Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Synthesis: the ability to bring evidence or ideas of different sorts or from different sources together in a productive way
  • Critical judgement: the ability to discriminate between alternative arguments and approaches
  • Problem-solving
  • Be open and receptive to new things and ideas
  • The ability to communicate information
  • The ability to listen effectively, and thus to participate constructively in discussion
  • Students should develop the ability to work constructively and productively in groups
  • Define one’s own brief
  • Work to briefs and deadlines, including managing concurrent projects
  • Take responsibility for one’s own work
  • Reflect on one’s own learning and to make constructive use of feedback

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Creating Student Teams (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To be able to explore key skills, attributes and roles required to create an effective team for a particular task
  • To articulate and analyse the skills and experience of individuals in order to match key criteria
  • To assess opportunities and take decisions which meet priorities, within a specific time frame
  • To exercise judgement in assessing a wide variety of options
  • To communicate decisions effectively, using strong interpersonal skills 

Overview: 

This activity is effectively a way of creating new student teams for a particular task, but by focusing upon skills, experience and expertise to undertake specific roles within a group. This task is designed to encourage the students to understand the skills and roles needed within effective teams to undertake a particular task.  This technique can be used for any group work where the students will be undertaking a sustained activity which benefits from particular team roles or competences.

Students are asked to consider their own strengths and consider how best to articulate them (CV or advert) and then consider a task and how best they might support the activity (matching skills to the task/jobs).  Teams need to be created from the student group to address the challenge they have been set.

This works particularly well with new groups as it also creates opportunities for networking and new bonds, but can also be usefully deployed to stop students working within friendship groups.

Activity:

Students need to understand the activity that they will be undertaking (task; length; scope; numbers in a group; roles to undertake etc) so that they can consider their own skills/expertise within a context, however the first element of this task is to assess their own suitability for particular activities within this task.

Self Analysis

This activity can draw upon previous CV work or application process (or create LINKEDIN profiles) to create a formal assessment and showcase of their experience and expertise. 

This can be a formalised process which requires the creation of professional promotional materials (CV  or poster see QAA7CreatingaPoster ) or a review process which asks them to indicate 3 key things relevant to the task, or suggest the following 3 elements to be highlighted

  • 1 competence, technique or ‘knowledge set’ developed academically prior to this course
  • 1 attribute of their approach to group work (leadership; interpersonal skills)
  • Personal interest, capability, attribute from outside education (relevant experience as a customer or user; evidence of personal interest; indication of approach to the task).

Creating the Group – Identifying the Needs

Having then been issued the task, students need time to further consider their own weakness and identify what they need to ensure they create an effective team.  This reflection can be undertaken confidentially as students consider their own limitations currently and then isolate the support/network that they need to work effectively.

Creating the Group – Matching Up

Matching up the students to create their new team can be undertaken in two different styles.

  1. Networking showcase
    Students can be provided with time to network to create their own team by talking to new and unknown colleagues and asking about their “3 attributes” or CV and trying to create a match for the task.  As students meet others, they build up their team and then progress around the room as a group, seeking others which fit the remaining match for their new team.
  2. Interviewing
    You can identify a group of team leaders or CEOs or HR managers (either as individuals or as a small mini team) which will be interviewing and assessing others to join their team.  This can be a randomly allocated or those that have identified themselves as leaders can be given the opportunity to undertake this role.  This activity is best done by allocating the team leaders to different rooms and asking them to indicate their offer (or unique selling point USP) to encourage others to join them.  They will then attract the wider group to visit their room for a short dynamic interview where they match up job roles, as observed by others, who may be attracted to this team, or select to visit another room.

Skill Development: 

It is important that the self-analysis (CV writing; LinkedIn profiles) draws upon educational background but also prior knowledge, previous experiences, hobbies and interests so that all the students have elements to showcase.  This reflective process at the start is key to an effective match and for effective consideration of the roles.

Once the teams are matched it is important to encourage them to share a reflection about the process and create their ground rules for working together.  

This document can be revisited at the end of the process and the whole matching/team working experience be explored through reflection.  It is important that the groups debrief about their learning on team work, skill development and their emotions.  It can be important to acknowledge that they experienced concern, fear, nerves, or excitement in meeting new people/addressing a complex task or working with new team members.  Recognition of emotions is key in building confidence which allows the learners to repeat skills in new environments.

Resources: 

Primarily the preparation includes the task itself but also considering the skills needed to undertake the roles inherent within task.  It is important that you indicate soft skills, prior knowledge, suitable background etc that will allow all students to indicate their suitability.  You may wish to write short job descriptions, or indicate the roles and the skills that are required across the task, so that the students can match their team to the “whole task”, rather than find a perfect match to a job.  If you need help identifying these soft skills, then the QAA documentation for your programme can be a guide as can colleagues within Careers.

Your Careers Service can provide support (and may provide content or materials) to help the students articulate their skills as a CV. 

You may wish to create a showcase element to this task where students ‘advertise’ their skills or abilities in order to get recruited which may benefit from a range of materials/scissors/pens/posters being available for them to work with.

References:

AGCAS materials 
https://intranet.birmingham.ac.uk/as/employability/careers/documents/public/agcas-cvs-letters.pdf

Careers support examples (CV)
https://www.ucl.ac.uk/careers/specialistsupport/researchers/agcas_cvexamples

LINKEDIN provide support for students:
https://university.linkedin.com/linkedin-for-students 
https://university.linkedin.com/content/dam/university/global/en_US/site/pdf/TipSheet_BuildingaGreatProfile.pdf

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Creative Problem Solving What can I do when...? (QAA 1,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives: 

This is a lively exercise which works well with 25 or 36 learners, respectively in groups of 5 or 5 at a carousel table.

  • Learners will identify individually problems in a given context or scenario.
  • Group prioritisation: groups will next prioritise problems in order of importance, or difficulty.
  • Group editing and refining: groups will formulate the most pressing problem to briefly complete the starter: what can I do when’.
  • Individual learners put ‘on the spot’ will creatively state a tactic to a ‘What can I do when …’ problem from another group.
  • Individual thinking and oral communication: by the end of the round, everyone in the whole group has had a go at suggesting a solution for one or more problems – no passengers!
  • Analysis and reflection: members of the group which thought of the problem will discuss pros and cons of the various solutions they have heard.

Feedback from participants who have engaged in this activity is very positive indeed, and they often comment that ‘the time flew by’, and ‘we wished to do another round of this straightaway’.

Overview:

This creative problem solving exercise starts with learners in groups identifying specific aspects of a problem situation they may encounter, and phrasing the problem in the format of ‘What can I do when…’ questions. Each group supplies one question, which is written up on a slide or flipchart. Then a system is used where one member of each of the other groups in turn suggests a tactical response to the problem being addressed, and after all the tactics have been heard, the problem returns to the group who thought of it, who then discuss the pros and cons of each of the tactics they have heard from the other groups.
The exercise can be used for a wide range of problem scenarios, but is particularly productive when addressing interpersonal or communication contexts, or working with ‘difficult people’.

Activity:

The processes described below typically take around an hour with a group of 25 learners, but can be extended to two hours by using a second round of the whole sequence (by which time the learners will be much better able to engage with the process based on experience, and will often have come up with more-challenging questions, causing deeper thinking).

  1. Divide the total number of learners into groups of (approximately) equal size, e.g. 25 learners into 5 groups of 5 at carousel tables. (It is best to do this group formation randomly, avoiding the disadvantages of ‘friendship’ groups and ‘left-over’ groups!). Name the groups A, B, C, D, E.
  2. Set the context for the problem-generation phase. For example, the problems of working with learners on an ‘enterprise’ module could be addressed by asking everyone to think individually of their worst nightmares in the context of working with such learners, and jotting down individually on one or more post-its their nightmare in the format of ‘what could I do when…’
    (Completions in this particular instance may well to include ‘…a learner repeatedly doesn’t turn up?’, or ‘…a learner won’t join in?’, or ‘…a learner becomes aggressive to other learners?’, or ‘…I run out of ideas to use with the group?’, or ‘…time runs out when I am only half-way through an exercise?’ and so on).
  3. When each learner has jotted one or more problem-questions down, ask the groups to prioritise the problems identified in by their group members, and work out the most important to tackle (or the most difficult to tackle), then the next most important, and so on. 
  4. Ask group A to read out their top completion of the ‘What can I do when…’ starter, and write it up exactly in their words, on a slide or flipchart. Then ask group B for their problem, then group C and so on, writing them up in turn. If a group comes up with a problem too similar to those already written onto the slide or flipchart, ask the group for their second-most-important problem and so on.
  5. Set the ground-rules for the report-back from the groups. Group A’s question goes first to Group B, where one person described what they might do to address the problem. Only one person can speak; it sometimes takes a little time for a volunteer to come forward. Next, one member of Group C is sought to respond, and so on to Groups D and E in turn. It can be useful to brief Group A to make brief notes of the gist of successive responses.
  6. To respond gets harder as it moves from Group B onward. Each successive respondent must think of a different response from those which may already have been given. At this stage, the facilitator may choose to throw in one or two further solutions, if the groups have missed anything important in their responses.
  7. Finally, Group A, who own the question are asked to consider the responses from Groups B-E (plus any offered by the facilitator), picking the best one, and coming up with any further alternatives they have thought of. All members of Group A can join in this discussion.
  8. Next the question from Group B goes in turn to Groups C, D, E and A, again only one member – a different member of the group coming up with a solution. In the event of too long a pause, the person from the group concerned who answered last-time round can nominate someone from their group to respond.
  9. Continue until all five questions have gone round the groups.

This process means that just about everyone has a turn at answering one of the ‘What can I do when…’ questions. If there were six groups of five members, everyone would have a turn, but it is probably best to leave the flexibility of one person in each group not being required to answer, in case any of the learners has a particular problem with ‘being put on the spot’ in this way. However, if a second round of questions is then generated, the response can start in each group with the person who did not speak in the first round.

An alternative way of running this exercise includes asking for ‘what would make this situation worse?’ (i.e. ‘what I should not do when …? responses – ‘negative brainstorming’).

This can be great fun for a second round of the whole exercise.

Skill Development:

  1. Identification of problems individually, followed by discussion and prioritisation of problems in groups.
  2. Refining of an identified problem, by turning it into the ‘what can I do when…?’ format.
  3. Oral quick-thinking and communication, as each group member responds to a ‘what can I to when…’ question.
  4. Building on what has been already said earlier in the round, when the next respondent has to in effect think of ‘what else can I do when…?’ as responses can not be repeated as the round continues.
  5. Listening to the various responses by the group ‘owning’ the question, noting down the gist of each for subsequent discussion, then analysing the pros and cons of the various responses.
  6. ‘Negative brainstorming’, if the exercise includes ‘What would make this situation worse?’, which can often yield further ideas for actual solutions to the problem.

Resources:

  • Post-its for individuals to jot down ‘nightmares’ to base their ‘what can I do when …?’ questions upon.
  • More post-its (possibly a different colour) for groups to write their final versions of ‘what can I do when…?’ questions down on, before prioritising which they want to submit to the other group rounds.
  • A few pens to give away if needed.
  • Flipchart or PowerPoint display to show the questions.

 References:

  • Race, P. (2014) ‘Making Learning Happen: 3rd edition’, London: Sage. (Note that one Chapter of this book is entirely composed around ‘what can I do when …? questions, (in the broad context of teaching, learning, feedback and assessment), each followed by the sort of responses which can be given by participants working in the creative-problem-solving mode described in the above activity).
  • Race, P. (2015) ‘The Lecturer’s Toolkit; 4th edition’, Abingdon: Routledge.
  • http://phil-race.co.uk

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Phil Race.

Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: BUILDING THE CULTURE OF YOUR BUSINESS WITH THE SIMS (QAA 2,3,4,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Use and explain the critical interdisciplinary definitions related to organizational culture and entrepreneurship.
  • Describe the relationship between organizational culture, structure, and leadership.
  • Evaluate personal approaches to a professional work-life.
  • Design and assess an emerging organizational culture.
  • Critically evaluate the approaches to the intentional creation of organizational culture.

Overview:

By the time most enterprise founders start thinking about ensuring a healthy culture in their business, it is usually too late. The culture has already emerged and is not always the most conducive to the health of the founder and employees, or even the enterprise itself. The culture of the enterprise emerges from the mind, values, and practices of the founder(s) while the business is being created, a time when the founder generally places more priority on the creation of economic value than the creation of culture. This exercise is based on a combination of organization and entrepreneurship theory and uses an off-the- shelf computer game, The Sims: Open for Business™, to investigate the core values, assumptions, interpretations, and approaches that combine to define the culture of a new venture. The students are assigned to play the game for a minimum of two hours outside of class, with no introduction given around the concept of culture. The heart of the exercise is the in-class debrief (including viewing the game), which reveals the culture that was created, what it means for all stakeholders, and what actions could be taken to adjust that culture.

Usage Suggestions

This content of the exercise works for all audiences, undergraduate, graduate, executive, or practitioner. The delivery requires that the students have access to the game and are able to play it before the discussion. The exercise lends itself well to online courses, as the debrief and illustration can also be done online, preferably in a synchronous mode, although asynchronous will work too. The exercise works best when each student is able to log on to his orher game for the debrief. This exercise is positioned in the course when emphasis is on resources. Culture is presented as a resource that can either add to or detract from the value of the company.

Activity:

Pre-Work Required by Students

  • Play The Sims: Open for Business™ for a minimum of two hours.

Time Plan (90 minutes)

This 90- minute exercise can be adapted to fit various time schedules, including an entire class. Prior to the exercise the students would have been told to play the game for two hours. No other instructions are given. In this way, playing the game provides a shared experience and serves as the live case for the discussion.

Step 1 (Introduction) 0:00–0:10 (10 minutes)

Ask the students to open their laptops and log on to their games. Each game should open at the point at which the student left the game. The opening or warm- up questions should be about just playing the game:

  • How many of you had played some version of The Sims before? Anyone played this particular expansion version?
  • How was it? Did you enjoy it? If so, why? If not, why?
  • Were there any particular challenges?
  • Where there any particular surprises?
  • How long did you actually play? (Probe for who played the longest and why.)

Step 2 0:10–0:40 (30 minutes)

Divide students into groups of five to six and give them the following directions: “Please select a scribe and a reporter to first capture the themes of your work and then be ready to report out to the full class on your work. First, individually, each write down the answer to this question: What is the culture of the business you created – and how can you tell? You have five minutes for this individual work. After five minutes, and I’ll tell you when the time is up, we’ll switch to working with your team. 

  1. First, each student please share with your group the business you created.
  2. Second, as a group create your list of criteria that create an organizational culture.
  3. Third, please describe the impact of how people will carry out work given the culture you have created.

Step 3 (First report out and discussion) 0:40–1:10 (30 minutes)

Start with the first table and have the reporter share their top two criteria, along with an explanation and illustration of each. Then ask each table to add two criteria to the ones already listed. If desired, you can take a hand count at the end to establish what was considered as most important, and so on. The board map should match the theoretical criteria of your choice. For the purposes of this teaching note the primary source is Schein (1983) and focuses on the basic underlying assumptions around which cultural paradigms form. Examples include:

  • The organization’s relationship to its environment: Is recycling important?
  • The nature of reality and truth: How important is time?
  • The nature of human nature: how employees (insiders) are treated and how customers (outsiders) are treated.
  • The nature of human activity: the physical design of the employee break room.
  • The nature of human relationships: Is the focus on competition or cooperation?

Summary and Close 1:10–1:30 (20 minutes)

Ask the students to again work individually and list the three things they would keep about their culture and the three things they would change, along with how they would implement that change. Lead the closing discussion in such a way that the students discover:

  1. What types of cultural approaches are common across most businesses?
  2. What is the role of fit between the founder, the company, and the environment in creating culture?
  3. How does culture become a positive resource for your business?

Teaching Tips

The game generally has to be ordered online, so you need to allow students time to order and receive it. The ideal experience is for the classroom to have wireless internet access and for each student to have a laptop. However, if teaching students with no access to computers or ability to buy the game, the instructor can lead the class in playing the game as a group, with one computer and the screen projected on the wall.

Skill Development:

Key Takeaways

  • The importance of intentionally creating organizational culture during firm emergence.
  • Organizational culture can be a positive or negative firm resource.
  • Organizational culture needs to be a fit between the founder, the firm, and the environment.

Resources: 

Materials List

  • Video game: The Sims and the expansion packet The Sims: Open for Business™.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.110 – 113). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Suggested assigned reading:

  • Schein, Edgar H. 2010. Organizational Culture and Leadership, Vol. 2, Chapters 1 and 11. Wiley.com.

Theoretical Foundations

  • Barney, J.B. 1986. Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustainable competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11, 656–65.
  • Brush, C.G., Greene, P.G., and Hart, M.M. 2001. From initial idea to unique advantage: The entrepreneurial challenge of constructing a resource base. Academy of Management Executive, 15(1), 64–78.
  • Cameron, K.S., and Quinn, R.R. 1999. Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework, Chapters 2 and 3 only. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley.
  • Schein, E. 1983. The role of the founder in the creation of organizational culture.
  • Stinchcombe, A.L. 1965. Social structure and organizations. In J.G. March (ed.), Handbook of Organizations (pp. 142–93). Chicago: Rand- McNally.

Author:

  • This exercise is taken from, Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.110 – 113). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub. and is reprinted with the kind permission of the authors.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Patricia G. Green.

Using Externals to Create a Guest Lecture Series (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To bring 'real world' (industry; practitioner; client; customer) perspectives to your students
  • To identify 'real world' problems and issues that the industry/sector faces and engage your students learning, knowledge and professional understanding to address these, anchored by practicalities of professional practice/industry constraints

Overview:

By inviting a range of sector/industry experts into the lecture theatre, you create the opportunity for students to appreciate their learning within their professional context. This approach can be viewed as "one off" or offered as a full module/programme where each week experts, users, clients, or sector experts address your students to broaden their understanding and deepen their appreciation of professional practice.

Activity:

This activity requires preparation in advance to secure relevant speakers for your students. Personal contacts and professional networks often yield great opportunities to engage speakers however there are also professional speaking associations that you might be able to tap into. It is also useful to consider customer bodies, consumer groups, patient action groups and other sector or industry stakeholders however internal experts can also be found across faculty, and within your own, or neighbouring, institution.

The preparation (agreement and confirmation of the speaker brief) is key to the development of a guest lecture series, and typically if you have the opportunity to schedule a programme of inputs, you have the opportunity to expose the students to a wide range of perspectives.

Skill Development:

A deep appreciation of their learning/skill development across the full programme of study can be achieved through the guest speakers however it is also possible for a guest lecture series not to create the deep learning that you would seek. It is therefore important to consider how you wish your students to reflect upon what they have heard and build deep connections to their wider learning.

There are opportunities to deepen the learning gained by guest speakers through regular reflection and also through assessment of their learning. This can be achieved through ETC: TOOL Reflective learning Diary or drawing upon the reflective models (Gibb1988; Driscoll 2000) to support your classroom debriefing.

Within a series of guest speakers it is important to ensure that there is reflection time without the externals present which allows you to connect up the inputs, critique and question what has been presented.

Resources:

Planning – it can be helpful to create an individual brief for your speakers that outlines the key logistics (time; length; location; travel; expenses if offered) and indicates what is expected in terms of

  • Approach (time; questions)
  • The general module/programme/ outcomes and purpose
  • The specific elements you are seeking to explore
  • Details of the audience – year; background; experience; interests;
  • Why you asked them (what they offer to your students)

This is often best undertaken through the development of a shared understanding/discussion, followed up by written confirmation.

Additional ETC resources include:

Guest Speaker Guidance – to support the development of individual sessions

Reflective Learning Diary – as a potential assessment method for a full programme of speakers

References:

For reflection:

Gibb's reflective cycle: from Gibbs, G (1988) "Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods"

Atkins and Murphy Model from Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard 8(39) 49-56 Driscoll, J (2000) Practising Clinical Supervision Edinburgh Bailliere Tindall

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

Public Speaking Through Audience Identification (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To develop students communication skills.
  • To encourage students to understand context when communicating.
  • To encourage students to consider the real-world context for their subject area, and the skills they are developing.

Overview:

The ability to communicate your ideas clearly, confidently and effectively is essential in enterprise, and for any study and career a student may undertake. However, no to audiences are the same, and so, to be maximally impactful, no to pieces of communication should be the same either.

This simple activity can be run as a 5 minutes warm up or plenary to a session, or be expanded upon to fill a session in its own right. It works equally well with small or large groups, and requires no materials or preparation. It works well as a revision tool at the end of a lecture, topic, or module.

It encourages students to reflect on who their audience are whenever they're communicating, and to consider their language, tone, and points of reference to ensure that their message is understood as clearly as possible. It allows students to consider how their skills may be applied in a real world context, and to consider how their field connects with others.

Activity:

  • Provide students with a piece of information which they are required to communicate. This could be something general (for example, what they do at University), or something relevant to the prevailing context and subject matter (for example, the plot of Hamlet, how a car engine works, or how the European Union was formed).
  • Next, provide students with three hypothetical audiences which they must present this information to. The three audiences should be distinct from one another (for example, a 5 year old, a friend and a grandparent; a website developer, a graphic designer and a plumber; a British client, an American client and an Australian client).
  • Instruct students that they should prepare a mini-presentation (30 seconds – 1 minute) to communicate their piece of information to each of these hypothetical audiences. They can do this alone or in small groups, and make any notes if desired.
  • In completing this activity, the students are required to think about the language and reference points which will be familiar to each of their audiences, and how the key information can be communicated without anything becoming lost in translation.
  • Students can then present their mini-presentations to the group for feedback and discussion.

The activity can easily be extended in a number of ways;

  • The topic and / or audience can be kept a mystery from the audience, who have to guess what they are as the individual / group presents.
  • The students can select three audiences themselves, reflecting on likely audiences for the information being communicated.
  • The task can be used to consolidate key information students require, as a revision tool.
  • The students can produce full presentations for their hypothetic audiences (for example, a web designer's sales pitch to a customer, or an economist’s evaluation of the economy to a public radio audience). These can be presented, recorded, or even tested in a real-world environment.

Skill Development:

Students will enhance their communication and public speaking skills, with a greater understanding of the importance of meeting the needs of your audience. They will have a greater appreciation of how their subject area connects with others, and of how their subject area operates within a real world context.

Resources:

  • This activity forms part of the workshop outlined in How to Guide 'Workshop: How To Speak In Public'

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA. [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236).
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148). 
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

Associated Case Studies

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

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Case Examples

Creative Futures Conference 2015 (QAA 2,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 6Interpersonal Skills

Objective:

  • To provide students with opportunities to develop subject relevant knowledge, understanding and expertise, to equip them for their future professional development.
  • To provide students with opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, develop professional networks, and create opportunities for collaboration, employment and self-employment.
  • To bring students into contact with a wide range of leading creative industries professionals.
  • To encourage students to reflect on their own professional development and career ambitions, to identify positive actions and opportunities, and to gain the belief and confidence to employ these changes going forward.
  • To inspire students to strive towards a successful career within the creative industries.

Introduction:

Creative Futures is a 4-day long, annual creative industries conference, held at Glyndwr University in North Wales. Organised by the University’s Careers Centre in partnership with the School of Art, Media and Design, the conference is integrated into the timetables of undergraduates, striving to inspire and equip them for futures as successful creative professionals.

Due to the nature of the creative industries, a large proportion of art, media and design graduates will find themselves self-employed at some point during their careers, and so it is essential that they leave University with the ability to do so confidently and professionally.

Creative Futures 2015 brought together over 50 professionals, inclusive of practising artists and performers, trainers, educators and business advisors, to deliver lectures, workshops and seminars on every aspect of developing a successful career. These were complimented by networking opportunities for students, and opportunities to reflect on their own skills, identify opportunities and action plan for the future. The conference was also integrated into the ‘Creative Futures Module’ taught to students on a number of art and design programmes, and allowing the conference itself to contribute to academic assessment.

In 2015 the conference sought to open its doors to a wider audience, and welcomed delegates from schools, colleges and the wider public for the first time. This changed the dynamic of the event, provided students with wider opportunities for network and exchange ideas, and provide a platform from which the University to promote courses, recruit students, and develop partnerships.

Activity:

The main activity associated with the planning and delivery of Creative Futures 2015 was as follows;

Planning and Promotion (16 weeks)

  • A steering committee was established to oversee the planning of the event. This was chaired by Neil Pritchard, from the University’s Careers Service, with representatives from marketing, student recruitment, enterprise and art, media and design.
  • Though a successful application to the Arts Council of Wales, funding was sourced to support the conference delivery.
  • Sub groups were established to manage specific elements of delivery (for example, website development, promotion to schools, room bookings etc.).
  • All members of the committee shared contacts from their professional networks, as candidates to lead conference sessions.
  • Monthly meetings with held by the steering committee, with regular updates and discussion via email, and regular meetings of individual sub groups.
  • Where possible, students were involved in planning (for example, graphic design students producing posters and marketing materials).
  • The event was promoted to students via their tutors, to schools via the University’s existing networks (through the student recruitment team), and to creative professionals and the interested public through web, social media and printed press marketing (through the marketing team).
  • ‘Delegate Packs’ were created for students and all other visitors, inclusive of a timetable, information about contributors and business start-up information.
  • The event ran from 2 – 5 March 2015.

Event – Lectures / Seminars / Workshops

  • Approximately 50 lectures, seminars and workshops were held over the 4 days.
  • Each day followed a similar format, with a key note address to every delegate, followed by a series of smaller sessions running in parallel.
  • The timetable was designed to offer a valuable session in every timeslot, irrespective of a students’ area of practice.
  • Speakers ranged from animators and film makers, to painters and journalists, school teachers and entrepreneurs. 
  • Students were provided with reflection forms, and reflected on how the learning points in each session they attended could be applied to their own practice and development.
  • Members of the public were able to book free tickets to these events, using the online platform EventBrite.

Event – Fringe Programme and Networking

  • Supporting the day-time programme of sessions, arts events, hosted by creative partners in the locality of the University, were promoted to all delegates, on each evening of the conference.
  • These included live music performances, fine art exhibitions, and interactive poetry workshops.
  • The purpose of this fringe programme was to encourage students to network with fellow creatives in an informal environment, to network outside of the University walls, and for the University, to strengthen its relationship with local arts organisations.
  • Networking was also fostered during the day. ‘Network Cafes’ were held in between conference sessions, in various communal areas around the University campus, where delegates and speakers were encouraged to meet informally, discuss the content of sessions, and exchange ideas. These cafes were facilitated by student volunteers.
  • Many conference contributors encouraged students to engage with them via social media, and this too provided valuable opportunities for students to establish relationships before, during and after the event.

Event – School Engagement

  • School students were offered their own bespoke conference programme.
  • Each school were offered a free, single day visit to the conference, sharing the key note presentation with all other delegates, followed by a campus tour, and a workshop delivered especially to cater to their own abilities and interests.
  • Each attending school student also received a conference delegate pack.
  • This offer was promoted to students of further education within Glyndwr University’s catchment area.
  • Student volunteers supported the school groups during their visits.

Post Event and Legacy

  • A selection of conference sessions were filmed, and made available for students as downloadable audio and video files through the University Virtual Learning Environment (VLE).
  • A selection of speakers were invited to feature in one minute ‘mini-films’ communicating key messages to students, for dissemination via the University’s social media platforms.
  • Where possible, PowerPoints and other resources used in sessions were made available to delegates via the University’s VLE.
  • The steering committee met post-event, and all evaluative data was gathered, collated, and formal reports produced for funders.

Creative Futures Pictures

Impact:

Overall approximately 730 people attended sessions during the conferences 4 days (not including audiences at fringe events). This broke down as approximately 500 students, 70 school students, and 160 members of the public and wider arts community.

The conference was effective in establishing relationships between the University and a wide-range of creative professionals and organisations, with opportunities for numerous future collaborations developing as a direct result.

The feedback from teachers and students involved in the schools programme was very positive, with a number of students considering applications to study at Glyndwr University as a direct result.

The support of the Arts Council of Wales helped the event to grow in scope and stature from previous years, and strengthened opportunities to bring in additional revenues at further events (through sponsorships, grant funding or otherwise).

Feedback from students was very positive, who reported that the conference had made a positive impact on their development.

Learner outcome:

Approximately 500 undergraduate learners attended the conference sessions.

The conference successfully achieved its aims in providing students with opportunities to develop their networks, skills, knowledge, understanding and ambition.

For a number of learners, the conference was a challenge, with an intense programme of lectures and seminars being unfamiliar to those from more practical courses. However, the diverse range of sessions on offer, coupled with the resources with were provided via the University VLE post event ensured that all were able to take something positive away.

Feedback from learners included;

  • ‘Inspiring, seeing a life beyond university that we don’t need to wait ‘till we graduate first.’
  • ‘I got to know different artists and see their work which inspired me a lot.’
  • ‘Creative Wrexham talk made me feel part of something interesting here in Wrexham.’
  • ‘The importance of preparation, clarity of vision, focus, planning but then determination and crossing the finish line. Not dreaming, doing!’
  • ‘Immensely valuable series of talks from some very impressive professional speakers.’

Resources:

  • This event was only possible, thanks to the collaboration of a number of academic and operational departments at the University. The integration of the conference into academic assessment for several student cohorts helped to ensure high attendance, and the securing of external funding helped the conference to grow in scope and reach, to engage with schools and the general public.
  • For a How-To Guide on engaging with externals, see ‘Guest Lecture Guidance.’

References:

Author:

www.macorcoran.com

With thanks to Neil Pritchard Student Services Department, Glyndwr University and the School of Art, Media and Design, Glyndwr University.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Imagine and Create Your Future

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will discover that they have entrepreneurial abilities and potential
  • The learner will get an insight into the world of ‘everyday’ entrepreneurship
  • The learner will become more alert to opportunity recognition
  • This is a useful session for the reluctant entrepreneur – those who might think it’s not for them, particularly arts students.

Introduction

This activity has been used with 3rd year Design and Visual Arts student, 2nd year Photography students and MA Contemporary Art students at Coventry University to project forward and encourage students to imagine their potential future. This encourages students to consider how to ‘make their job’ not ‘take a job’ by working forward potential scenarios post-graduation.

Activity

This 2 hr session is based around a hypothetical case study told as an engaging story and featuring several of the students in your class. It is told by the session leader and is followed by group discussion and analysis of their colleagues’ journey which leads them to recognise and identify with the enterprising actions and activities.

For 3rd year Design and Visual Arts student, 2nd year Photography students and MA Contemporary Art students at Coventry University, the following case study was created.

I start by selecting a likely student and ask their name – and if they reply “John” then your script to the class would be:

In 5 years’ time John will be running a successful technical consultancy for the art world providing a range of services, including haulage, framing, hanging and conservation.

How did he get there? Well, 1 year ago, as a 2nd year student he attended the 3rd year Arts degree show. Here he began chatting with a few people including the curator of the Hebert Art Gallery, Jeanette Smith. They got on well: they talked about the art, the exhibition, the Herbert programme and discovered a mutual interest in (ask John about his interests i.e. baking). They got on so well that a week later John decided to pop into the gallery to ask Jeanette if there was any chance he might get an exhibition at the gallery. After Jeanette stopped laughing she did say, 'but seriously, we do have an immediate opportunity for work experience'. The gallery was busy installing an exhibition by Douglas Rainford and were a bit behind schedule, could John help? Now John had planned to spend the next week finishing off assignments, which he was behind on, and there had been a baking festival in Northampton that he wanted to go to.

John took the leap and spent the next two weeks installing the exhibition at the gallery. At the same time he was getting to know Douglas, they discussed art, rail travel (Douglas was coming up from London most days) and discovered a mutual interest in (ask John about his other interests, i.e. cycling).

John said goodbye to Douglas at the private view a week later but kept in touch via twitter. John spent the rest of the summer, baking and cycling and then returning to university for his final year. He pursued his dream of getting an exhibition and continued approaching galleries, bars and cafés, but without much luck.

8 months later, round about the time of his degree show, John is invited to Douglas ' private view at the exclusive Charlie Smith Gallery in London, an independent gallery featuring some of the brightest young things. John is a bit torn, he is busy in Coventry, and the London train fare will be a few quid. But it seems like a good opportunity so he accepts the invite. The private view is full of London art glitterati and he chats to and swaps cards with several artists and gallerists. Douglas introduces him to Charlie Smith, the owner of the gallery they are standing in. They chat about the art and about Douglas and discover their mutual interest in (ask John) Silent Cinema. It transpires that Charlie is touring an exhibition through Europe over the summer and he is looking for technical help with the show, would John be interested? Well John had planned to go travelling that summer with some mates, but decided this would be more interesting.

So John started working freelance for the Charlie Smith gallery as a gallery technician and for the next two years was meeting other artists, other gallerists, he was speaking to specialist haulage companies and shipping agents. At the same time he was making ends meet working in a bar and finding other bits of casual work. But he was getting more and more offers from other galleries to help out, to tour exhibitions, moving from assistant roles to coordination roles. He was moving onwards and upwards. 3 years later there was a public tender to manage a European touring exhibition of medieval Masters for the National Gallery. This was John's big opportunity to move on to some very exciting work. But oh dear, the tender says the applicant must have arts conversation expertise. Them john remembers, (pick on a class mate) Charlotte went onto an MA in Arts Conservation at The University of Norwich. John picked up the phone:

'Hi Charlotte, how are you?'

10 minutes later Charlotte is on board.

John put in the proposal....he didn't get it. Main reason, he didn't have experience in bid writing.

But two months later a similar tender from the V&A was announced to tour an exhibition. This time John approached Jeanette, remember, the curator at the Herbert, she had lots of experience in assessing bids and she joined them in putting together a proposal. This time they we're successful.

The session finishes with 10-15mins reflection where students have to pledge to do something entrepreneurial that week. It could be something they had been thinking about for a while but had made excuses not to do it. Others may need a little help and guidance from peers about what they might do, so reflection and pledge setting should be discussed in groups.

Impact:

The impact was significant, particularly with students who would not consider themselves to be entrepreneurial. The immediacy of creating a case around a team member makes a deep connection with the student group that connects them powerfully with the potential of this story.

Learner Outcome :

The follow up session or debrief seeks when more detailed reflections can emerge and when students can get a measure of where they might be regarding their own development in terms of entrepreneurship and the enterprising mind-set.

Resources:

Post-its or similar sticky pads

Pens

Flip chart

About the Author
This guide was produced by Dr Peter McLuskie. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- Peter.McLuskie@coventry.ac.uk.

Engaging Alumni to Deliver Real World Learning

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement

Objective:

  • Students should be able to:
  • identify, analyse and respond to relevant opportunities
  • Develop and produce multiple solutions to identified problems, shortfalls and similar challenges
  • Be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk

Introduction

  • With the support of alumni who engage through social media (Facebook; Twitter etc.) and/or Skype, students are given incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment.
  • This interactivity means that deadlines can changed and information updated, often in response to newsworthy or other high profile influences and the students need to adapt throughout the module.
  • (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni/professional).
  • The project is designed to precede later work where the students will engage with real clients, so as to better enable them to respond pro-actively to change.

Activity

This activity is undertaken in semester 1 of a second year course of study (15 weeks – 2.5 hour sessions with anticipated 2.5 hours private study per week) and runs across all Visual Communication and Design courses. Each course’s relevance is ensured as the framework can be adapted to specific study areas and alumni inform the actual project – so as to ensure relevance and to maintain student motivation (See: Continuous Conceptual Review Model). The sample offered here is for two cohorts (approximately 50 students) from the film and media production courses and from the Advertising and Brand Management course – who will subsequently engage in an interdisciplinary module.

The following provides an outline of the activity as delivered to these disciplines, and was first introduced in 1995 following alumni feedback on the value of their educational experiences. Other disciplines use their own alumni and realistic contexts.

Week 1.

Students expect the lecturer to lead the class, but an unannounced stranger is brought in (alumni - in person or via skype) who asks the group about their career aspirations and challenges their understanding of the world of work. He or she explains their busy lifestyle and asks them to quickly help him or her with a problem they have – how to visualise a brand for a new academy of creativity, but explain that they have to go and leave them to it. Normally 90-95 per cent of responses include a light bulb.

Week 2.

Student’s have been discussing the individual and although not told, want to question the alumni about their work (curiosity based learning). The alumni, still in a rush, starts to explain that the headmaster for this new school will be Sir Humphrey Davy… then the connection is lost. Quick internet searches reveal that this is a historical project, as Sir Humphry Davy lived in 1778 – 1829 and that his work preceded the invention of the light bulb. Past work is discarded (with occasional moans and groans) and new research starts into historical images that represented creativity - prior to the invention of the light bulb. New / alternative ideas start to emerge.

Towards the end of the session the alumni reconnects / re-enters the room and takes questions about their work as a freelance storyboard writer for major TV companies. Scripts are discussed and student interest gained – a promise to see a script is made by the alumni.

Week 3.

An outline of a TV script is presented to students by the alumni. They or another alumni start to explain how camera angles and specialist instructions such as close ups or super close ups need to be incorporated in the storyboards. Examples from well know TV programmes or Films are shown when possible. With support from the alumni, students attempt to develop a storyboard through acting out the script and noting important aspects such as emotional engagement. Identification of the brand is central to the story line.

Week 4.

The alumni explains that he or she has just met the producer, who is happy for them to see other scripts for later episodes. Episode two has the main character Davy waking up in the future and looking at a barren landscape, one which is littered with light bulbs - which is now a thing of the past. The alumni explains that their brand has to survive the passage of time and that it has to be recognisable in the year 2020. Research into potential future understanding of creativity commences and students envisage / storyboard a potential future scenario based on the script.

Week 5.

The alumni / staff set up an opportunity for the students to pitch their ideas to the alumni. They have an hour to prepare a presentation and are requested to discuss and argue a minimum of three ideas. This was unexpected. After 20 -25 minutes the alumni asks them to limit their presentation to one or two minutes, so that he / she can hear them all. Students are asked at random to present. Time may run out and alumni ask students to make a PDF version to email (via staff).

Week 6.

The alumni explains the future direction of the time travelling Davy, and introduces the idea that he may meet aliens in his travels. Some students have already discovered Davy claimed this through their research. The task now is to create a pitch as to why aliens would find the brand design that they are developing to be credible.

Weeks 7 – 9

Students develop their storyboards and at least 3 brand ideas in the sessions. More in depth research is undertaken and initial concepts re-evaluated and iteratively developed. Arguments for the solutions are mapped and explained as reflective mind maps – so as to illustrate the thinking journey.

Week 10.

With 2 or more alumni present or available via Skype, students are asked to consider how this kind of work could be best assessed and who should assess it? Using a proforma, students suggest how their could be meaningfully evaluated. Through discussion, research, and assisted by appropriate lines of questioning by the educator and alumni, the idea of flexibility, adaptability and the requirement for multiple solutions emerge. Students come to realise that their response to change is a key factor and that when faced with incomplete data (QAA, 23 states “students can be required to work with incomplete information or information that is incrementally offered after a review of their initial findings”). As multiple and responsive outcomes are the most important aspect, the theory of divergent production is introduced, i.e. more solution developing capabilities, many alternative solutions that respond to change, plus the value of distinctiveness of ideas (similar solutions being less creative than distinctly different ones).

Week 11 – 13


Students develop their ideas further, in the knowledge that the alumni will be commenting and advising the educator, and that they will be assessed on the distinctiveness of a range of ideas that relate to the assignment given to them by the alumni. These will be evidenced by charts that illustrate the critical elements of their research and how the research informed their solutions. In simple terms, the more divergent the thinking the more complex the charts, hence students can easily recognize the range of solution development that has taken place in a clear and transparent manner.

Week 14 – 15


Pitches take place and the alumni adds their thoughts and comments. Assessment is based on the range of alternative ideas, the divergence of alternative ideas and their ability to be used flexibly in the scenarios described in the scripts supplied by the alumni.

Note: later, in the next semester’s module, the process continues and approximately 5 weeks into the projects each class will be provided with a theory session on brain functionality and how these kinds of activities enhance ‘aha’ moments of creative discovery (See: Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar). Thus practice informs personal theory development and theory follows practice, “reflective practice enables students to ‘join the dots’ of past experiences and perceptions” (QAA, 14).

Impact:

The assignment is constructively aligned (Biggs, 2003) as it enables students to demonstrate their skills and responses in meaningful and relevant (to their studies) scenarios that engage true to life experiences of alumni – who are partners in the process / most of whom have now experienced it for themselves in their own education and are familiar with the concepts.

Of interest is that the assessment strategy is often new conceptually and structurally, but through debate and discussion (week 10) the students feel engaged and very aware of the goals – which are not as they first perceived.

The assignment also leads into later QAA areas, for example they learn to “robustly justify their decision making processes” (QAA, 17) and includes “pitches to peers and expert advisors” (QAA, 23) that involves “feedback from different viewpoints” (QAA, 26).

Moreover, aspects of decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement (QAA, 19) can be evidenced in this and later assignments based on the same approach. Specifically, the assignment discussed here adopts the following QAA (19) guidance on delivery approaches:

  • Recognise or create multiple opportunities through actively making connections
  • Make connections as a result of problem solving, evaluating and assessing ideas, and iterative development strategies involving critique and enactment
  • Develop relevant subject expertise, as well as awareness of contemporary issues, both of which should feature strongly in any strategies for recognising opportunity.

Learner outcome:

The impact of engaging alumni with students is immeasurable and has impacted across the course. Seeking views from Alumni, their response to this approach was incredibly strong (as this ‘flash survey’(2015) below shows).

When asked about support (or otherwise) for learning environments where the working environment was simulated in their studies (through incomplete information, shifting deadlines and reference to newsworthy events that would impact on their solutions / fit within their personally identified problems to solve (briefs)) Alumni overwhelmingly confirmed its importance.

Question: Before students work with real clients, & to help get them, lecturers should simulate reality & change deadlines / add info to projects as they go along. (E.g. Partial assignments are issued & newsworthy events make it more real).

Question

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Not Sure

Agree

Strongly Agree

4.Changing deadlines and adding new information as projects evolve

0% (0)

2.04% (1)

6.12% (3)

42.86% (21)

48.98% (24)

Perhaps the most marked response is the alumni support for an educational experience where change occurs and situations of ambiguity and risk require them to develop resilience and flexible responses - so as to prepare them for the real world beyond graduation. This 91.84% (45) support rate aligns with the QAA (2012, 23-24) guidance views that:

Knowledge that is continuously being 'harvested' during a project or assignment may bring new dimensions into play at any time, and both the student and the educator must be flexible and adaptable to changing scenarios…Enterprise and entrepreneurship are dynamic and changing. Ambiguity and risk are difficult to evaluate in predictable and forcastable schedules. Shifts and changes by the educator
can be effective ways to assess flexibility and adaptability.

The findings are also a good fit to The Wilson Review of Business-University Collaboration recommendations (2012, 50), which state that:

Enterprise skills require responsiveness to unexpected pressures and tasks; they require reaction to changing circumstances and disruptive interventions. These attributes are contrary to the established framework of assessment processes. Enterprise skills do not presently lend themselves to formal assessment methods.

Resources:

  • Open plan and flexible working environments suited to enactments and pitching – ideally simulated professional design studio with access to online resources.
  • Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project.
  • Pens and software utilised in storyboard development and brand evolution.

References:

  • Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).
  • Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)
  • Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)
  • Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) ‘When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes’, Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410
  • Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

                                                    

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- University of Wales, Trinity St David.

Student Mentoring

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To support students’ personal development
  • To support the development of students intra and extra-curricular projects and enterprises.
  • To provide students with opportunities to develop ideas, take actions and reflect on progress.
  • To assist students in identifying and exploiting networks and support available to them.

Introduction:

At Glyndwr University, every student and graduate is offered the support of a dedicated mentor to support them in their enterprising endeavours, facilitated through the University’s ZONE Enterprise Hub (this mentoring has been both core funded by the institution, and supported through the pan-Wales HEFCW funded Enterprise Support Programme).

zone

Figure 1: ZONE Enterprise Hub at Glyndwr University

In the period July 2014 – July 2015, 158 such mentoring appointments were conducted, supporting the creation and development of 40 new businesses.

This mentoring takes many forms, and plays a vital role in students’ development in a number of ways. This can range from supporting the development of clear and original ideas, to facilitating effective reflection and evaluation on progress, to providing specific contacts and information to address a problem, or exploit an opportunity.

This mentoring has been delivered one-to-one, and one-to-many, sometimes as a standalone occurrence, and sometimes developing into relationships that persist for a considerable length of time.

Beneficiaries of this mentoring service have come from all programmes and levels of study, with enquiries ranging from looking to launch businesses, to requiring support with enterprising projects related to their academic study, to those looking for broader personal development.

The following is an indicative example of how the mentoring service has been utilised by one such student.

Activity:

Mentee – BSc (Hons) Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies Student

A mature student and fresher of the Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies Undergraduate Programme at Glyndwr University utilised the mentoring service available through ZONE Enterprise Hub, looking for support for an enterprising extra-curricular project.

The student desired to sell free-range eggs and organic vegetables to students at the University. The student had good contacts with the local community of growers and suppliers, had a small holding of his own, and a vast amount of experience in growing and supplying organic produce.

However, as a fresher, the student had no links or contacts with staff or students at the institution, and no experience of marketing to a student audience.

The mentor, in virtue to ZONE Enterprise Hub’s relationship with staff and students at the University, was able to support the students in addressing these issues. This was inclusive of providing contact information and introductions to key internal stakeholders at the University (for example, the manager required to grant permission to sell produce on campus, the manager responsible for the University’s green policies, the marketing department, the President of the Students Guild etc.), and brainstorming ideas for promoting the sale of produce to the University community (via social media, student / staff newsletters, poster campaigns etc.).

The mentor and student met periodically over a period of several months, to discuss progress, and solutions to specific problems as they arose. The mentor was able to draw on their personal experience of similar project which had run at the University in the past, to advise the student as to the courses of action they may consider taking.

Impact:

The student is now selling free-range eggs and organic vegetables on a weekly basis from the main University campus. Regular news bulletins regarding the sales are posted to staff and students, and changes to the promotional strategy are made on a trial and error basis to ensure continuous improvement in awareness and sales.

Through the connections established by the mentor, the student was able to engage with a number of students with similar interests, able to offer support not only in the promotion and selling of produce, but also in the growing of vegetables for sale.

Resources:

For more examples of mentoring, see case examples in Education Studies and Veterinary Nursing.

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (www.macorcoran.com). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

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Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: AIRPLANE CONTEST (QAA 1,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group), Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Practice pitching new concepts.
  • Critique pitches for new concepts.
  • Understand the importance of pitch versus idea. 
  • Simulate prototype development and feasibility testing.

Overview:

Rocket pitches or elevator pitches are often the first opportunity for an entrepreneur to convince potential investors that they have an idea that represents a profitable opportunity. These are often only one to five minute presentations, but they can have a significant impact on the entrepreneur’s ability to attract investors as well as other potential stakeholders. This can be particularly true in the early stages of a venture before the entrepreneur has a viable product, and he or she has to quickly convince potential stakeholders of his or her vision and the potential of the idea. Entrepreneurs often think that their idea is the most important aspect of the pitch, but studies have shown that U.S. venture capitalists consider personal characteristics such as the entrepreneur’s ability to articulate his or her venture to be critical in determining whether or not they will reject an entrepreneur’s plan.

In this exercise, students design a paper airplane that must be capable of carrying a predetermined amount of currency in the form of coins. The airplanes will compete in two categories – time that the plane can stay aloft and the distance it can travel. However, students pitch their design to their classmates (the investors) in an effort to convince them their design is the best before the contest takes place. 

The exercise has worked well for illustrating the importance of a good pitch and helps students to better understand what constitutes a good pitch from an investor’s perspective.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works with both undergraduate and graduate students. It is appropriate for new venture creation courses, entrepreneurship boot-camps, or workshops. The session is best positioned after students have identified a venture concept, project, or family or corporate initiative to pursue and are preparing for an elevator speech or rocket pitch type presentation. Technology entrepreneurship or innovation classes are also appropriate.

Activity:

Pre- Work Required by Students

Students are to be given the following instructions in the class period prior to running the exercise: “You are to design and create a new paper airplane capable of keeping one U.S. dollar of coins aloft for as long (time) as possible while simultaneously transporting the coins as far (distance) as possible. The assignment is as follows:

  1. You may work individually or in a group of up to four students; the only group-related implication is that your airplane design must use the same number of standard size sheets as the number of people in the group (for example, a group of four must create an airplane that uses four sheets of paper in its design). 
  2. Your plane must be designed to transport one U.S. dollar of coinage (or other local currency). You may choose the number and denominations of coins used; your only constraint is that their total value be exactly one dollar. 
  3. You may not simply crumple the paper into a ball, as this would constitute a projectile rather than an aerodynamically sensitive aircraft- based design.

You will be required to pitch your design to your classmates. You will have two minutes to convince your classmates that your design will perform the best. Performance on the exercise will be based on a combination of actual performance of your airplane and the number of votes your design gets from your classmates in each category (time and distance).”

Time Plan (80 minutes)

Because each team will pitch their idea, the time required for the exercise will vary with class and team size. The timing outlined here is based on a class size of 30 students and ten teams.

Step 1 0:00–0:02 (2 minutes) 

Begin the exercise by explaining the voting rules to the students. Students are allowed to vote for only one team (excluding their own) in each of the two categories (distance and time). They are not required to vote for the same design in each category. It helps to provide a sheet for each of the students to record their votes, or, if your students have computers and internet access, you can use an online voting system (this will require you to set it up before the class).

Step 2 0:02–0:27 (25 minutes) 

Next, have each team pitch their idea to their classmates. Teams should be strictly limited to two minutes each.

Step 3 0:27–0:32 (5 minutes) 

Have the students record their votes for the design they think will perform best in each category. Remind them that they cannot vote for their own design.

Step 4 0:32–0:52 (20 minutes)

Take the class to an open area in which to conduct the actual flights. An indoor area such as a gymnasium works best, but you can run it outdoors as well (which can introduce additional uncertainty into the performance for the students). Each team gets one throw. You should have a line that they cannot cross for throwing, and you should record the time that their plane stays aloft. After the plane has landed, measure and record the distance. It helps if you assign this task to one or more of the students.

Step 5 0:52–1:00 (8 minutes) 

Return to the classroom. Record the votes and the actual performance for each team on the board.

Step 6 (exercise debrief) 1:00–1:20 (20 minutes) 

If time allows, you can have a short discussion about their process with regard to creating their design. This can help to illustrate how an entrepreneur can take a constraint and turn it into an opportunity. Additionally, this can highlight the importance of prototyping and learning from failure, and many of the teams that perform well often trial several different designs. Some possible questions include:

  • How did they view the issue of the coins? 
  • Did they see it as a negative constraint? Why? 
  • Did they see it as an opportunity to incorporate it into the design and improve its performance? 
  • How did they try to differentiate their design? 
  • Did they try to optimize for time or distance or try both? 
  • Did they prototype and test designs?

Next, discuss the aspect of effective pitching. The idea here is to get them to appreciate the importance of the entrepreneur and his or her pitch to investors. Owing to the uncertainty inherent in many early- stage entrepreneurial ventures, investors will typically put more emphasis on the entrepreneur and his or her ability to “sell” the idea, as well as their confidence in the entrepreneur’s ability to execute on his or her pitch – one has to be careful not to oversell the concept.

  • How did it feel to try to “sell” your classmates on your design?
  • What were the biggest challenges? 
  • How did you decide to invest? 
  • How important was the way in which they presented the concept? 
  • Confidence? 
  • What was compelling about the pitch or the entrepreneur? 
  • Why do you think people did or did not vote for your design?
  • What would you do to improve your pitch?

Wrap the discussion up with a summary of the importance of clearly articulating your idea and convincing the audience of your ability to execute on your idea.

Post- Work

Have the students read the following articles (this can be done beforehand if you prefer):

  • Elsbach, K.D. 2003. How to pitch a brilliant idea. Harvard Business Review, 81(9), 117–23. 
  • Santinelli, A., and Brush, C. 2013. Designing and Delivering the Perfect Pitch. Wellesley, MA: Babson College Case Collection.

Teaching Tips

Students will often try to game the system (depending on how much freedom you give them). For example, they may choose to use different weights of paper or design a flying disc as opposed to a traditional airplane. You can decide how vague you want to be. If you want to have more discussion on the creative process and pushing the boundaries, then being more vague in the instructions can lead to a good discussion on how entrepreneurs try to push the rules and boundaries. Some students will feel “cheated,” but this can still provide a good learning point.

Skill Development: 

Key Takeaways

  • Ability to quickly and clearly articulate an idea is often more important than the idea itself. 
  • Investors often focus on their belief in the entrepreneur’s ability to execute on the idea rather than the idea itself – particularly under conditions of uncertainty. 
  • Prototyping can be an effective way to deal with an unknown environment and develop your product or service.

Resources: 

Materials List

Provide students with paper for their airplanes in order to maintain a standard paper type and weight. Alternatively, you can leave this open to interpretation as a means of encouraging greater creativity among the teams. You will need a tape measure and a stopwatch for the actual competition.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695 

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.131 – 135). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Attribution

  • Reginald A. Litz, Dell McStay, Sergio Janczak, and Carolyn Birmingham, “Kitty hawk in the classroom: A simulation exercise for facilitating creative and entrepreneurial behavior,” United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (USASBE) 2011 conference – Entrepreneurship: Changing the Present, Creating the Future, South Carolina, United States, January 2011.

Theoretical Foundations

MacMillan, I.C., Siegel, R., and Subba Narisimha, P.N. 1985. Criteria used by venture capitalists to evaluate new venture proposals. Journal of Business Venturing, 1, 119–28. 

Ries, E. 2011. The Lean Startup: How Today’s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. New York: Crown Publishing.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Bradley George.

Defining your Customer (QAA 2,3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

  • To build a profile of (future) customer as a person
  • To develop the business offer through a broader understanding of the customer needs
  • To  support critical thinking and evaluation of ideas 

Overview: 

This exercise enables students to demonstrate their understanding of their potential customer and deepen that understanding to create a robust offer.

Activity: 

Give each group or individual a sheet of paper with an outline of (non-male or female) person drawn in the middle. 

Ask them to depict on the figure what they might know about their (future) customer.  This requires them to visually-describe their customer, including things like: 

  • Where do they live, work, spend time outside of work and home
  • How much do they earn
  • Where else might they access products/services like yours
  • How do they think, feel
  • What experience do they expect 
  • What concerns do they have
  • What life to do they lead

The purpose is to try and establish a real understanding of what is important to a potential customer, rather than drawing out key “facts” about them (disposable income etc).

Once all the drawings are done, everyone looks collectively at the different customer outlines and tries to add further understanding from what they can see.  The owner of the drawing need not accept these, but can include anything relevant onto their picture.

Once every drawing has been explored, each team/individual needs to articulate one message that they have learnt from this exercise that they can take forward into their planning.  So if offering fast-food to a student customer base, they may have identified price as critical.  However the wider discussion might have identified that students may also select to eat somewhere that is offering free wifi to allow them to connect with others or make plans with each other.  Or if the customer base was a family, then other elements that are important to them such as child-friendly parking, might indicate 1 premises to be more attractive than another.  This “linked” thinking allows the student to draw out the wider benefits of their product or service and explore it in order to create an effective offer.

Skill Development: 

Whilst this task can be based on initial research undertaken by the student, the critical thinking comes from the assumptions that the wider group offer to develop their thinking.  This shows the power of group work and allows the students to deepen their own thinking through the examples of others.

It is useful to explore this task at the end of the session to see how the groups found sharing and testing their assumptions in a group environment.

Resources: 

Paper, pens, flipchart (outline of a person)

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Workshop: Business Planning (QAA 1,2,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To provide students with an opportunity to identify and reflect on their own skills.
  • To provide students with an opportunity to generate business ideas, and identify opportunities.
  • To provide students with knowledge and understanding of how to write and structure a business plan.
  • To provide students with an understanding of how to use a business plan effectively.
  • To provide students with an awareness of the advice, resources and support available to them.

Overview:

A well-structured, well-research and well-written business plan is an invaluable asset to any new enterprise. Yet many students considering starting up report difficulty in developing business plans and in particular, plans which actively work for them and their business.

Business Planning is a workshop serving as an introduction to the subject, inclusive of opportunities to reflect on skills and generate ideas, and information regarding how to build a strong and cohesive plan around those ideas, and advice regarding using that plan, to turn those ideas into successful businesses.
 
The activity is designed to fit within a typical one hour lecture session, but inclusive of ample opportunities for extension, through practical activity, group discussion or independent research, and could easily form the basis of a more comprehensive scheme of work on the subject. It is designed to be appropriate for students of any level or programme of study. It was originally developed through the HEFCW funded pan-Wales Enterprise Support Programme.

Lesson plans and AV presentations for use in the delivery of the workshop can be downloaded via the link to the ‘ZONE Enterprise Hub’ webpages listed in ‘References’ and ‘Resources.’

Activity:

The activity follows the structure outlined in the ‘Business Planning’ PowerPoint presentation, inclusive of all links and examples.

  

Figure 1. PowerPoint presentation which accompanies this activity.

Pre-Activity

Students are not required to prepare anything in advance of this workshop. For workshop leaders, preparation is minimal, other than ensuring supporting AV resources are displaying correctly.

Introduction

  • Students are welcomed and introduced to the themes that will be covered during the workshop.
  • The group may be invited to share their own business experience or business ideas.

Why Bother?

  • Students are asked to discuss and share where they see their ideas and business endeavours 10 years from now.
  • Students are provided with a basic definition of a business plan.
  • Students discuss the purpose of a business plan. Points are suggested and debated.

What to think about?

  • Students are asked to reflect on the skills which they possess.
  • Students are asked to explore and identify the products and services they can offer, supported by their skill set.
  • Students explore how, by reflecting on a particular product or service, they can consider pricing, branding, marketing and sales.
  • An indicative example is offered within the PowerPoint presentation to illustrate this. If desired, you may wish to reinforce this by working through a real example offered by a member of the audience.
  • (An activity allowing students to identify their skills, and explore opportunities in a greater degree of depth can be found in How To Guide ‘Workshop: Breaking Problems Down and Putting Solutions Together.’)

What to write down?

  • The key elements of a basic business plan are covered step by step, with class discussion of the key points at each stage. Namely, the elements covered are; The Executive Summary, The Business Vision, Marketing, Running the Business, Finance.
  • Students are introduced to SWOT analysis. If desired, a member of the audience may be invited to offer their own business idea as an example, which a SWOT analysis can be worked through for collectively.
  • Students are introduced to cash flow forecast. Again if desired, an indicative example may be offered to demonstrate how the forecast works.

Help and support

Students are provided with links and information regarding the support, advice and assistance available to them as they develop their business plans.

Conclusion

The key themes covered in the workshop are re-capped, and students are invited to ask any outstanding questions which they may have.

Post-Activity

This workshop is intended only as an introduction to the subject of Business Planning. Following the activity, students may utilise the information provided to research and develop their plans independently, or each element of the workshop may be revisited and explored in more depth by the group.

Skill Development:

Students will leave the workshop with greater confidence in their ability, with a better understanding of their skills, and how these skills will support the development of their endeavours. They will have a better knowledge and understanding of business plans and how to develop them, and a greater awareness of how to use business plans to effectively support them in their endeavours.

Resources:

PowerPoint Slides accompanying this activity can be downloaded here > Business Planning [PDF]

References:

Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11 . [Accessed 05 August 2015].

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran .

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If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Creating Entrepreneurship: entrepreneurship education for the creative industries

Enterprise and entrepreneurship has grown as a focus for national policy across the UK. Policymakers have urged education at all levels to address the entrepreneurial capacity of learners through enhancing learning environments, the curriculum and through building stronger links with industry. There is a pressing need to address entrepreneurship in the creative industries. See more at: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resources/detail/subjects/adm/Creating-Entrepreneurship

Cases Studies of Good Practice can be found in Higher Education Academy booklet (2014) Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education Case Studies and includes an example from the School of Art, Design and Architecture at University of Huddersfield.

Here be dragons?: Enterprising graduates in the Humanities

This report is based upon interviews with graduates from a range of humanities subjects who are currently running their own businesses. It is not intended to be a guide to teaching business skills to humanities students, but aims to demonstrate to lecturers, tutors, careers advisors and others that humanities degree students acquire a huge range of skills and attributes which will equip them to run successful businesses when they graduate. See HEA for more information: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resources/detail/evidencenet/Here_be_dragons

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales.

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf