Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Independent learning and study skills
  • Self-management and motivation
  • Interpersonal and team working skills
  • Negotiation and mediation skills
  • Written and oral communication skills in a variety of context and modes
  • Self-awareness and critical reflection

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Production Line (QAA 4,5,6)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills

Objectives:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • To explore and establish methods of production for a simple products
  • To understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation
  • Understanding processes and procedures
  • Replicating methods

Overview

This task focuses a group of people to organise themselves to set up a production line to exactly replicate an existing product as many times as possible in set amount of time. They are giveqaan the opportunity to reflect on and improve their approach twice to increase efficiency, quality and productivity. This gives participants and others the opportunity to see how their own and other behaviour, ideas, approach affects the development and outcome of the task and how by working together and reflecting and analysing a situation it can be adapted and improved going forward.

Activity:

This activity could take from 30 minutes to a couple of hours depending on how much review, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

Group gathers around a table with all the resources on it. There is a sample product : a booklet with 13 squares of paper 10cm x 10cm, secured with 2 staples in a x shape in the top left hand corner of the booklet.

The group is asked to put together a production line replicating this booklet. They will have 2 minutes to discuss how they think they could best do thisand to allocate roles. Then 3 minutes to put this into practice and produce as many booklets as possible. When the time is up the facilitator then countsand inspects the finished products, looking for quality and accuracy ie:

  • Correct number of sheets
  • Correct size
  • Cut lines are straight
  • There are 2 staples
  • Staples are in the right place
  • Staples are crossed correctly

The group then gets 2 minutes to discuss and review their methods, systems and procedures and come up with improvements or a different approach. They then get another 3 minutes on the production line to best their last score.

The above process is then repeated for a third time.

This could be done with any size group as long as there are sufficient facilitators to split into smaller groups. The optimum numbers in each group wouldbe between 6 and 10, however multiple groups could be working at the same time. They would have to work at the same time so as not to hear the discussion of other groups.

Skill Development:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Efficiency/Productivity
  • Quality Control
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

As has been described this task involves many different skills and objectives on all different levels and can be assessed and analysed either briefly or in great depth across some or all of the objectives. For example, if this is an exercise for managers or recruiters to assess staff skills and abilities it can be finished there at the end of the last count. However it can be extended further, so each team then breaks off with a facilitator to analyse what happened at each stage and why.

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the review and analysis go, who took the lead, someone different? How were news ideas taken on board.
  • What changed the next time, was there an improvement, if so why
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

For example : the focus could just be on the outcomes, ie the quality and quantity of the finished products. Often the first time, people are rushing and slapdash and may do quite a few but get a lot rejected, so need to slow down. Or get them all passed but do a small number, so need to speed up. So it's finding that balance between speed and quality/accuracy.

Or the focus can be on the review and reflection, how the method was changed or improved each time to give better results.

Or the focus can be on the team dynamics how they evolved through each stage, or on the leadership and management of the task and how that changed and fluctuated at each stage, how the balance of power shifted as the task went along.

Or it could very much focus on the individual, the role they played, how this evolved, how they felt, how they were affected by the different characters,how they affected other members in the group, positively or negatively what they would do differently next time.

Depending on whether the focus is on 1 or 2 of the objectives and skills or all of them, all of these and more angles can be identified and explored after the task.

Resources:

Large sheets of paper (A3 or larger, could use old newspapers) minimum of 60 sheets per team, pens, pencils, markers, rulers, scissors, staplers.

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Communication Icebreaker Truth & Lies (QAA 1,2,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Idea generation
Understanding processes and procedure
With opportunities to:

  1. Review the session, understand the concept or steps covered in an interactive way.
  2. Evidence the power of group work as more ideas are created through team work
  3. Understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  4. Understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation.

Overview:

There are times when people’s energy is low during workshops, particular after a long lecture or after a break. After lunch time workshop participants tend to be tired while they are still digesting. It’s fast and fun ways to get participants refocused on the workshop (and topic).  This task can help the group bond or develop their subject knowledge through a “truth and lies” approach to multiple choice statements (right or wrong).

Activity:

  1. Participants write on cards / note pads two truths about themselves and one lie.
  2. The participants then walk around sharing with one another their three statements – during this participants should reveal which of the statement is a lie. During this sharing it is the goal of the participants to:
            a)    Convince others that your lie is true
            b)    Guess the correct lie of the other participants
  3. The participants gather back together in a circle and the first person read aloud their statement to remind everyone.
  4. The group then tries to guess which of the three statements is not true – at the end of each statement ask for a vote through a show of hands. ‘Who thinks this statement is true?’ Raise your hands.
  5. The participant then reveals says which of the statements is untrue.

    Notes:

    •    For large groups (30+), it is best to split into smaller group sizes.
    •    Give example of statements and remind people that they should use short statements.

    This task can be undertaken as a lively energiser, or as a subject based/ discipline focused activity.  By providing a slightly longer time for the students to prepare, the statements can be about a revision topic, or a new topic that is being studied.  It is also possible to pre-prepare a set of two piles of statements and invite the students to take them, research them (this can be for the following week if more complex subject related topics) and convince others of their position.  This could be delivered as a panel in front of the group, who are acting as audience. Inspiration for this type of extension can come from the BBC TV format “Would I lie to you?” but requires subject knowledge to make the truths and lies work and therefore the individual panellists can benefit from working in advance as a team to prepare their statements and answers.  By creating teams, with a panel spokespeople, audience engagement is high.

Skill Development:

It is important to ensure that the student groups recognise that the potential of subtle communication skills deployed in this task (such as empathy; humour; rapport).  Discussing the challenge, and what elements were memorable and effective, can highlight how individuals create effective communication.  Whilst they are opportunities to develop a range of communication skills through practice, it is important to look for “future lessons” from this task to build an understanding of the transferable skills that are being developed.  This might include discussion of Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation; Interpersonal Skills; Communication; Reflection and Action; Team Building and creative thinking skills.  It could be helpful to write up these titles and invite comments on post-its under each title to draw out experiences and feelings. Explore these comments collectively to draw together themes and learning from the whole group.

Resources:

Each participant needs a note pad/card and pen/pencil
If you wish to use this approach to introduce a new topic, or topic extension, then you may wish to pre-prepare the statements for the students in advance for the session – or to issue in the session in advance for learners to research and prepare for the next week panel task.

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Team Building Time Challenge (QAA 4,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Outside

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • Understanding the importance of careful research, discussion and planning
  • Listening to other members of the team
  • Research
  • Idea generation
  • Sales, persuasion techniques (as needed)

Overview

This exercise is a fantastic way to get people working together as they tackle up to 10 tasks in a given time frame. With limited information (on each other and the tasks presented) the group must navigate through the challenges in order to be the most successful group (back within the time frame; most tasks achieved; most accurate delivery of the tasks). Depending on the tasks selected, specific industry or sector knowledge can be tested as widerskills of background knowledge, research and creative thinking are required. Insist upon evidence of the achievements (photos on flip or camera phones) as well as delivery of objectives.

Activity : This activity needs a long session (such as 120 minutes) to complete, reflection and analysis takes place at the end of the session.

The groups of up to 6 people are sent out to complete > 10 tasks (usually 3 cryptic, 3 researched and 4 fun)

Examples of these could include:

  • To find an encryption or statue (or similar engraving) in the University Library
  • Two examples of their subject/discipline in practice (photographs or illustrations of)
  • Interview a relevant professional in the field
  • Find a particular journal article
  • How many people can you fit in a phone box
  • Share a message on social media as widely as possible

These tasks should be developed beforehand to suit the environment where the day is taking place. Ensure there are fun tasks involved and that everyone has a chance to engage by creating a range of challenges that involve the physical, mental, social aspects of your learners.

To manage this challenge effectively, if it important that you:

  • Give strict time frames and penalties for not meeting the time
  • Consider the health and safety aspects of all the challenges and adapt to suit your learners (by keeping everyone on campus; in 1 building; or keeping all the tasks within the 1 room etc as necessary).
  • Consider whether you wish to keep them all together as a team or are happy for individuals to split off to deliver tasks back to the group.

Practically it can also be helpful to give them a puzzle to solve before they can leave and a further one when they return. This means they are leaving at different times and they return to a final challenge, so that you can record time and award points.

Skill Development:

Depending upon the challenges you create, there is a wide range of transferable skills and knowledge base that you can test during this challenge. You can create tasks that draw upon their:

  • Imagination and creativity
  • Communication and Strategy
  • Problem solving
  • Teamwork and organisation
  • Route Planning
  • Research skills
  • Leadership/Persuasion
  • Decision making
  • Logistics/Systems
  • Speed/Precision/Efficiency
  • Reflection/Review/Analysis
  • Feedback

It is important that you review the challenges and how the groups tackled the tasks in order to draw out the subject learning and these wider skills, before reviewing the wider team experience by exploring:

  • How the initial discussions went, did someone take the lead, was it a bit of a shouting match, was it chaos, was there a lack of ideas/too many ideas
  • Whose ideas were listened to the most and why
  • Who planned the route
  • Who was ignored and why
  • Whose ideas were taken on board and why, was a consensus achieved
  • Who allocated roles
  • Who put themselves forward for roles
  • How did the actual production go, smooth, chaotic, who took the lead, who organised, how did it progress, how was the mood of the team?
  • Was everyone involved? Did everyone need to be involved?
  • How did the dynamics between the members of the group change as they went through the different stages
  • Were more people involved, less people involved
  • How did people participants feel at each stage, did confidence grow or recede
  • What skills were employed by the task
  • How are these important to a task/team

Drawing out the team dynamics will allow the students to identify the lessons that they can take forward that will improve their future group work and learning experiences.

Ask if they started by sharing their knowledge and skill set or just started on the tasks (the most typical response) and whether they would do that again. Ask when, or if they ever start a task by reviewing when they have collectively or individually undertaken something similar and what was learnt that they could take forward.

Resources:

  • Prepared tasks – such as Two indoor puzzles/tasks
  • Research the area for tasks to complete
  • A flip phone or check if students have their own camera phone
  • Flip boards or wall space to show evidence
  • A prize
  • A timer or watch

About the Author
This guide was produced by EntEv.

Creative Problem Solving What can I do when...? (QAA 1,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives: 

This is a lively exercise which works well with 25 or 36 learners, respectively in groups of 5 or 5 at a carousel table.

  • Learners will identify individually problems in a given context or scenario.
  • Group prioritisation: groups will next prioritise problems in order of importance, or difficulty.
  • Group editing and refining: groups will formulate the most pressing problem to briefly complete the starter: what can I do when’.
  • Individual learners put ‘on the spot’ will creatively state a tactic to a ‘What can I do when …’ problem from another group.
  • Individual thinking and oral communication: by the end of the round, everyone in the whole group has had a go at suggesting a solution for one or more problems – no passengers!
  • Analysis and reflection: members of the group which thought of the problem will discuss pros and cons of the various solutions they have heard.

Feedback from participants who have engaged in this activity is very positive indeed, and they often comment that ‘the time flew by’, and ‘we wished to do another round of this straightaway’.

Overview:

This creative problem solving exercise starts with learners in groups identifying specific aspects of a problem situation they may encounter, and phrasing the problem in the format of ‘What can I do when…’ questions. Each group supplies one question, which is written up on a slide or flipchart. Then a system is used where one member of each of the other groups in turn suggests a tactical response to the problem being addressed, and after all the tactics have been heard, the problem returns to the group who thought of it, who then discuss the pros and cons of each of the tactics they have heard from the other groups.
The exercise can be used for a wide range of problem scenarios, but is particularly productive when addressing interpersonal or communication contexts, or working with ‘difficult people’.

Activity:

The processes described below typically take around an hour with a group of 25 learners, but can be extended to two hours by using a second round of the whole sequence (by which time the learners will be much better able to engage with the process based on experience, and will often have come up with more-challenging questions, causing deeper thinking).

  1. Divide the total number of learners into groups of (approximately) equal size, e.g. 25 learners into 5 groups of 5 at carousel tables. (It is best to do this group formation randomly, avoiding the disadvantages of ‘friendship’ groups and ‘left-over’ groups!). Name the groups A, B, C, D, E.
  2. Set the context for the problem-generation phase. For example, the problems of working with learners on an ‘enterprise’ module could be addressed by asking everyone to think individually of their worst nightmares in the context of working with such learners, and jotting down individually on one or more post-its their nightmare in the format of ‘what could I do when…’
    (Completions in this particular instance may well to include ‘…a learner repeatedly doesn’t turn up?’, or ‘…a learner won’t join in?’, or ‘…a learner becomes aggressive to other learners?’, or ‘…I run out of ideas to use with the group?’, or ‘…time runs out when I am only half-way through an exercise?’ and so on).
  3. When each learner has jotted one or more problem-questions down, ask the groups to prioritise the problems identified in by their group members, and work out the most important to tackle (or the most difficult to tackle), then the next most important, and so on. 
  4. Ask group A to read out their top completion of the ‘What can I do when…’ starter, and write it up exactly in their words, on a slide or flipchart. Then ask group B for their problem, then group C and so on, writing them up in turn. If a group comes up with a problem too similar to those already written onto the slide or flipchart, ask the group for their second-most-important problem and so on.
  5. Set the ground-rules for the report-back from the groups. Group A’s question goes first to Group B, where one person described what they might do to address the problem. Only one person can speak; it sometimes takes a little time for a volunteer to come forward. Next, one member of Group C is sought to respond, and so on to Groups D and E in turn. It can be useful to brief Group A to make brief notes of the gist of successive responses.
  6. To respond gets harder as it moves from Group B onward. Each successive respondent must think of a different response from those which may already have been given. At this stage, the facilitator may choose to throw in one or two further solutions, if the groups have missed anything important in their responses.
  7. Finally, Group A, who own the question are asked to consider the responses from Groups B-E (plus any offered by the facilitator), picking the best one, and coming up with any further alternatives they have thought of. All members of Group A can join in this discussion.
  8. Next the question from Group B goes in turn to Groups C, D, E and A, again only one member – a different member of the group coming up with a solution. In the event of too long a pause, the person from the group concerned who answered last-time round can nominate someone from their group to respond.
  9. Continue until all five questions have gone round the groups.

This process means that just about everyone has a turn at answering one of the ‘What can I do when…’ questions. If there were six groups of five members, everyone would have a turn, but it is probably best to leave the flexibility of one person in each group not being required to answer, in case any of the learners has a particular problem with ‘being put on the spot’ in this way. However, if a second round of questions is then generated, the response can start in each group with the person who did not speak in the first round.

An alternative way of running this exercise includes asking for ‘what would make this situation worse?’ (i.e. ‘what I should not do when …? responses – ‘negative brainstorming’).

This can be great fun for a second round of the whole exercise.

Skill Development:

  1. Identification of problems individually, followed by discussion and prioritisation of problems in groups.
  2. Refining of an identified problem, by turning it into the ‘what can I do when…?’ format.
  3. Oral quick-thinking and communication, as each group member responds to a ‘what can I to when…’ question.
  4. Building on what has been already said earlier in the round, when the next respondent has to in effect think of ‘what else can I do when…?’ as responses can not be repeated as the round continues.
  5. Listening to the various responses by the group ‘owning’ the question, noting down the gist of each for subsequent discussion, then analysing the pros and cons of the various responses.
  6. ‘Negative brainstorming’, if the exercise includes ‘What would make this situation worse?’, which can often yield further ideas for actual solutions to the problem.

Resources:

  • Post-its for individuals to jot down ‘nightmares’ to base their ‘what can I do when …?’ questions upon.
  • More post-its (possibly a different colour) for groups to write their final versions of ‘what can I do when…?’ questions down on, before prioritising which they want to submit to the other group rounds.
  • A few pens to give away if needed.
  • Flipchart or PowerPoint display to show the questions.

 References:

  • Race, P. (2014) ‘Making Learning Happen: 3rd edition’, London: Sage. (Note that one Chapter of this book is entirely composed around ‘what can I do when …? questions, (in the broad context of teaching, learning, feedback and assessment), each followed by the sort of responses which can be given by participants working in the creative-problem-solving mode described in the above activity).
  • Race, P. (2015) ‘The Lecturer’s Toolkit; 4th edition’, Abingdon: Routledge.
  • http://phil-race.co.uk

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Phil Race.

Reflection on Values (QAA 5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

To understand the importance of values and explore how are values affect us and our decision making

To recognise our own values

To recognise the difference in people's values

Overview:

This session can be run by working with learners remotely (through a learning log or diary – see QAAreflectivediary) or in a group discussion in order to explore individual values. It can be useful to help groups explore their approaches and the values that underpin them.

Activity

This activity takes no more than thirty minutes to deliver in a group setting and needs few resources (have a prepared Flip chart replicating the grid with enough columns to suit the numbers in the group). However if delivered as a prompt within a reflective diary or personal learning document, this task and its outcome can be revisited throughout the learning process.

As a group task:

Ask each individual to take some time to read a list of values and decide which are the most important 5 values.

Once these values have been identified, they are asked to rank them by placing them in order of importance ie 1 being the most important. When they have all finished ask them to go behind the flip chart one at a time and put their scores in the grid when they have all sat down turn the flip chart around to group to discuss the range of findings.

Typically no two sets are the same, indicating the range across the group and ask them to discuss the diversity that they see.

Feedback and discussion should not now be task focused (particularly as values can be deeply held and discussions can be wide ranging at this point) but focused upon how to work together if the values are very different.

Please choose your top five values numbering your selection in order of importance 1 being the top and 5 being the lower value.

List of Values can be generic, task or profession focused or related to group work (see below)

Values listed could include:

  • Wealth
  • Peace
  • Environmental Protection
  • Human rights
  • Animal rights
  • Respect for all religions
  • Health
  • Family
  • Friends
  • Culture
  • Arts

Amend: it may be possible to alter this generic list to make reference to issues or debates within your sector/industry or a potential profession. This may require some research or background reading by the students which may impact upon scheduling this task to the following week after the issues have been announced.

Amend 2: Reflective Group work task

It may also be useful in developing communication skills for group work to alter these values to key elements of group work and ask the group to explore these elements and explore what is important to those working in the group and how best to work together, where there are recognised differences. These could include:

  • group harmony
  • time keeping
  • task compliance
  • client satisfaction
  • leadership
  • consensus building
  • deadlines
  • delivery
  • high quality
  • respect for the individual
  • satisfactory outcome
  • professional expertise
  • business like attitude
  • creativity

Skill Development:

This is great exercise for getting people to appreciate how diverse we all are and we should be aware of that when working with others. It is important to ensure that respect for all participants is maintained throughout and it can be helpful to create ground rules at the start of the discussion; however it is also important to build the skills of active listening and build confidence in expressing emotions or strong feelings. It may be helpful to reflect with a colleague on this task, and the group undertaking it, if you wish to be prepared for the range of observations and discussions that may stem from the group.

Group discussions should conclude with consideration of how to take this learning forward into future activities and tasks, whilst individuals can be prompted in their learning diaries or personal reflective logs to explore their emotions in relation to these issues.

As one of the more fundamental elements of communication and improving interpersonal skills, it is important that, as a facilitator, you are able to draw out the learning from this task, rather than allow the merits inherent within each of the values/topics to dominate the discussions.

Resources:

  • Paper
  • Felt Tip Pens
  • Flip Chart

About the Author
This guide was produced by ARP.

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Case Examples

HOME: The Charity Shop Project

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

•To provide creative industries students with a real-world context in which to apply their skills.

•To provide students with real-world opportunities for creative problem solving.

•To provide students with experience of operating within a high pressure environment.

•To provide students with experience of managing risk, uncertainty, and being responsive to changing parameters.

•To provide students with experience of delivering a project according to strict time and budgetary constraints.

•To provide students with experience of managing a project, from inception to completion.

•To provide opportunities for students to develop their interpersonal skills through working with a variety of stakeholders.

Introduction:

‘HOME’ saw two students studying towards an MA in design practice gain invaluable industry experience, develop their professional skills and networks in a challenging and changeable environment, and put their academic theories into practice in a real world context. It saw numerous art and design students gain experience of working in, exhibiting and selling art, many for the very first time, and it saw a North Wales charity receive a huge boost from the creativity, energy and expertise of students.

This project was initiated as a collaboration between various departments at Glyndwr University (namely, the Students’ Guild, Student Services, and the School of Art, Media and Design), when an opportunity arose to offer a fantastic opportunity to students to develop their enterprise and entrepreneurial skills and awareness, and to support a valuable local charity in the process. 

Student Services had been in discussion with NE Wales based charity 'Save the Family’. The charity’s shop (based approximately 12 miles from the main University campus in Mold, NE Wales) was struggling to turn a profit, threatened with immanent closure, and the charity hoped that the expertise of students from the University may be able to help.

Through discussions between Student Services, the Students’ Guild, and School of Art, Media and Design, it was decided that students studying towards an MA in Design Practice would be good candidates for the collaboration, and furthermore, it was known that students from this programme were actively seeking real-world projects to engage with. 

With such a large proportion of art, media and design students going on to work in a freelance capacity upon graduation, skills in enterprise and entrepreneurship are essential to their future success, and so all are encouraged to engage in enterprising projects in a variety of ways. This project had the potential to offer students a holistic real-world context in which to apply their academically developed skills, and fit within the existing structure of their Masters programme through the optional modules available (students on this programme are obliged to engage in real-world practice of some shape or form, on which they are assessed).  

The project was initiated by way of an informal meeting between the students and key University staff, and all subsequent activity was developed thereafter. 

•To provide opportunities for students to develop their communication skills.

•To support the University’s community obligations through giving support to a local charity. 

Activity:

The activity associated with the project extended over a 14 week period. Key elements throughout that period were as follows;

1.Initial Introductions 

Through discussions between the charity and University, it was established that MA Design Practice students would be well suited to meet the brief, and two students from that programme were identified who were looking for a project to engage with at that time. A meeting was arranged with these students to discuss the brief (which appealed to them), and to sketch out a broad plan of action going forward. A staff member from Student Services acted as a project contact for students, but the students themselves were given decision making powers with regards the forward direction of the project.

2.Research and Planning (6 weeks approximately)

In this phase, the students visited the charity shop space, met with its volunteers and managers, and conducted their own research, before presenting their conclusions as to why the shop was struggling to remain solvent. They then took these conclusions, and supported by further discussions and research, proposed measures which could be taken to transform the charities fortunes. Namely, they proposed to ‘curate’ the shop, up-cycling goods and giving the shop a ‘boutique’ feel, whilst integrating designated spaces for small workshops, performances and discussions. In line with the charities own objectives and ideals, ‘home’ was taken to be the shops theme. This proposal had to be sold to the shops managers, and amendments and changes agreed upon before the project could be carried forward. 

Throughout this period, the University supported the students in a tutoring and mentoring capacity, financially by way of nominal travel and subsistence expenses, and attended meetings with the students and charity representatives on the students’ request, whilst ensuring the students maintained project management control. 

3.Installation (2 weeks approximately)

During this period, the shop was closed to the public, and completely redesigned. Students were required to work with the materials provided, and within the budgets set by the charity for this work, with additional materials being offered in kind by the University. Fellow art, media and design students (from various programmes and levels of study) were invited to support this process, by volunteering time, and by offering their own works to either exhibit or sell (all coordinated by the students themselves). Marketing materials for re-launch were produced and disseminated at this time too. 

Figure 1. Project PR (Flintshire Chronicle press cutting)


4.Launch

A launch event was held, with invited VIPs, press, charity and University representatives. This presented an opportunity for the students to receive feedback and recognition on their progress to date.

5.Trading (6 weeks approximately)

For the following 6 weeks, the shop was staffed by volunteers and open for businesses. The students made regular visits to the premises, met periodically with the shops managers, and monitored its performance, being responsive to circumstances and implementing changes wherever necessary. Throughout this period, the students continued to blog, market via social, print and digital media, and organise small events within the shop.

6.Final Report 

At the end of their 6 week tenure, the students reflected on the success of their project, documenting their findings for academic assessment, and presenting them to the charity’s team, and other interested third parties.


Figure 2. Left - project marketing material, Centre - shop image before, Right, shop image after.

Impact:
 
The project had a significant impact on all students and stakeholders involved.

Film 1. A video documenting the project (produced by www.filmage.co.uk )

 

For the two MA students coordinating, the project endowed them with a wealth of invaluable real-world experience, a network of arts, media and third sector contacts, greater confidence and self-belief in their abilities, and an understanding of the wide ranging applications of their own skill sets.

For students participating through volunteering, exhibiting and selling work within the space, the project presented an opportunity to gain professional experience, be part of a team, and to network with colleagues from other degree programmes, other levels of study, and professionals working within their sector.

For the charity the impact was a significant increase (over 100%) in the shops profits, far greater media coverage for the charity and it’s initiatives, and a repositioning of the charities branding and marketing going forward, with an emphasis on positivity (See figure 3 – the charity’s post project re-brand)

 

Figure 3. Re-brand: Top - charity's logo pre-project. Bottom – charity’s logo post-project.

Learner outcome: 

For the two learners primarily involved in leading the project, it was a challenging, but rewarding experience.

It was the first time the students had to bring together such a wide range of skills into one, cohesive project. Ultimate decision making authority, the need to stick to strict time and budgetary constraints, and the fact that there were real stakes riding on every decision added an additional element of pressure, one that would not be easily replicable in a simulation setting.

The students reported that their most significant difficulties were overcoming points of contention regarding their plans with the charities own managers, and negotiating compromises where necessary, effectively managing their time with a workload of many disparate tasks, and maintaining a strong working relationship with one another, in what could sometimes be a stressful environment. 

In overcoming each of these obstacles amongst many others, seeing the impact of their work, and establishing networks with a wide range of people, the overall project experience was a very positive one for the students, both of whom secured professional opportunities as a direct result of their participation.

Resources: 

•A team of key individuals within the institution, who can support the various aspects of project management (academic tuition / risk assessment etc.).

• A partnership with an external charity / business / community group who can benefit from student creativity and expertise.

•A nominal budget to cover any travel, subsistence and essential material costs incurred by students in project delivery.

References:

•A project diary kept by participating student, Heather Wilson > http://missheather.co.uk/blog/tag/save-the-family 

•The students’ Wordpress blog, documenting the project > https://savethefamilyshop.wordpress.com/ 

•A video showcase of the project, produced by www.filmage.co.uk > https://vimeo.com/66924191

•A news article on the project from www.thisproject.co.uk > http://thisproject.co.uk/articles/save-the-family-shop-home/

 

 

 

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

How To Speak In Public (Media Communications) (QAA 5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • To give media and communications students an insight into the importance and relevance of public speaking, presentation, and communication skills to their subject area.
  • To equip students with insights, strategies and skills to become more effective communicators.
  • To allow students to reflect on the diverse environments in which they will require public speaking skills in the future, and to reflect on the most effective strategies to employ in each instance. 
  • To provide students with a practical opportunity to nurture and develop their communication skills.

Introduction:

For students of BA Broadcasting, Journalism, and Media Communications at Glyndwr University, skills in public speaking, presenting and communication are absolutely essential. Throughout their academic life students will be required to present work in a wide variety of ways, and in their professional life they will encounter many environments were public speaking is unavoidable. To that end, students studying towards this degree programme are given as many opportunities as possible to develop these skills, in a mixture of real-world and simulated environments.

A two hour session was run for a small group of second year students on the above programme, on the theme of ‘How to Speak in Public.’ The group were of mixed ability and experience, with some working in media jobs (entailing regular presentation and communication) as alongside their study, and other with who’s only experience had come from school, college and University presentations. 

The session was delivered by the University’s ZONE Enterprise Hub Manager, on the invitation of the course tutor.

Activity:

The session followed the format which can be found in the ‘Workshop - How to Speak in Public’ How to Guide.

The students began the session with an introduction to the themes which would be covered, namely; how to structure a presentation, how to use tools effectively; how to present clearly; how to control and manage nerves, and how to deal with questions.

A brief dialogue initiated the session, where students discussed how they felt the subject was relevant to them, their studies and their careers. As the group size was small, it was possible to ask each individual about their own experience, feelings toward public speaking, and careers ambitions at this stage. This entailed that the session was tailored directly to the needs of the individuals there after. 

At each stage in the workshop, examples were chosen which were appropriate to the audience in hand, and as the session extended over two hours, it was possible to go into a greater degree of depth at each of the practical activity and discussion opportunities. For example, in discussing the use of appropriate language, each member of the group wrote a short paragraph, communicating the same piece of information for three separate audiences, and then the group each presented these mini-presentations to one another. An in discussing the appropriate use of tone, we used a real world example from one of the audience, who broadcasts her own show on a community radio station. 

Again taking advantage of the small group size, the session was informal and conversational in nature, and questions were answered, points of contention debated, and tangents explored wherever appropriate as we progressed.

At the end of the one session, the key themes covered were re-capped, and students were offered the opportunity to ask additional questions, and directed to further support, links and reading if they wished to explore the issues further.

Impact:

The session had a strong, positive impact on the individuals who participated. For those in the group with some prior experience of presenting, they were able to consolidate what they knew, focus on the finer details of the content, and offer valuable feedback and contributions to the group conversation. For those with limited or no previous experience, it served as a solid foundation to the topic on which to build going forward. 

Indeed, following the session, the group sought further support from the enterprise service at the University, in organising and hosting their own contemporary science debate evening, putting many of the skills covered into practice.

Learner outcome: 

Learners reported that the session left them with greater confidence and understanding, and all were keen to put the skills discussed into practice going forward. Feedback from participating students included;

“Really supportive and helpful! Made it interesting.”

”Good dynamic talk with great points and useful information.”

“Enthusiastic presentation which was clear and understandable. Very good!”

“Very good presentation – clear, informative and interesting.”

“Good talk containing a lot of useful and relevant information.”

“Excellent presentation. Really useful.”

Resources: 

References:

  • BBC - The Speaker - Improve your public speaking. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/speaker/improve/ . [Accessed 28 July 2015].  
  • Corcoran, Mike. How to Speak in Public - YouTube. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMnh02odBNA.  [Accessed 29 July 2015].
  • McCarthy, Patsy, 2002. Presentation Skills: The Essential Guide for Students (Study Skills). Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp70-106 & 219-236). 
  • Shephard, Kerry, 2005. Presenting at Conferences, Seminars and Meetings. 1 Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd (pp1-18 & 138-148).
  • Van Emden, Joan, 2010. Presentation Skills for Students (Palgrave Study Skills). 2 Edition. Palgrave Macmillan (pp1-61).
  • Zone Enterprise Hub, Topic: ZONE Resources. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://moodle.glyndwr.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=37§ion=11. [Accessed 28 July 2015].

About the Author
This guide was produced by Mike Corcoran. If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- m.a.corcoran@outlook.com.

Venture Matrix (QAA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Through working on this learning opportunity the students developed; 

  • Communication skills 
  • Presentation skills 
  • Creativity
  • Time management skills

Introduction:

The Venture Matrix model has been used across multiple disciplines and across all levels (from first year right up to postgraduate level) to develop enterprise and employability skills within the curriculum at Sheffield Hallam University. 

All Venture Matrix activities are done within curriculum as part of a subject specific module, and students gain academic credits for their activities. This allows the students to put their latest academic theory into practice, in a live but supported setting, allowing them to develop those all-important enterprise and employability skills. 

We are now finding that some of our students are making the leap from doing a Venture Matrix project to setting up their own business. 

Examples of the diversity of the disciplines involve include, but are not limited to; Art, Biomedical Sciences, Business and Enterprise, Business Studies, Computing, Education, Engineering, English, Events Management, Film, Geography , History, Journalism, Law, Marketing ,Mathematics, Media, Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy, Psychology, Public Relations.

The case example discussed here is taken from psychology.

Activity:

A group of psychology students were tasked with creating a series of team building and assertiveness workshops for Sheffield high schools, as part of then Big Challenge.

The Big Challenge is a competition delivered by Sheffield City Council open to all Sheffield schools and colleges. The teams receive £25 at the start of the competition and during the period of the Big Challenge all teams seek to increase their investment by as much as possible. There are several prizes to bewon. It was recognised that not all pupil teams participating were going through to the competition stage due to a lack of confidence, where they had to do a Dragon's Den type pitch.

The students met with Sheffield City Council and school staff to ensure that the workshops that they were creating would be suitable for the pupils that they were delivering them to. The students decided to focus the Big Challenge workshops on managing team relations. Many of the Big Challenge teams would be made up of friends, and this would help them manage their team relationships and any problems and disputes that they may encounter. They also discussed the theory for the workshops with their academic tutor - ensuring that the workshops were accurate and that the attendees would benefit from them in a positive way and develop in confidence.

The psychology students delivered a series of interactive workshops to Big Challenge pupils. The workshops consisted of a range of tasks and activities to promote trust and develop teamwork and build confidence. This directly linked to their module learning outcomes. Through working on this learning opportunity the students have developed their communication skills, presentation skills, creativity and time management skills.

Impact:

“Taking part in the Venture Matrix certainly gives our students a head start when it comes to setting up their own business. The experience they gain is invaluable and means that they are much more likely to be successful and to survive in the commercial world.”

Sheila Quairney, Business and Enterprise Manager, Sheffield Hallam University’s Enterprise Centre.

Learner Outcome:

"After completing my Venture Matrix project I graduated with a BSc in Psychology and went onto study an MSc in Occupational Psychology. In 2013, I returned to the Venture Matrix as a Graduate Researcher. My main project was to conduct employability research and I supervised the psychology students with their projects, and I also delivered some staff training. This journey has vastly developed my academic and employability skills, and has inspired me to set up my own business delivering business psychology services, specialising in training and development."

Simon Kilpatrick, Business Psychologist, Intrinsic Links

The examples of curriculum development for enterprise related outcomes were originally outlined by Neil Coles at the International Enterprise Educators Conference under the heading 'From Archaeology to Zoology; an A-Z of enterprise in the curriculum'. For his work in contextualising enterprise for any subject, Neil won the 2013 National Enterprise Educator Award.

Resources:

N/A

References:

  • Venture Matrix. Sheffield Hallam University. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.shu.ac.uk/employability/course/venture-matrix/#. [Accessed 18 August 2015]. 

Author/Contact Details:

  • Neil Coles, Senior Enterprise Learning Officer, Cardiff University (enterprise@cardiff.ac.uk)
  • With thanks to Charmaine Myers, Project Director, Venture Matrix scheme, Sheffield Hallam University (C.E.Myers@shu.ac.uk)
Welsh School of Architechture (QAA 1,4)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management

Objective:

  • Establish relevance of enterprise 
  • Introduce enterprise skills with presentation on leadership (identified as a particularly important enterprise skill) and innovation/creativity exercise (including Q&A on accidental discoveries) 
  • Introduce start up facts 
  • Review an new start up case study 
  • Use the business model canvas to consider the planning of an idea 
  • Develop a capacity to be creative though the ‘Silly Cow’ exercise 

Introduction:

During the summer of 2014 the Cardiff University Enterprise team worked in partnership with Dr Vicki Stevenson of the Welsh School of Architecture and Welsh Energy Sector Training to create an enterprise education intervention for professional architects.   

The intervention aligns with QAA (2010, p14) Architecture Subject benchmark statement that states, “besides a range of practical and academic skills, architecture graduates are expected to display commitment, artistry, personal expression, imagination and creativity”.  The overall aim was to consider the relationship between enterprise and architecture, leading towards future developments within the School.   

Activity:

Key Points

  • Built environment professionals engaged in one day workshop about entrepreneurship 
  • Intervention developed in partnership with Welsh Energy Sector Training  
  • Innovations from the low carbon environment discussed 
  • Business Model Canvas used for business planning

The day long workshop was delivered 16th September 2014 by Dr Vicki Stevenson herself to qualified built environment professionals.  The concept was to trial material as a taster session for a proposed ‘Continuing Professional Development’ module on Enterprise in a Low Carbon Economy.   

Impact:

Feedback received was positive and opportunities are being considered for further delivery.  

Learner Outcome:

(The examples of curriculum development for enterprise related outcomes were originally outlined by Neil Coles at the International Enterprise Educators Conference under the heading 'From Archaeology to Zoology; an A-Z of enterprise in the curriculum'.  For his work in contextualising enterprise for any subject, Neil won the 2013 National Enterprise Educator Award). 

Resources:

N/A

References:

Author/Contact Details:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Neil Coles (Senior Enterprise Learning Officer). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- Cardiff University.

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Teaching Entrepreneurship A Practice Based Approach Exercise Business Model Canvas Game (QAA 1,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Reflect on the meaning and importance of the nine business model components. 
  • Demonstrate how the ordering on the canvas categorizes components as generating value or creating efficiency to deliver value. 
  • Discuss and debate the ordering proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010).

Overview:

The Business Model Canvas (http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/ canvas) has become a popular teaching tool in entrepreneurship classrooms. It is not my intention here to introduce the canvas or illustrate how it works. Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) do a magnificent job explaining the canvas, articulating the theory behind the canvas, and offering many ways to use the canvas. This exercise is a quick game to help students reflect on the nature and ordering of the nine business model components found on the canvas as proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works well for both undergraduate and graduate audiences. The exercise is best used in a course or class session where the Business Model Canvas is first being introduced.

Activity:

Pre- Work Required by Students - None.

Time Plan (30 minutes)

The Game Setup 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes) 

Before introducing the canvas, simply introduce that there are nine components of a business model. I typically show a PowerPoint slide with the nine components listed in random order. Tell the students that there is a particular order to the components, but they need to figure out what the order is. In other words, they need to determine which of the components should be considered first, second, and so on. What’s most important to start with and what’s least important? Separate students into teams of five (maximum).

The Game 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes) 

Give each team a deck of cards (see resources) and ask them to place them in order from one to nine (10 minutes). After 10 minutes, give each team a long piece of masking tape and have them tape the order of their cards to the wall or board, so everyone can see the differences across the team.

The Discussion 0:15–0:30 (15 minutes) 

Now it is time to introduce the ordering that Osterwalder and Pigneur use. Their book (see Theoretical Foundations) is quite helpful if you are not familiar with the canvas. I typically give out a copy of the Business Model Canvas to each student prior to disclosing the order. The ordering of the components is: 

  1. Customer segments
  2. Value proposition
  3. Channels
  4. Customer relationships
  5. Revenue streams
  6. Key resources
  7. Key activities
  8. Key partners
  9. Cost structure

Usually student teams will have either customer segments or value propositions first and this creates a wonderful debate in the class. Introduce the order of the components one by one while also explaining what each component is. After walking through the components and discussing the differences in order created by each team I end the exercise with a brief discussion summarizing the order. At the end of the day, the ordering really does not matter because the canvas is meant to be an iterative, working document that will continuously change as you learn new information from every action taken or experiment conducted. What is most interesting about the design of the canvas and its ordering is found when you fold the canvas in half (left to right). 

According to Osterwalder and Pigneur, the right side of the canvas is concerned with creating and generating value. The left side of the canvas is concerned with generating efficiencies to deliver that value. As such, an entrepreneur needs to first determine or create the value and then develop the approach to deliver that value. Innovation, novelty, creativity, and competitive advantage are most often found in the value creation. So, start on the right!

Teaching Tips

The most important reason that I do this exercise is to get the students thinking about each component on their own in teams rather than just “telling” them about each component. Expect raging debates about customer segments versus value propositions as being first in the order. It is always a great conversation to have.

Skill Development: 

Key Takeaways

  • It is important to think about the ordering of the components but not be wedded to one particular ordering. 
  • A business model is about value creation, delivery, and capture – but start with creation and think about cost last. 
  • Focusing too soon on cost structure and resources can diminish the innovativeness of new ideas. This can happen when we start on the left side of the canvas.

Resources: 

Materials List

Instructors will need to create decks of “business model component cards.” One deck is needed per team in the class. Each deck is comprised of nine index cards. On each card should be one of the nine business model components: customer segments, value propositions, channels, customer relationships, revenue streams, key resources, key activities, key partners, cost structure. Given that this is the actual order recommended by Osterwalder & Pigneur, it is important that the cards in the deck are not in this order. You may also want to have copies of the Business Model Canvas to distribute as well, but after the game. A copy of the canvas can be obtained at http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695 

References:

This exercise is taken from;

•Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.136 – 138). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Theoretical Foundations

•Osterwalder, A., and Pigneur, Y. 2010. Business Model Generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Heidi M. Neck.

Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach - EXERCISE: AIRPLANE CONTEST (QAA 1,5,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group), Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Practice pitching new concepts.
  • Critique pitches for new concepts.
  • Understand the importance of pitch versus idea. 
  • Simulate prototype development and feasibility testing.

Overview:

Rocket pitches or elevator pitches are often the first opportunity for an entrepreneur to convince potential investors that they have an idea that represents a profitable opportunity. These are often only one to five minute presentations, but they can have a significant impact on the entrepreneur’s ability to attract investors as well as other potential stakeholders. This can be particularly true in the early stages of a venture before the entrepreneur has a viable product, and he or she has to quickly convince potential stakeholders of his or her vision and the potential of the idea. Entrepreneurs often think that their idea is the most important aspect of the pitch, but studies have shown that U.S. venture capitalists consider personal characteristics such as the entrepreneur’s ability to articulate his or her venture to be critical in determining whether or not they will reject an entrepreneur’s plan.

In this exercise, students design a paper airplane that must be capable of carrying a predetermined amount of currency in the form of coins. The airplanes will compete in two categories – time that the plane can stay aloft and the distance it can travel. However, students pitch their design to their classmates (the investors) in an effort to convince them their design is the best before the contest takes place. 

The exercise has worked well for illustrating the importance of a good pitch and helps students to better understand what constitutes a good pitch from an investor’s perspective.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works with both undergraduate and graduate students. It is appropriate for new venture creation courses, entrepreneurship boot-camps, or workshops. The session is best positioned after students have identified a venture concept, project, or family or corporate initiative to pursue and are preparing for an elevator speech or rocket pitch type presentation. Technology entrepreneurship or innovation classes are also appropriate.

Activity:

Pre- Work Required by Students

Students are to be given the following instructions in the class period prior to running the exercise: “You are to design and create a new paper airplane capable of keeping one U.S. dollar of coins aloft for as long (time) as possible while simultaneously transporting the coins as far (distance) as possible. The assignment is as follows:

  1. You may work individually or in a group of up to four students; the only group-related implication is that your airplane design must use the same number of standard size sheets as the number of people in the group (for example, a group of four must create an airplane that uses four sheets of paper in its design). 
  2. Your plane must be designed to transport one U.S. dollar of coinage (or other local currency). You may choose the number and denominations of coins used; your only constraint is that their total value be exactly one dollar. 
  3. You may not simply crumple the paper into a ball, as this would constitute a projectile rather than an aerodynamically sensitive aircraft- based design.

You will be required to pitch your design to your classmates. You will have two minutes to convince your classmates that your design will perform the best. Performance on the exercise will be based on a combination of actual performance of your airplane and the number of votes your design gets from your classmates in each category (time and distance).”

Time Plan (80 minutes)

Because each team will pitch their idea, the time required for the exercise will vary with class and team size. The timing outlined here is based on a class size of 30 students and ten teams.

Step 1 0:00–0:02 (2 minutes) 

Begin the exercise by explaining the voting rules to the students. Students are allowed to vote for only one team (excluding their own) in each of the two categories (distance and time). They are not required to vote for the same design in each category. It helps to provide a sheet for each of the students to record their votes, or, if your students have computers and internet access, you can use an online voting system (this will require you to set it up before the class).

Step 2 0:02–0:27 (25 minutes) 

Next, have each team pitch their idea to their classmates. Teams should be strictly limited to two minutes each.

Step 3 0:27–0:32 (5 minutes) 

Have the students record their votes for the design they think will perform best in each category. Remind them that they cannot vote for their own design.

Step 4 0:32–0:52 (20 minutes)

Take the class to an open area in which to conduct the actual flights. An indoor area such as a gymnasium works best, but you can run it outdoors as well (which can introduce additional uncertainty into the performance for the students). Each team gets one throw. You should have a line that they cannot cross for throwing, and you should record the time that their plane stays aloft. After the plane has landed, measure and record the distance. It helps if you assign this task to one or more of the students.

Step 5 0:52–1:00 (8 minutes) 

Return to the classroom. Record the votes and the actual performance for each team on the board.

Step 6 (exercise debrief) 1:00–1:20 (20 minutes) 

If time allows, you can have a short discussion about their process with regard to creating their design. This can help to illustrate how an entrepreneur can take a constraint and turn it into an opportunity. Additionally, this can highlight the importance of prototyping and learning from failure, and many of the teams that perform well often trial several different designs. Some possible questions include:

  • How did they view the issue of the coins? 
  • Did they see it as a negative constraint? Why? 
  • Did they see it as an opportunity to incorporate it into the design and improve its performance? 
  • How did they try to differentiate their design? 
  • Did they try to optimize for time or distance or try both? 
  • Did they prototype and test designs?

Next, discuss the aspect of effective pitching. The idea here is to get them to appreciate the importance of the entrepreneur and his or her pitch to investors. Owing to the uncertainty inherent in many early- stage entrepreneurial ventures, investors will typically put more emphasis on the entrepreneur and his or her ability to “sell” the idea, as well as their confidence in the entrepreneur’s ability to execute on his or her pitch – one has to be careful not to oversell the concept.

  • How did it feel to try to “sell” your classmates on your design?
  • What were the biggest challenges? 
  • How did you decide to invest? 
  • How important was the way in which they presented the concept? 
  • Confidence? 
  • What was compelling about the pitch or the entrepreneur? 
  • Why do you think people did or did not vote for your design?
  • What would you do to improve your pitch?

Wrap the discussion up with a summary of the importance of clearly articulating your idea and convincing the audience of your ability to execute on your idea.

Post- Work

Have the students read the following articles (this can be done beforehand if you prefer):

  • Elsbach, K.D. 2003. How to pitch a brilliant idea. Harvard Business Review, 81(9), 117–23. 
  • Santinelli, A., and Brush, C. 2013. Designing and Delivering the Perfect Pitch. Wellesley, MA: Babson College Case Collection.

Teaching Tips

Students will often try to game the system (depending on how much freedom you give them). For example, they may choose to use different weights of paper or design a flying disc as opposed to a traditional airplane. You can decide how vague you want to be. If you want to have more discussion on the creative process and pushing the boundaries, then being more vague in the instructions can lead to a good discussion on how entrepreneurs try to push the rules and boundaries. Some students will feel “cheated,” but this can still provide a good learning point.

Skill Development: 

Key Takeaways

  • Ability to quickly and clearly articulate an idea is often more important than the idea itself. 
  • Investors often focus on their belief in the entrepreneur’s ability to execute on the idea rather than the idea itself – particularly under conditions of uncertainty. 
  • Prototyping can be an effective way to deal with an unknown environment and develop your product or service.

Resources: 

Materials List

Provide students with paper for their airplanes in order to maintain a standard paper type and weight. Alternatively, you can leave this open to interpretation as a means of encouraging greater creativity among the teams. You will need a tape measure and a stopwatch for the actual competition.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695 

References:

This exercise is taken from;

  • Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.131 – 135). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Attribution

  • Reginald A. Litz, Dell McStay, Sergio Janczak, and Carolyn Birmingham, “Kitty hawk in the classroom: A simulation exercise for facilitating creative and entrepreneurial behavior,” United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (USASBE) 2011 conference – Entrepreneurship: Changing the Present, Creating the Future, South Carolina, United States, January 2011.

Theoretical Foundations

MacMillan, I.C., Siegel, R., and Subba Narisimha, P.N. 1985. Criteria used by venture capitalists to evaluate new venture proposals. Journal of Business Venturing, 1, 119–28. 

Ries, E. 2011. The Lean Startup: How Today’s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. New York: Crown Publishing.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Bradley George.

Consensus Building through Business Planning – Costs and Benefits (QAA 3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Develop an understanding of the benefits of producing a business plan, for them and  their business
  • Develop an understanding of the costs and resource implications of producing a business plan to them and their business 
  • Alleviate concerns and promote their ownership of the business plan 
  • To evidence the power of group work as ideas and issues are considered from different perspectives and shared through small group work

Overview:

This activity is designed to provide an opportunity for students to develop their understanding of the purpose and benefits of producing a business plan as well as expressing any concerns or issues relating to the process.  

Activity:

As an individual task – invite each student to consider the opposing statement below (that preparing a business plan is ‘a waste of time’ and ‘a valuable exercise’ and to make a list of the reasons why someone may agree with each of the statements. 

Each point can then be researched, discussed in small groups, and challenged within the small group situation to create a consensus for presentation.

The activity should be concluded by asking the group to agree where they would rank themselves on the continuum and make their position to the wider group.

This will create a range of presentations, which will draw out of range of concerns and issues, that can then be discussed and explored across the wider group.

Preparing a Business Plan

A waste of time ......................................  A valuable exercise
0                                                                          10

This can also be repeated, following business planning work, to provide a useful reflection tool at the end of the business planning process, when students are invited to consider the statements again having completed the business plan.  This can provide an indication of any change in the entrepreneur / small business owner’s view.

Skill Development:

The decision making within this task is both individual and within a group and therefore develops consensus building through discussion and debate.  The discussion will build deeper understanding of the business planning process and build confidence around this area, whilst the presentation skills to the wider group will build confidence in public speaking and debate.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

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Case Examples

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Additional Resources

Enterprise Educators UK (EEUK) regularly share members practice, including examples such as this 20-credit multi-level, multidisciplinary module "Making Ideas Happen" which introduces the fields of enterprise, entrepreneurship and innovation, whilst emphasising the generation and development of ideas with a distinctly social flavour.

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales. It aims to provide inspiration, information and support to being your own boss!

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business.  Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf