Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Capacities for independent and self- managed learning
  • Skills in the use of communications 
  • An ability to work in groups and other interpersonal skills, including oral as well as written presentation skills

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


A Compendium of Pedagogies: THE USE OF HOT SEATS (QAA 5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Participants gain confidence in responding to questioning under pressure. They may importantly also learn that they need to ‘act’ differently with different stakeholders. They learn quickly to adapt to others’ point of view.

Overview:

This is a group exercise. Members of the group in turn are put in the ‘Hot Seat’ to respond to intensive questioning from other group members. Traditionally, this ‘Hot Seating’ technique is used by actors to help them identify with the character they are playing. It is used in entrepreneurship education to enable participants to get inside the culture and values of stakeholders with whom they might have to deal. But it can also be used for intensive questioning of an individual’s own personal aims, objectives and plans including business plans. Other participant’s (the group) act as interrogators in this exercise; note: it can be useful to agree ground rules as what is appropriate in terms of questioning and approach within this task.

Activity:

The hot seat itself is in the middle of a semi-circle of chairs. The person in the ‘Hot Seat’ can be himself/herself or represent a client or stakeholder. Dependent upon the role, questions fired rapidly may relate to personal issues; business/organisational problems or community activities (part of ground rules).

Example Hot Seat: Business/plan/idea

The individual is surrounded by those role playing different stakeholders which the plan might need to convince. The aim is to create recognition that the plan will be seen very differently by very different stakeholders. Interrogators may, for example, play the roles of bankers, venture capitalists, family, local government officials offering grants; a potential large customer who will be judging whether to include the client on a buying list or a major potential supplier who may be asked for credit.

Other participants can then be similarly hot seated. At the end of the hot seating there can be a review of what has been learned about the business plan as a relationship management instrument and how it might be best developed to meet different needs.

Example Hot Seat: different stakeholders
Using the same focus of the business plan; hot seater’s, in turn, can be asked to play the roles of different stakeholders, as above, and are quizzed about what they are looking for and why?

Example Hot Seating: on a problem
The technique can be used to role-play individuals from a case study with the aim of creating lively personalised discussion of major points for learningfrom the case. It can also be used to focus discussion on how to deal with a particular problem set out in a simple brief.

Skill Development:

This is an exercise in thinking and responding under pressure. It also is designed to stimulate understanding of relationship management and the value ofthinking empathetically. It can be used to throw light on the ‘organisational cultures’ of different stakeholders that make them see the same things in different ways.

Resources

A Compendium of Pedagogies for Teaching Entrepreneurship. Professor Alan Gibb and Professor Alison Price - Download (PDF) 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Allan Gibb and Professor Alison Price .

Champion Icebreaker (QAA 5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective: 

To let the participants champion themselves and each other, as well as getting to know each other better. 

It is used to introduce participants to each other in a positive, upbeat way that emphasises each participant's value to the group.

Overview: 

Champions will help a team to acknowledge and recognise the strengths of themselves and those around them. It is great for the start of a sessions as induces positivity to a meeting or discussion. 

Activity:

  1. Have participants pair up.
  2. Allow 5 minutes for participants to interview each other and learn more about each other.
  3. Each participant then introduces his or her partner to the group.
  4. The introduction should "sell" the person on how great he or she is and on how he or she will significantly contribute to the meeting or the task at hand.

For example... "This is Lucy. She's been a student for only a short time. She brings a different perspective, yes. But more importantly, she's very good at helping people work together. She helps find bridges and commonalities among differing opinions, and she can do this without making anyone feel as if he or she 'won' or 'lost.'"

It is important to make sure participants understand that the goal is not just to introduce their partner. The goal is to champion their partner, to show the rest of the group what a great asset their partner is to the meeting, team, or work group.

  • You could also add some variation to this icebreaker.  Have participants work in teams of three. Two people introduce and champion the third one.
  • If time is limited, or if you want to reinforce self-confidence, don't have participants pair up. Rather, each participant introduces himself or herself. During their introduction, participants champion themselves, explaining what value they bring to the group. 
  • This activity can work for much larger groups by first dividing them into smaller teams.

Skill Development: 

The focus is to show the group that they have now broken the ice and that they know each other a little better than they did before, and they have figured out where there strengths lie. It's important for the facilitator to engage and make sure that there is time in the activity for reflection on what they have 'championed'.  

Key skills of public speaking and presentation are clearly apparent here and it can be useful to reflect with the group why it might be easier to showcase someone else, rather than themselves.  It is also possible to explore the styles of presentation used to "sell" or champion someone else to explore what forms an effective method to hook the audience.  Presentation styles can be scored across the group (or voted on by the group) to reinforce what was most appropriate and what appealed to the audience most, and from that key learning can be drawn out.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Reflection on Values (QAA 5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

To understand the importance of values and explore how are values affect us and our decision making

To recognise our own values

To recognise the difference in people's values

Overview:

This session can be run by working with learners remotely (through a learning log or diary – see QAAreflectivediary) or in a group discussion in order to explore individual values. It can be useful to help groups explore their approaches and the values that underpin them.

Activity

This activity takes no more than thirty minutes to deliver in a group setting and needs few resources (have a prepared Flip chart replicating the grid with enough columns to suit the numbers in the group). However if delivered as a prompt within a reflective diary or personal learning document, this task and its outcome can be revisited throughout the learning process.

As a group task:

Ask each individual to take some time to read a list of values and decide which are the most important 5 values.

Once these values have been identified, they are asked to rank them by placing them in order of importance ie 1 being the most important. When they have all finished ask them to go behind the flip chart one at a time and put their scores in the grid when they have all sat down turn the flip chart around to group to discuss the range of findings.

Typically no two sets are the same, indicating the range across the group and ask them to discuss the diversity that they see.

Feedback and discussion should not now be task focused (particularly as values can be deeply held and discussions can be wide ranging at this point) but focused upon how to work together if the values are very different.

Please choose your top five values numbering your selection in order of importance 1 being the top and 5 being the lower value.

List of Values can be generic, task or profession focused or related to group work (see below)

Values listed could include:

  • Wealth
  • Peace
  • Environmental Protection
  • Human rights
  • Animal rights
  • Respect for all religions
  • Health
  • Family
  • Friends
  • Culture
  • Arts

Amend: it may be possible to alter this generic list to make reference to issues or debates within your sector/industry or a potential profession. This may require some research or background reading by the students which may impact upon scheduling this task to the following week after the issues have been announced.

Amend 2: Reflective Group work task

It may also be useful in developing communication skills for group work to alter these values to key elements of group work and ask the group to explore these elements and explore what is important to those working in the group and how best to work together, where there are recognised differences. These could include:

  • group harmony
  • time keeping
  • task compliance
  • client satisfaction
  • leadership
  • consensus building
  • deadlines
  • delivery
  • high quality
  • respect for the individual
  • satisfactory outcome
  • professional expertise
  • business like attitude
  • creativity

Skill Development:

This is great exercise for getting people to appreciate how diverse we all are and we should be aware of that when working with others. It is important to ensure that respect for all participants is maintained throughout and it can be helpful to create ground rules at the start of the discussion; however it is also important to build the skills of active listening and build confidence in expressing emotions or strong feelings. It may be helpful to reflect with a colleague on this task, and the group undertaking it, if you wish to be prepared for the range of observations and discussions that may stem from the group.

Group discussions should conclude with consideration of how to take this learning forward into future activities and tasks, whilst individuals can be prompted in their learning diaries or personal reflective logs to explore their emotions in relation to these issues.

As one of the more fundamental elements of communication and improving interpersonal skills, it is important that, as a facilitator, you are able to draw out the learning from this task, rather than allow the merits inherent within each of the values/topics to dominate the discussions.

Resources:

  • Paper
  • Felt Tip Pens
  • Flip Chart

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

Communication Re-evaluation (QAA 5, 6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

To understand the importance of developing our feedback techniques as part of a communication and working with others.

Overview:

This session is run as a stand-alone group activity in an informal environment with all participants sitting in a relaxed state in order to create lots of opportunity for group discussions and sharing experiences in order to refine their use of language and consider messages from different perspectives.

Activity

This activity takes about 30 minutes to deliver the airline pilot communication, set the scene: and explore the results with the group together the importance of giving effective constructive feedback when communicating.

Before beginning it is useful to indicate that you are doing a hypothetical task relating to air travel to ensure that you are not working too close to an individual’s phobia or concerns relating to airline travel. You may wish to exempt someone who feels that they may be uncomfortable with the task, but recognise this element is part of the task when giving feedback.

Turning a negative into a positive: The airline pilot scenario

As facilitator, read this announcement to your group, after explaining that they have been sat in an aeroplane for about 15 minutes, when the pilot speaks to you over the intercom:

"Good morning, this is your pilot speaking. We are going to have to delay our departure for about 40 minutes. There have been problems with the cargo onto the airplane and this will take some time to sort out. The plane is also at the present time being refuelled.

When we take off, we shall be flying due east and going at a height of 30.000 feet. The weather forecast in the area is not good and it looks as if we could have quite a bit of turbulences route, so please keep in your seats and I understand the weather at our destination is also bad for this time of year which is causing delays to departures and arrivals.I will let know as we have any further information"

Ask the group informally to share what they heard from this announcement. Explore the feelings of the group as well as the message.

Then provide the text, either as a handout, or on screen and set the task: Can you communicate this information in a more positive way?

All the above information is factually correct, however even before take-off the captain has put you in a poor mood for the journey.

Give the group 10 minutes to read through and come up with a more positive statement. Then go around the group for them to talk through their statements and then talk though the groups as to how and why they presented this information differently and how they might communicate the need to use different language to the pilot. Discuss how to give feedback to colleagues/team members and explore their previous experience of poor feedback.

Discuss how feedback statements are heard and how language can shape what is heard.

Use the following Feedback key points (below) to guide your discussions and agree how best to handle feedback which improves service and quality, and particularly when colleagues are unaware of any performance issues or potential increase in quality that can be achieved.

Feedback should be

  • In a form that is appropriate and acceptable to the receiver
  • descriptive not evaluative
  • about behaviour not personality
  • based on examples

When you give feedback make sure you:

  • communicate how you felt
  • get others to support your observations
  • confirm good as well as bad
  • allow the recipient to question
  • are timely
  • identify sources

When receiving feedback

  • accept it is for your own good
  • be positive
  • listen carefully
  • check and clarify understanding
  • check with others
  • expand on feedback given
  • decide how to use feedback
  • thank the giver

When giving feedback to individuals

  • use supporting evidence
  • be positive
  • gain commitment
  • clarify implications of feedback
  • build up self confidence
  • gain agreement of the way forward
  • develop action plans
  • communicate decisions to appropriate personnel

Skill Development:

The discussion of this task should focus on reflection; review; feedback (see points above) in order to explore the learning through group discussion. It is important that you establish the need to understand the importance of how to give feedback in a safe constructive way which continues to motivate individuals to deliver.

This communication task explores the more subtle, and powerful elements of an individual's communication skills and it can be useful to draw on experiences from part-time/previous jobs or courses to truly understand the emotional impact of feedback and establish the need to consider timing; task; emotional state; message etc when giving feedback. Individual experiences from the group, should they wish to share, can be particularly powerful in exploring group work, team work and motivating for improvement.

Review these lessons and then explore with the group what they can 'take-away' for the future, both as a giver of good and supportive feedback, and a possible receiver of well-intended, but badly executed feedback. What ground rules for feedback can they use in their group work? Can they add this to their meeting agendas? What language is appropriate? What happens when feedback is not accepted within their group?

Resources:

Pilot statement Handouts (or power point slide of text) to produce mid task.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Enterprise Evolution.

Developing Self-Awareness in Teams (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To enhance self-awareness in team work through reflective practice
  • To reflect upon individual behaviour and practice
  • To explore individual approaches to team work
  • To develop approaches to improved future team working

Overview 

This reflective activity is based upon 'open questioning' to encourage students to explore their own behaviour in a group. As this activity focuses upon the individual it can be run effectively in any learning space and with any group size, however there are modifications available if the group has worked together before. 

Activity

Students are asked to work alone to complete the following sentences in relation to yourself when working in teams:

My greatest skill in teams is

A skill in teams which I could handle better is

My quality which team members respond to best is

I respond best to team members who

If there is one thing I do too much of, it is

If there is one thing I could do more of, it is

Team members find my manner predominantly

Students are asked to attempt this task individually (3-5 minutes) making notes for their own use.
Then they are invited to turn to the person next to them and ask them 'How did you get on?'.
This question is worded that way in case anyone does not want to talk about the specifics of what they have put down but still talk about how difficult or otherwise they found the exercise.
After they have discussed for 5 minutes or so, the tutor should ask the whole group the question, 'How did you get on?'
Individuals respond by exploring the difficulties they found in answering this and collectively the group seeks to identify three pre-requisites for developing self-awareness. 
These are:

  1. you have to be curious about yourself: many have never really thought about their behaviour or attitude in teams;
  2. you have to willing and able to seek information (feedback) about yourself from others;
  3. you have be prepared to consider and process all feedback; many are concerned about how they will handle the information (inclined to filter out the 'good' news or the 'bad' news)

Modification: If the group have worked together before you can ask them to undertake this task in pairs. First answering for themselves and secondly answering for their partners.

Then they can discuss/compare perceptions, and hopefully learn about the accuracy of individual self-awareness.
This deepens their skill development as will require effective interpersonal skills.

Modification 2: Completing a list of prescribed incomplete sentences can be a simple but very powerful tool for getting started on the reflective process. You can issue similar open questions after presentations or group work for individuals to reflect on. For example:

  • What I like most about my performance is ..
  • I have most difficulty when I ..
  • The bit I look forward to most is ..
  • If I could change one thing about my approach it would be ..

Here are some incomplete sentences for use by a student or lecturer in reflecting on a teaching /presentation session:

The part of the session that I found most rewarding was ..
The one part I would do differently if I had the chance would be ..
I was at my most uncertain when ..
I was most relaxed when ..
I felt anxious when ..
I was pleased with ..
I felt awkward when ..
One part of what I said that I could have worded differently was ..

Skill Development

Developing effective reflective skills requires practice and repetition. These open questions, together with the opportunity to share and comment, create the space for students to review their approach and consider the future lessons for their practice/behaviour. The technique of 'open questions' supports reflective practice and can be adapted to review many of the individual and group activities that students are challenged to undertake. Collective debriefing on personal reflection is also incredibly useful in helping the students appreciate wider viewpoints or to deepen their own practice. However it may be helpful to share clear ground rules regarding personal disclosure during these discussions to ensure that individuals only share elements of their reflection that they are comfortable with. 

Resources:

None

References:

Mortiboys, A. (2012) Teaching with Emotional Intelligence 2nd edition London: Routledge
Paperback www.alanmortiboys.co.uk

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alan Mortiboys (Higher Education Consultant (Emotional Intelligence)).

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Case Examples

Enterprise Awareness Module (QAA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

The Module Aims to; 

  • Familiarise students with the key concepts of enterprise and entrepreneurship in a variety of contexts. 
  • Provide a framework in which students can develop a range of enterprising skills and behaviours. 
  • Engage students in the creation, management and evaluation of an enterprise project. 
  • Help students identify what ‘being entrepreneurial’ means to them personally. 
  • Encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning.

Introduction:

Developed in 2011, this level 4 module presents students with an introduction to enterprise / entrepreneurial skills, allowing them to develop a fundamental understanding of them, and various factors that interact in developing an idea into an enterprise. 

The learning and teaching strategy has at its heart the values and practices of Glyndwr’s learning and teaching strategy (see references), where studentsare encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning. The key delivery is structured around an action learning methodology centred on the development of an entrepreneurial project, managed by the students across the semester which also forms the evidence base for their assignments. 

The module is delivered using a range of teaching and learning methods. These include lectures, seminars, case studies, open learning programmes, project work, online work and simulations to create a diverse learning portfolio suited to a range of learning styles.

It is assessed via group assessment, including ideas pitching and group project presentations, and individual assessment, including written reflection discussing personal learning and development. 

It is designed to be suitable for delivery within all undergraduate programmes.

Activity:

Syllabus Outline; 

Week 1: Module Introduction
Class: Interactive Lecture
Assignment: Blog

Week 2: Team Building Task
Class: Tower Activity
Assignment: Reflection

Week 3: Opportunity Awareness
Class: Trop Activity
Assignment: Perfect Pitching

Week 4: Ideas Pitch
Class: Group Assessment (Presentation)
Assignment: Project Proposal

Week 5: IDEA Project Shaping
Class: Team Meetings Focussed on Goal Setting / Action Planning.
Assignment: Assessment Work.

Week 6: Practical Creativity
Class: Chocolate Bar Activity
Assignment: Further Reading

Week 7: Group Work
Class: Assessment Work.
Assignment: Communication Skills.

Week 8: Group Work
Class: Assessment Work
Assignment: Strategic Thinking (Online Module)

Week 9: IDEA Project Shaping
Class: Team Mentoring
Assignment: Assessment Work.

Week 10: Marketing for Entrepreneurs
Class: Interactive Lecture
Assignment: Assessment Work

Week 11: Group Work
Class: Assessment Work
Assignment: Strategic Thinking (Online Module)

Week 12: Group Work
Class: Assessment Work
Assignment: Writing Personal Reflection

Week 13: IDEA – Project Presentations
Class: Group Assessment
Assignment: Assessment Work

Week 14: IDEA- Project Presentations
Class: Group Assessment
Assignment: Assessment Work

Week 15: Final Submission of Individual Assessment.

Learner Outcome:

Knowledge and Understanding

Students Will; 

  • Develop a range of enterprising skills and behaviours.
  • Contribute to the creation, implementation and management of an enterprise project which has the potential to be realised during the module.
  • Work in a group to organise and deliver a high quality pitch for their project concept. 
  • Appraise their own and others performance reflecting on how future activity might be modified to improve the project. 
  • Articulate their view of enterprise expressing what it means to them personally by reflecting on achievements in the module. 

Transferrable/Key Skills;

  • Creativity and problem solving 
  • Team working 
  • Communication 
  • Resource planning/management 
  • Networking 
  • Self-reflection 
  • The development of judgement in relation to the creation and evaluation of ideas.

Resources:

For further examples of embedded enterprise modules, see Case Examples including ‘Entrepreneurial Journalism’ and ‘Creating Commercially Aware and Industry Ready Cardiff University Physics Graduates.’

References:

Essential reading for students; 

  • Claxton, G (2000). Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind: How Intelligence Increases When You Think Less, London: Ecco.
  • Rae, D (2007). Entrepreneurship: From Opportunity to Action, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. 
  • Robinson, K (2005). The Element: How Finding Passion Changes Everything. London: Penguin.

Other indicative reading for students; 

  • Alinsky, S.D (1999). Rule for Radicals, Westminster: Random House.
  • Barringer, B.R. & Ireland, D (2009). Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures, Boston: Pearson Education. 
  • Burgh, B (2007). The Go-Giver, New York: Portfolio Hardcover 
  • Gladwell M (2002). The Tipping Point: How Little Changes Can Make a Big Difference, England: Back Bay Books.
  • Gittomer, J (2003). The Sales Bible: The Ultimate Sales Resource, Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons
  • Godin, S (2005). Purple Cow, London: Penguin. 
  • Godin, S (2008). Tribes, London: Paitkus Books
  • Kirby, D (2002). Entrepreneurship, Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Mawson, A (2008). The Social Entrepreneur: Making Communities Work, London: Atlantic Books.
  • Semler, R (2001). Maverick!: The Success Story Behind the World’s Most Unusual Workplace, Harlow: Random House Business Books.
  • Vaynerchuck, G (2009). Crush It!: Why Now is the Time to Cash in on Your Passion, New York: Harper Studio.
  • Weinber, T (2009). The New Community Rules: Marketing on the Social Web, Farnham: O’Reilly Media.
  • West, C (2008). Think Like an Entrepreneur, Your Psychological Toolkit of Success, Harlow: Prentice Hall

Author/Contact Details:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Judith Alexander (ZONE Manager, Glyndwr University). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- J.Alexander@glyndwr.ac.uk.

Imagine and Create Your Future

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will discover that they have entrepreneurial abilities and potential
  • The learner will get an insight into the world of ‘everyday’ entrepreneurship
  • The learner will become more alert to opportunity recognition
  • This is a useful session for the reluctant entrepreneur – those who might think it’s not for them, particularly arts students.

Introduction

This activity has been used with 3rd year Design and Visual Arts student, 2nd year Photography students and MA Contemporary Art students at Coventry University to project forward and encourage students to imagine their potential future. This encourages students to consider how to ‘make their job’ not ‘take a job’ by working forward potential scenarios post-graduation.

Activity

This 2 hr session is based around a hypothetical case study told as an engaging story and featuring several of the students in your class. It is told by the session leader and is followed by group discussion and analysis of their colleagues’ journey which leads them to recognise and identify with the enterprising actions and activities.

For 3rd year Design and Visual Arts student, 2nd year Photography students and MA Contemporary Art students at Coventry University, the following case study was created.

I start by selecting a likely student and ask their name – and if they reply “John” then your script to the class would be:

In 5 years’ time John will be running a successful technical consultancy for the art world providing a range of services, including haulage, framing, hanging and conservation.

How did he get there? Well, 1 year ago, as a 2nd year student he attended the 3rd year Arts degree show. Here he began chatting with a few people including the curator of the Hebert Art Gallery, Jeanette Smith. They got on well: they talked about the art, the exhibition, the Herbert programme and discovered a mutual interest in (ask John about his interests i.e. baking). They got on so well that a week later John decided to pop into the gallery to ask Jeanette if there was any chance he might get an exhibition at the gallery. After Jeanette stopped laughing she did say, 'but seriously, we do have an immediate opportunity for work experience'. The gallery was busy installing an exhibition by Douglas Rainford and were a bit behind schedule, could John help? Now John had planned to spend the next week finishing off assignments, which he was behind on, and there had been a baking festival in Northampton that he wanted to go to.

John took the leap and spent the next two weeks installing the exhibition at the gallery. At the same time he was getting to know Douglas, they discussed art, rail travel (Douglas was coming up from London most days) and discovered a mutual interest in (ask John about his other interests, i.e. cycling).

John said goodbye to Douglas at the private view a week later but kept in touch via twitter. John spent the rest of the summer, baking and cycling and then returning to university for his final year. He pursued his dream of getting an exhibition and continued approaching galleries, bars and cafés, but without much luck.

8 months later, round about the time of his degree show, John is invited to Douglas ' private view at the exclusive Charlie Smith Gallery in London, an independent gallery featuring some of the brightest young things. John is a bit torn, he is busy in Coventry, and the London train fare will be a few quid. But it seems like a good opportunity so he accepts the invite. The private view is full of London art glitterati and he chats to and swaps cards with several artists and gallerists. Douglas introduces him to Charlie Smith, the owner of the gallery they are standing in. They chat about the art and about Douglas and discover their mutual interest in (ask John) Silent Cinema. It transpires that Charlie is touring an exhibition through Europe over the summer and he is looking for technical help with the show, would John be interested? Well John had planned to go travelling that summer with some mates, but decided this would be more interesting.

So John started working freelance for the Charlie Smith gallery as a gallery technician and for the next two years was meeting other artists, other gallerists, he was speaking to specialist haulage companies and shipping agents. At the same time he was making ends meet working in a bar and finding other bits of casual work. But he was getting more and more offers from other galleries to help out, to tour exhibitions, moving from assistant roles to coordination roles. He was moving onwards and upwards. 3 years later there was a public tender to manage a European touring exhibition of medieval Masters for the National Gallery. This was John's big opportunity to move on to some very exciting work. But oh dear, the tender says the applicant must have arts conversation expertise. Them john remembers, (pick on a class mate) Charlotte went onto an MA in Arts Conservation at The University of Norwich. John picked up the phone:

'Hi Charlotte, how are you?'

10 minutes later Charlotte is on board.

John put in the proposal....he didn't get it. Main reason, he didn't have experience in bid writing.

But two months later a similar tender from the V&A was announced to tour an exhibition. This time John approached Jeanette, remember, the curator at the Herbert, she had lots of experience in assessing bids and she joined them in putting together a proposal. This time they we're successful.

The session finishes with 10-15mins reflection where students have to pledge to do something entrepreneurial that week. It could be something they had been thinking about for a while but had made excuses not to do it. Others may need a little help and guidance from peers about what they might do, so reflection and pledge setting should be discussed in groups.

Impact:

The impact was significant, particularly with students who would not consider themselves to be entrepreneurial. The immediacy of creating a case around a team member makes a deep connection with the student group that connects them powerfully with the potential of this story.

Learner Outcome :

The follow up session or debrief seeks when more detailed reflections can emerge and when students can get a measure of where they might be regarding their own development in terms of entrepreneurship and the enterprising mind-set.

Resources:

Post-its or similar sticky pads

Pens

Flip chart

About the Author
This guide was produced by Dr Peter McLuskie. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- Peter.McLuskie@coventry.ac.uk.

Engaging Alumni to Deliver Real World Learning

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement

Objective:

  • Students should be able to:
  • identify, analyse and respond to relevant opportunities
  • Develop and produce multiple solutions to identified problems, shortfalls and similar challenges
  • Be flexible and adaptable, seeing alternative perspectives and offering a choice of solutions review and evaluate multiple solutions in contexts that anticipate and accommodate change and contain elements of ambiguity, uncertainty and risk

Introduction

  • With the support of alumni who engage through social media (Facebook; Twitter etc.) and/or Skype, students are given incremental weekly instruction that builds into an overall assignment.
  • This interactivity means that deadlines can changed and information updated, often in response to newsworthy or other high profile influences and the students need to adapt throughout the module.
  • (The assignment usually mirrors an actual assignment undertaken professionally by an Alumni/professional).
  • The project is designed to precede later work where the students will engage with real clients, so as to better enable them to respond pro-actively to change.

Activity

This activity is undertaken in semester 1 of a second year course of study (15 weeks – 2.5 hour sessions with anticipated 2.5 hours private study per week) and runs across all Visual Communication and Design courses. Each course’s relevance is ensured as the framework can be adapted to specific study areas and alumni inform the actual project – so as to ensure relevance and to maintain student motivation (See: Continuous Conceptual Review Model). The sample offered here is for two cohorts (approximately 50 students) from the film and media production courses and from the Advertising and Brand Management course – who will subsequently engage in an interdisciplinary module.

The following provides an outline of the activity as delivered to these disciplines, and was first introduced in 1995 following alumni feedback on the value of their educational experiences. Other disciplines use their own alumni and realistic contexts.

Week 1.

Students expect the lecturer to lead the class, but an unannounced stranger is brought in (alumni - in person or via skype) who asks the group about their career aspirations and challenges their understanding of the world of work. He or she explains their busy lifestyle and asks them to quickly help him or her with a problem they have – how to visualise a brand for a new academy of creativity, but explain that they have to go and leave them to it. Normally 90-95 per cent of responses include a light bulb.

Week 2.

Student’s have been discussing the individual and although not told, want to question the alumni about their work (curiosity based learning). The alumni, still in a rush, starts to explain that the headmaster for this new school will be Sir Humphrey Davy… then the connection is lost. Quick internet searches reveal that this is a historical project, as Sir Humphry Davy lived in 1778 – 1829 and that his work preceded the invention of the light bulb. Past work is discarded (with occasional moans and groans) and new research starts into historical images that represented creativity - prior to the invention of the light bulb. New / alternative ideas start to emerge.

Towards the end of the session the alumni reconnects / re-enters the room and takes questions about their work as a freelance storyboard writer for major TV companies. Scripts are discussed and student interest gained – a promise to see a script is made by the alumni.

Week 3.

An outline of a TV script is presented to students by the alumni. They or another alumni start to explain how camera angles and specialist instructions such as close ups or super close ups need to be incorporated in the storyboards. Examples from well know TV programmes or Films are shown when possible. With support from the alumni, students attempt to develop a storyboard through acting out the script and noting important aspects such as emotional engagement. Identification of the brand is central to the story line.

Week 4.

The alumni explains that he or she has just met the producer, who is happy for them to see other scripts for later episodes. Episode two has the main character Davy waking up in the future and looking at a barren landscape, one which is littered with light bulbs - which is now a thing of the past. The alumni explains that their brand has to survive the passage of time and that it has to be recognisable in the year 2020. Research into potential future understanding of creativity commences and students envisage / storyboard a potential future scenario based on the script.

Week 5.

The alumni / staff set up an opportunity for the students to pitch their ideas to the alumni. They have an hour to prepare a presentation and are requested to discuss and argue a minimum of three ideas. This was unexpected. After 20 -25 minutes the alumni asks them to limit their presentation to one or two minutes, so that he / she can hear them all. Students are asked at random to present. Time may run out and alumni ask students to make a PDF version to email (via staff).

Week 6.

The alumni explains the future direction of the time travelling Davy, and introduces the idea that he may meet aliens in his travels. Some students have already discovered Davy claimed this through their research. The task now is to create a pitch as to why aliens would find the brand design that they are developing to be credible.

Weeks 7 – 9

Students develop their storyboards and at least 3 brand ideas in the sessions. More in depth research is undertaken and initial concepts re-evaluated and iteratively developed. Arguments for the solutions are mapped and explained as reflective mind maps – so as to illustrate the thinking journey.

Week 10.

With 2 or more alumni present or available via Skype, students are asked to consider how this kind of work could be best assessed and who should assess it? Using a proforma, students suggest how their could be meaningfully evaluated. Through discussion, research, and assisted by appropriate lines of questioning by the educator and alumni, the idea of flexibility, adaptability and the requirement for multiple solutions emerge. Students come to realise that their response to change is a key factor and that when faced with incomplete data (QAA, 23 states “students can be required to work with incomplete information or information that is incrementally offered after a review of their initial findings”). As multiple and responsive outcomes are the most important aspect, the theory of divergent production is introduced, i.e. more solution developing capabilities, many alternative solutions that respond to change, plus the value of distinctiveness of ideas (similar solutions being less creative than distinctly different ones).

Week 11 – 13


Students develop their ideas further, in the knowledge that the alumni will be commenting and advising the educator, and that they will be assessed on the distinctiveness of a range of ideas that relate to the assignment given to them by the alumni. These will be evidenced by charts that illustrate the critical elements of their research and how the research informed their solutions. In simple terms, the more divergent the thinking the more complex the charts, hence students can easily recognize the range of solution development that has taken place in a clear and transparent manner.

Week 14 – 15


Pitches take place and the alumni adds their thoughts and comments. Assessment is based on the range of alternative ideas, the divergence of alternative ideas and their ability to be used flexibly in the scenarios described in the scripts supplied by the alumni.

Note: later, in the next semester’s module, the process continues and approximately 5 weeks into the projects each class will be provided with a theory session on brain functionality and how these kinds of activities enhance ‘aha’ moments of creative discovery (See: Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar). Thus practice informs personal theory development and theory follows practice, “reflective practice enables students to ‘join the dots’ of past experiences and perceptions” (QAA, 14).

Impact:

The assignment is constructively aligned (Biggs, 2003) as it enables students to demonstrate their skills and responses in meaningful and relevant (to their studies) scenarios that engage true to life experiences of alumni – who are partners in the process / most of whom have now experienced it for themselves in their own education and are familiar with the concepts.

Of interest is that the assessment strategy is often new conceptually and structurally, but through debate and discussion (week 10) the students feel engaged and very aware of the goals – which are not as they first perceived.

The assignment also leads into later QAA areas, for example they learn to “robustly justify their decision making processes” (QAA, 17) and includes “pitches to peers and expert advisors” (QAA, 23) that involves “feedback from different viewpoints” (QAA, 26).

Moreover, aspects of decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement (QAA, 19) can be evidenced in this and later assignments based on the same approach. Specifically, the assignment discussed here adopts the following QAA (19) guidance on delivery approaches:

  • Recognise or create multiple opportunities through actively making connections
  • Make connections as a result of problem solving, evaluating and assessing ideas, and iterative development strategies involving critique and enactment
  • Develop relevant subject expertise, as well as awareness of contemporary issues, both of which should feature strongly in any strategies for recognising opportunity.

Learner outcome:

The impact of engaging alumni with students is immeasurable and has impacted across the course. Seeking views from Alumni, their response to this approach was incredibly strong (as this ‘flash survey’(2015) below shows).

When asked about support (or otherwise) for learning environments where the working environment was simulated in their studies (through incomplete information, shifting deadlines and reference to newsworthy events that would impact on their solutions / fit within their personally identified problems to solve (briefs)) Alumni overwhelmingly confirmed its importance.

Question: Before students work with real clients, & to help get them, lecturers should simulate reality & change deadlines / add info to projects as they go along. (E.g. Partial assignments are issued & newsworthy events make it more real).

Question

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Not Sure

Agree

Strongly Agree

4.Changing deadlines and adding new information as projects evolve

0% (0)

2.04% (1)

6.12% (3)

42.86% (21)

48.98% (24)

Perhaps the most marked response is the alumni support for an educational experience where change occurs and situations of ambiguity and risk require them to develop resilience and flexible responses - so as to prepare them for the real world beyond graduation. This 91.84% (45) support rate aligns with the QAA (2012, 23-24) guidance views that:

Knowledge that is continuously being 'harvested' during a project or assignment may bring new dimensions into play at any time, and both the student and the educator must be flexible and adaptable to changing scenarios…Enterprise and entrepreneurship are dynamic and changing. Ambiguity and risk are difficult to evaluate in predictable and forcastable schedules. Shifts and changes by the educator
can be effective ways to assess flexibility and adaptability.

The findings are also a good fit to The Wilson Review of Business-University Collaboration recommendations (2012, 50), which state that:

Enterprise skills require responsiveness to unexpected pressures and tasks; they require reaction to changing circumstances and disruptive interventions. These attributes are contrary to the established framework of assessment processes. Enterprise skills do not presently lend themselves to formal assessment methods.

Resources:

  • Open plan and flexible working environments suited to enactments and pitching – ideally simulated professional design studio with access to online resources.
  • Access to, and ongoing (committed) virtual engagement by appropriate alumni – determine brief/project.
  • Pens and software utilised in storyboard development and brand evolution.

References:

  • Penaluna, A., Penaluna, K and Diego, I. (2014) The role of education in enterprising creativity. In Sternberg R and Krauss, G. (2014) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity. Cheltenham / Massachusetts: Edward Elgar).
  • Scott, J., Penaluna, A., Thompson, J & Brooksbank, D. Experiential entrepreneurship education: Effectiveness and learning outcomes. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (Forthcoming)
  • Jones, C., Penaluna, A., Matlay, H., Penaluna, K. Discovering the Soul of Enterprise Education. Education +Training, Emerald Publishing (Forthcoming)
  • Penaluna, K., Penaluna, A., Jones, C. and Matlay, H. (2014) ‘When did you last predict a good idea?: Exploring the case of assessing creativity through learning outcomes’, Industry and Higher Education, Vol.8, No.6, December 2014: 399 - 410
  • Penaluna, A., Coates J. and Penaluna K., (2011) Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis. Education + Training, Emerald Publishing, Volume 52, Issue 8/9, pp. 660 - 678

                                                    

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Andy Penaluna. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- University of Wales, Trinity St David.

The use of time-lining to identify and analyse multiple plausible solutions

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To provide Forensic Science students with the opportunity to identify multiple solutions to a given problem.
  • To provide Forensic Science students with an understanding of the differences between objective and subjective interpretations of events.
  • To provide Forensic Science students with the opportunity to explore the consequences of actions, and how multiple actions impact upon each other.
  • To provide Forensic Science students with the opportunity to present and justify their decisions and to face cross examination.

Introduction:

For students of Forensic Science, the ability to identify and assess multiple plausible solutions to a given problem is essential as is the ability to separate the objective facts of a problem, from the subjective interpretation of those facts.

For students of Forensic Science at Glyndwr University, these skills are nurtured and developed through the undergraduate programme.

Once such activity challenged students to propose potential timelines, mapping the order in which circumstances unfolded, in a real life case. Students worked in teams to identify every possible sequence of events, considered error to rank the likelihood of potential sequences, and through the format of a debate, presented their findings, arguing either for the guilt or innocence of the suspect, subject to cross-examination from the audience.

The session was delivered to a group of approximately 20 students in the second year of their academic study, as a 2-hour, classroom based session.

Activity:

Pre-Activity

  • Prior to the session, students were instructed as to the case study which was to be investigated, and told to familiarise themselves with the case. Various resources (film clips / newspaper articles) were collected for students to use as resources during the session.

Introduction (0 – 20 minutes)

  • Students were welcomed and introduced to the session. The case of Dr. John Branion (a high profile 1960’s murder investigation from the U.S.A) was to be the subject of the exercise.
  • To provide context, students were played a short film, covering the key elements of the case. This was followed by a short PowerPoint presentation, offering additional detail to students.

Slide Images

Figure 1. Slides from presentation

  • Students identified a set of key questions relating to the order of events as they unfolded.

These questions were;

  • At what time/time range did John Branion leave the Ida Mae State hospital?
  • At what time/time range did John Branion collect his son from the Hyde Park Neighbourhood Centre?
  • At what time/time range did John Branion claim to discover the body of his wife?
  • At what time/time range was the last known contact with Donna before her death?
  • At what time/time range was Donna’s death?
  • At what time/ time range did Branion visit Maxine Brown?
  • This case was selected as the order in which events unfolded, and how these events were recalled by various witnesses, held particular importance in the investigation, making the subject of time-lining particularly pertinent.

Time-lining (20 – 60 minutes)

  • Students were asked to organise themselves into groups (of approximately 4-5).
  • Each group were provided with various resources (newspaper articles, maps etc.)
  • Using the resources available to them, students were tasked with estimating times / time ranges for each of the identified questions. In each instance, they had to consider the error in their judgement.(For example, there may be a larger degree of error in a witnesses’ estimation of the time when they saw a friend in the street, than there may be in a police officer recording the time they entered a property).
  • They then looked to produce all possible timelines for how events may have unfolded.

Debate (60 – 100 minutes)

  • Students were split into two new groups (approximately 10 per group), and the classroom reconfigured for a debate.
  • One group was asked to collate all possible timelines supporting the defence’s case, and the other group, all timelines supporting the prosecution.
  • Mediated by the lecturer, the students then conducted a debate, putting forward their arguments, and cross-examining one another.

Conclusion (100 – 120 minutes)

  • Students held a free vote, as to whether they believed the timelines best supported the defence or prosecution.
  • Students discussed the validity of the conclusions which could be drawn from time-lining, and the additional evidence which would be required to prove their conclusions outright.

Post activity

  • Questions relating to the case were included on the students essay list, should they wish to explore the case in more detail for their assessed assignment.

Impact:

The session not only developed skills, knowledge and understanding relevant for a Forensic Science context, but broader enterprising skills, through generating, developing and reflecting upon solutions to problems, and presenting and defending these solutions to an audience. These skills equipped students for all of their future endeavours.

Learner outcome:

Students were well engaged throughout the two-hour session, and all reported enjoying the activity. The practical nature of the activity supported the learners in retaining the key information from the case for their assessment, and the wide variety of learning contained within the session (lecture based / video / group work / debate / group research), ensured the session remained fast-paced and was well suited to all learners.

The exercise helped the students to better understand the danger of over interpreting evidence, how to split the objective from the subjective, and offered experience in identifying and testing numerous potential solutions to a given problem.

Resources:

  • Pens, Paper, pre-printed news-paper articles etc.
  • For How To Guides exploring Time-lining and debates, see ‘The use of time-lining to generate multiple solutions to problems’ and ‘A Compendium of Pedagogies: THE USE OF DEBATE.’

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran (with thanks to the department of Forensic Science, Glyndwr University). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Defining your Customer (QAA 2,3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

  • To build a profile of (future) customer as a person
  • To develop the business offer through a broader understanding of the customer needs
  • To  support critical thinking and evaluation of ideas 

Overview: 

This exercise enables students to demonstrate their understanding of their potential customer and deepen that understanding to create a robust offer.

Activity: 

Give each group or individual a sheet of paper with an outline of (non-male or female) person drawn in the middle. 

Ask them to depict on the figure what they might know about their (future) customer.  This requires them to visually-describe their customer, including things like: 

  • Where do they live, work, spend time outside of work and home
  • How much do they earn
  • Where else might they access products/services like yours
  • How do they think, feel
  • What experience do they expect 
  • What concerns do they have
  • What life to do they lead

The purpose is to try and establish a real understanding of what is important to a potential customer, rather than drawing out key “facts” about them (disposable income etc).

Once all the drawings are done, everyone looks collectively at the different customer outlines and tries to add further understanding from what they can see.  The owner of the drawing need not accept these, but can include anything relevant onto their picture.

Once every drawing has been explored, each team/individual needs to articulate one message that they have learnt from this exercise that they can take forward into their planning.  So if offering fast-food to a student customer base, they may have identified price as critical.  However the wider discussion might have identified that students may also select to eat somewhere that is offering free wifi to allow them to connect with others or make plans with each other.  Or if the customer base was a family, then other elements that are important to them such as child-friendly parking, might indicate 1 premises to be more attractive than another.  This “linked” thinking allows the student to draw out the wider benefits of their product or service and explore it in order to create an effective offer.

Skill Development: 

Whilst this task can be based on initial research undertaken by the student, the critical thinking comes from the assumptions that the wider group offer to develop their thinking.  This shows the power of group work and allows the students to deepen their own thinking through the examples of others.

It is useful to explore this task at the end of the session to see how the groups found sharing and testing their assumptions in a group environment.

Resources: 

Paper, pens, flipchart (outline of a person)

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Defining your Customer Base (QAA4,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Develop and demonstrate their understanding of their customers, by describing their characteristics and motivations.

Overview: 

This activity should be undertaken individually by the entrepreneur, then to be discussed with the business development provider or peers in a group situation.  Asking the entrepreneur to explain their answers will help them to deepen their understanding of their customers, help to identify where there are information gaps and therefore what additional market research may be required.

Activity: 

Instructions

Invite the entrepreneurs / small business owner to consider their customers and to describe them in terms of each of the following categories:

  • Demographic, who are your customers?  What is their typical profile in terms of age, gender, income, employment status etc.? 
  • Geographic, where are your customers and where do they buy your products / services?
  • Psychographic, what’s important to your customers? What are their values and aspirations; what kind of lifestyle do they have? 
  • Behaviour, how often and when do your customers buy?

And then describe what the benefits the product or service brings to customers.

My customers …..

The benefit of my product / service to my customers is …..

Skill Development:

By developing analytical and reasoning skills within entrepreneurial learners, it is possible to test assumptions and explore research findings with a clear context of start-up.  This activity focuses upon the understanding of the potential customer and requires research and reflective skills.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Lisa McMullan.

Defining the Marketing Message (QAA3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop their own ‘marketing message’ – content that can be used to describe their product / service that will inform customers about what it is; inspire them to make a purchase by explaining the benefits the product / service offers; and provide details of how to engage so that the customers knows what to do to make a purchase.

Overview:

The focus of this task is to develop a well-constructed marketing message which describes the benefits of a product/service to customers.

Activity:

Instructions  

Invite the entrepreneur to complete the ‘Message Matrix’ below to describe their product or service:

Inform

What is it you are selling?

Inspire

Why should the customer buy from you? 

Engage

What should the customer do next? Ensure they have all the information they need

     

By sharing and discussing their Message Matrix with a business development provider or fellow entrepreneur, the ‘Marketing Message’ can be refined and developed to ensure that it is clear, understandable to a wider audience and that key information is not omitted.

This activity can be undertaken for different groups of customers as a slightly different message may be needed for each.

Skill Development:

By working in groups, or through watching each other present their work, students are able to learn further and deepen their own work.  It is useful to draw any presentation or discussion session to a close by asking what they now wished they had done, or what they are now going to do, in order to ensure there is action from learning.

Competitor Analysis: SWOT Analysis (QAA2,3,4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

To create a clear understanding of their competitors, using SW analysis.

Overview: 

A SWOT analysis is a useful tool for analysis, when actions and conclusions are drawn from it.  

Activity: 

Instructions

Invite the entrepreneur / small business owner to identify their key competitors (at least 3), and list the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Examples of strengths and weaknesses for a bicycle manufacturing business,

Strengths 

  • Reliable products
  • Well respected brand 
  • Competitively priced
  • Focussed on specialist market 

Weaknesses

  • Limited capacity to produce 
  • Outdated methods of production
  • Lack of marketing expertise
  • Low profit margin

Consideration should then be given to each of the competitors, and compared with the entrepreneur or small business owners’ view of their own business.

  • What can be learnt from the competitors’ strengths?  
  • What can be done better than the competition?
  • Are there any weaknesses that can be exploited?

This analysis can then inform what approach the entrepreneur / small business owner takes to developing their own business and to understand how they can best create or sustain a competitive advantage.

The key to using SWOT is now determine a course of action from this analysis.

Students can be invited to present their work and comment to provide constructive criticism, which is future focused.  

Skill Development:

By placing a clear focus on future action, rather than analysis, this will build skills of evaluation, decision making and judgement which lend themselves to action.  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Lisa McMullan.

Preparing a Sales Forecast (QAA3,4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

  • Understand the factors to consider when producing a sales forecast for their business
  • Understand the implications of variations from forecasts, particularly in terms of receiving payments

Overview: 

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for the entrepreneur / small business owner to develop their forecasting skills and consider different scenarios of their business performance, specifically in terms of potential sales. 

Activity:

To consider and collate information to produce informed sale forecasts, gather the relevant information:


The Sales Forecast Checklist

  1. Details of any orders secured
  2. List all customers you expect to sell to over the forecast period, and how much you expect to sell to each.
  3. Market research data to support or verify these forecasts. What information have you gathered from potential customers?
  4. Supporting information such as examples from other similar ventures started recently, and drawing from company accounts and other sources.

Using this information prepare a sales forecast by value and volume for each major product group (e.g. for a hotel: bedrooms, restaurant) throughout the period of the business plan – at least 12 months.

 Month 1Month 2Month 3TotalNotes & Assumptions
Product 1          
Unit price          
No. of units sold        0  
Sales income (a) - - - -  
Product 1          
Unit price          
No. of units sold        0  
Sales income (b) - - - -  
Product 1           
Unit price          
No. of units sold        0  
Sales income (c) - - - -  
Total sales (a + b + c) - - - -  

Skill Development: 

This breaks down some of the key thinking and skills of the entrepreneur and allows the students to work through their assumptions.  This can be conducted in groups, or as individuals, allowing students to focus on start-up.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Cases Studies of Good Practice

can be found in Higher Education Academy booklet (2014) Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education Case Studies and includes several examples from university-wide modules as well as the Business Schools at Edinburgh Napier, Buckingham and Glasgow Caledonian Universities.

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales. It aims to provide inspiration, information and support to being your own boss!

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf