text messages (many phone packages allow for free texts but it is important to understand the group perception/position on undertaking this task before starting as it may involve expense).  If wifi is available, then many of the features of apps will be free to use and typically university students have access to institutional wifi in order to engage. However you need to check that your particular teaching room will support your proposed activity without students incurring costs to engage.
A little preparation can be needed (either for individuals to prepare (or establish an account) and/or  the tutor to  establish twitter accounts or to familiarise yourself as the tutor with specific apps, such as Poll Everywhere http://www.polleverywhere.com/ or a twitter wall to display (such as https://tweetwall.com/ or similar).   There are lots of different applications available which will display tweets, or visually display votes or words from students, many free to use, so consider the constraints of your teaching room (such as wifi enabled etc) and encourage your learners to be prepared in advance by making any downloads required.

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Communication Icebreaker (Physical) (QAA 4,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives: 

  • Ice breaker (which builds a connection between pairs)
  • Participants will have to interact and adapt their communication skills to help their team member 
  • Participants will reflect and evaluate their performance as a pair
  • Improve communication and listening skills and to highlight the importance of trust when working in a team or pair

Overview: 

This physical task engages the whole person in supporting a colleague and ensuring their safety through good communication.  The activity can be used at any time during the session, however it is highly effective as and ice breaker.  It is a fun method to start participants communicating and is simple to deliver in an appropriate environment and can be adjusted depending upon group size, age etc. However health and safety is paramount and you must consider the appropriateness of the group and room for this challenge.

Activity:

You should initiative this activity by stressing the nature of the challenge and stressing that the safety of those involved is paramount.  You can also agree across the group that “stop” can be initiated by any member of the team by raising a hand if they don’t feel that it is safe to proceed.  This can be actioned by anyone and will not result in any penalties.

To run the task, gather the group outside the room and:

  1. Scatter furniture that can be used as obstacles but ensuring that safety is not compromised. 
  2. Put team members into pairs and should decide amongst them who is to be blindfolded first. 
  3. The sighted and blindfolded member should stand at one end of the room. 
  4. Aim of the task is for the sighted individual to guide their partner across the room and giving concise information to avoid the obstacles. 
  5. Once each team reaches the other side, the pairs are to swap roles 

It could also be possible to create a preferred route or course (as seen in horse show jumping) which they need to accomplish (if you didn’t wish to use obstacles for safety or mobility reasons) which would lead the pair to particular numbers/letters indicated on the wall.

Subject specialisms could also be tested by placing knowledge based answers on the walls and asking the pairs to walk to their answer through the course (see QAARunaround for details of how to do a multiple choice but don’t mix the games in play for safety reasons).

Skill Development: 

This task requires listening and communication skills and also helps builds trust and connections across the pairings.  However the skill development and improved future practice comes from evaluating performance across the group and understanding how and when particular techniques were effective and what lessons that provides for the future.  It is important to acknowledge fears and concerns, or frustrations between the pairings but keep the discussion to the general learning, rather than focusing upon particular experiences of individual pairings as the depth of learning will come from the lessons that can be applied in future group work or communication challenges.  These lessons include clear communication; agreeing ground rules for working together; recognising the need of feedback or support; understanding the importance of clear short messages within these circumstances etc.

Resources:

  • Blindfolds
  • Large room  - large, safe, open space
  • Items that can be used as obstacles which will act as safe barriers (not fall over; not hurt if walked into – no sharp edges)

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Engaging Alumni for Real World Learning (QAA 2, 3, 4, 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

Effective engagement of Alumni seeks to support the students to become:

  • be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions
  • review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk.

Overview:

With the pre-arranged (and prolonged) support of alumni (now professionals) this approach of continued access to external professionals (ideally programme/course Alumni) is designed to prepare students to be able to engage with real clients and better enable them to respond proactively to change.

Externals are invited to engage with the current student group as they undertake a task, using social media (facebook; twitter etc) an/or Skype. This creates either incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment or regular support or feedback on course work from externals.

Activity

This approach needs pre-agreement and commitment of externals (ideally Programme/course Alumni) who commit to short, but regular interaction through social media or Skype.

This activity can either be driven by a live brief or challenge identified by the external (higher level of engagement) or as comment and support to those undertaking the programme, through sharing expertise and current work experiences. If the students are working on a live brief or task given by the external, this high level of interactivity can mean that summative deadlines can changedand information updated, and the newsworthy or other high profile influences can be included throughout the module. (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni professional).

This engagement can be “managed” by the tutor – to pre-plan some ambiguity or pre-agreed change of brief/scope with the Alumni contact, or left open to allow access to externals as an organic relationship, where advice may be sought by the students or experience/daily practice shared by the Professional as they see fit.

In addition, any presentation /show case or final assignment submission can be shared with the external and their input made part of the summative or formative feedback (assessment strategy).

Note that the choice of social media will impact on the type of engagement between alumni and students, but ideally something that the Alumni member uses regularly will ensure more regular engagement. Even small inputs (as typically seen in social media such as Twitter) can guide student approach and ensure that they are able to ask private questions, and that other students can also learn from the mentor/alumni generic comments or insights.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the level and type of engagement, students can benefit from insights from a ‘typical day/week’ of a professional working in their area, or be pushed to develop their tolerance to ambiguity (through changing deadlines, or unexpected changes to the brief or additional information). This can build resilience in the students but there needs to be clear expectations of this relationship, as well as additional tutor support.

Students typically respond well to changes and additional insights from professional Alumni and can develop their understanding and judgement, in their chosen field, whilst gaining further insight regarding professional practice.

Students should be bought together to share their experience of virtually engaging with their Alumni contact and explore their emotional responses to the changing briefs or additional information. They need to explore, and develop strategies, for coping with ‘real world’ brief/challenges and exploringthis together, and sharing how they dealt with it, and could deal with it in the future, builds their confidence and resilience to change. Using reflective practice to consider the learning across the group can draw out a range of key lessons for preparing for future challenges.

Resources:

Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project or to commit to regular updating/comment for a pre-agreed period of time.

References:

Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).

Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)

Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)

Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) ‘When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes’, Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410

Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna, University of Wales, Trinity St David.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Nurturing Enterprise Through Student Societies (QAA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide extra-curricular learning opportunities for animal studies students.
  • To provide networking opportunities between students, lecturers and industry professionals.
  • To provide animal studies students with opportunities to create and manage their own extra-curricular projects.
  • To provide animal studies students with opportunities to develop their business, finance, marketing and management skills.

Introduction:

Student clubs and societies can be a great means for students from any level or programme of study to gain invaluable enterprise skills. Through taking responsibility for a club a society, students are required to demonstrate effective team working, excellent management skills, excellent administrative skills and financial literacy, communication and marketing skills, and must have the ability to successfully devise, plan and deliver projects and activities to keep their members engaged.

Clubs and societies can be for students from any programme of study, run exclusively for students from a particular programme, and include students, alumni, staff and members of the general public.

For the small cohort of students studying towards a BSc in Animal Studies at Glyndwr University, forming a departmental society (Zoo Soc) was an ideal way to bring the cohort together, and provide a range of extra-curricular social and learning opportunities.

Activity:

In Spring 2013, students from the BSc (Hons) Animal Studies programme at Glyndwr University, approached Glyndwr University Students Guild regarding establishing 'Zoo Soc' at the institution.

The society was to cater primarily to students (at all levels of study) from the Animal Studies programme, but open to membership from staff, alumni, andstudents from any course with an interest in animals and zoology.

The students nominated a president, vice president, two secretaries and a treasurer to run the society, and promoted the new society to their peers, gaining enough support in the form of signatures to be constituted as a Students' Guild Society.

There after the students took responsibility for all aspects of Zoo Soc's management and administration. This was inclusive of promoting the society and its events, promoting society membership, conducting meetings of society members and officers, organising activities and events, and raising and managing funds. The Students Guild offered support to the students through all of these processes.

Zoo Soc's first event was a Pub Quiz, held at the University's student bar, and aimed at developing relationships between students from Glyndwr’s main campus, and its rural campus (situated approximately 20 miles away). The event was a success, and the revenue and new membership gained through the event went on to directly support future events, including trips to Zoo’s, Museums and other events.

Figure 1. Promotions poster for Zoo Soc's first event

Impact:

2 year after the society's establishment, approximately 100 students are engaging with the Zoo Soc and its events, which have continued to be delivered in a professional and financially sustainable way.

Learner outcome:

For all learners who have engaged with the society, there have been countless opportunities to network, increase their knowledge, and exchange and create ideas.

For those leading the society the outcomes have been far greater, developing a broad range of enterprising skills in the process, whilst directly supporting their academic subject knowledge.

Resources:

  • The support of your institutions Students' Union / Guild.

References:

Author:

www.macorcoran.com

With thanks to Glyndwr University Students Guild.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Defining your Customer Base (QAA4,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Develop and demonstrate their understanding of their customers, by describing their characteristics and motivations.

Overview: 

This activity should be undertaken individually by the entrepreneur, then to be discussed with the business development provider or peers in a group situation.  Asking the entrepreneur to explain their answers will help them to deepen their understanding of their customers, help to identify where there are information gaps and therefore what additional market research may be required.

Activity: 

Instructions

Invite the entrepreneurs / small business owner to consider their customers and to describe them in terms of each of the following categories:

  • Demographic, who are your customers?  What is their typical profile in terms of age, gender, income, employment status etc.? 
  • Geographic, where are your customers and where do they buy your products / services?
  • Psychographic, what’s important to your customers? What are their values and aspirations; what kind of lifestyle do they have? 
  • Behaviour, how often and when do your customers buy?

And then describe what the benefits the product or service brings to customers.

My customers …..

The benefit of my product / service to my customers is …..

Skill Development:

By developing analytical and reasoning skills within entrepreneurial learners, it is possible to test assumptions and explore research findings with a clear context of start-up.  This activity focuses upon the understanding of the potential customer and requires research and reflective skills.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Lisa McMullan.

Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf