Enhance your curriculum by addressing the QAA Guidance on skills for your subject, and incorporating the QAA (2018) Guidance on Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

QAA Benchmark Statement

  • Monitor progress, critically reflect on their performance
  • Evaluate their overall strategy and present the outcomes from their work, including ways of further improving their skills
  • Problem solving skills including self-direction and originality
  • Effective communication and interaction with professionals from other subjects
  • Making decisions in complex and unpredictable situations
  • Independent, inter-disciplinary and team working

 

Embedding Enterprise

The following ETC tools can help you to deliver these skills in the curriculum

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) enterprise skills in your teaching.


Creativity and Evaluation Using Questioning SCAMPER (QAA 1,3,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Creative thinking
  • Structured Group Problem solving
  • Evaluation of ideas through critical analysis and judgement
  • Presentation of ideas (including persuasion)

Overview:

This approach to creative thinking structures thinking through the use of a mnemonic "SCAMPER" and using questioning techniques to generate solutions. This makes an ideal group activity for students to work through the mnemonic and then present their results.

Activity:

Students are placed in small working groups and invited to explore the seven prompts of the SCAMPER mnemonic. Firstly, invite each group to take an existing product or service (or agree one to consider - this could be one that you want to improve, one that you'recurrently having problems with, or one that you think could form future product developments).

Questioning around these themes helps the groups develop creative ideas for developing new products, or services and for improving current ones. SCAMPER is a mnemonic that stands for:

  • Substitute.
  • Combine.
  • Adapt.
  • Modify.
  • Put to another use.
  • Eliminate.
  • Reverse.

Using these headings, invite each group to discuss the questions about the product, using the mnemonic.

By brainstorming as many questions and answers within each group, a rich solution can be produced.

Example Questions which you can share with groups in need of support.

Substitute: Ask "What can you substitute? What can be used instead? Who else instead? What other ingredients? Other material? Other process? Other power? Other place? Other approach? Other sounds? Other forces?"

  • What materials or resources can you substitute or swap to improve the product?
  • What other product or process could you use?
  • What rules could you substitute?
  • Can you use this product somewhere else, or as a substitute for something else?
  • What will happen if you change your feelings or attitude toward this product?

Combine: What can you combine or bring together somehow? How about a blend, an alloy, an assortment, an ensemble? Combine units? Combine purposes? Combine appeals? Combine ideas?

  • What would happen if you combined this product with another, to create something new?
  • What if you combined purposes or objectives?
  • What could you combine to maximize the uses of this product?
  • How could you combine talent and resources to create a new approach to this product?

Adapt: What can you adapt for use as a solution? What else is like this? What other idea does this suggest? Does past offer a parallel? What could I copy? Who could I emulate?

  • How could you adapt or readjust this product to serve another purpose or use?
  • What else is the product like?
  • Who or what could you emulate to adapt this product?
  • What else is like your product?
  • What other context could you put your product into?
  • What other products or ideas could you use for inspiration?

Modify: Can you change the item in some way? Change meaning, colour, motion, sound, smell, form, shape? Other changes? Or Magnify: What can you add? More time? Greater frequency? Stronger? Higher? Longer? Thicker? Extra value? Plus ingredient? Duplicate? Multiply? Exaggerate?

Or 'Minify': What can you remove? Smaller? Condensed? Miniature? Lower? Shorter? Lighter? Omit? Streamline? Split up? Understate?

  • How could you change the shape, look, or feel of your product?
  • What could you add to modify this product?
  • What could you emphasize or highlight to create more value?
  • What element of this product could you strengthen to create something new?

Put to Another Use: Can you use this product somewhere else, perhaps in another industry?

  • Who else could use this product?
  • How would this product behave differently in another setting?
  • Could you recycle the waste from this product to make something new?

Eliminate: What can you eliminate? Remove something? Eliminate waste? Reduce time? Reduce effort? Cut costs?

  • How could you streamline or simplify this product?
  • What features, parts, or rules could you eliminate?
  • What could you understate or tone down?
  • How could you make it smaller, faster, lighter, or more fun?
  • What would happen if you took away part of this product? What would you have in its place?

Reverse: What can be rearranged in some way? Interchange components? Other pattern? Other layout? Other sequence? Transpose cause and effect? Change pace? Change schedule?

  • What would happen if you reversed this process or sequenced things differently?
  • What if you try to do the exact opposite of what you're trying to do now?
  • What components could you substitute to change the order of this product?
  • What roles could you reverse or swap?
  • How could you reorganize this product?

Evaluation:
Once the ideas have been generated, the next stage is evaluation. Through group discussion, ask the student to determine ifany stand out as viable solutions? Could any of them be used to create a new product, or develop an existing one?

All viable ideas can be explored further in order to find one improvement/suggestion for final presentation to the wider group.

A debrief on the solutions, the process and the team working should be included within the session to allow for the skills and emotional aspects of team work to be explored, and the constructs of the mnemonic discussed.

Skill Development:

Although the main focus of this project is idea generation, the discussion and evaluation within the group, which requires presentation and interpersonal skills as well as judgement and critical analysis of opportunities and ideas.

Student groups should be left to work through their discussion, and any difficulties with team working as may occur (intervening only to support the process and move the students on, if time pressures require) however it is important to review the task, the process and the protocols in order to seek guidance for future working or lessons to take forward.

Students should be encouraged to share the frustrations and difficulties of decision making within a group (where one individual may have suggested the idea) and how feedback should be given and shared.

Group dynamics need to be acknowledged and lessons can be shaped for future team working.

References:

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCT_02.htm

http://www.brainstorming.co.uk/tutorials/scampertutorial.html 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Enterprise Evolution.

Introducing Interactivity in Large Group Teaching (QAA 1,3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Engaging large groups of students in delivery and content interactively can be a challenge, often made more difficult by the lay-out of teaching spaces.  Using the potential of the mobile or smart phone for texting, voting, or twitter can engage all the individuals in the room, allowing them to ask questions that are unlikely to be raised as questions during a traditional lecture format.

Overview:

Engaging students in their learning, particularly in the static environment of large lecture theatres is a challenge.  However learners are likely to have smart phones available to them during class and rather than banning them from the room, it can be more engaging to encourage your students to use their phones to raise questions, vote and share their opinions or indicate their views on specific topics.  By developing your traditional‘lecture’ style to involve decision points, questions or votes, you can check understanding in the room, and if you wish to use specialised text apps or features (such as Twitter or voting apps) you can open your entire input to comment and reaction.

Activity:

This activity can be incorporated into your traditional large group teaching (particularly with large group or in lecture theatre) and although it doesn’t specifically take much time to set up and engage them, you need to ensure that you allocate time for discussion of any points within class to review and clarify the learning.  By creating point of engagement, or inviting students to comment you can change the dynamic of your lectures and develop a ‘conversation’ not only with the learners and yourself, but also across the learners together.

Note of caution: obviously this approach needs consideration relating to the age range and appropriateness of this type of engagement.  There are issues of privacy when using texts (phone numbers) and providing open communication, such as a full twitter ‘wall’ can lead to humour and irrelevant topics appearing on the screen which become distracting to your educational message. You however have the choice to open this screen fully to your students throughout the class, making all communications visible (if using twitter etc) either on a screen or through individual phones or lap tops, or you can keep this dialogue direct to you.  Ownership of accounts (such as in twitter) create a more direct link to individuals without disclosing personal contact details, but it is important to agree ground rules of respect to avoid any trolling of those actively engaging.  Typically students are responsible when engaging with this public forum, but it is important that you are clear about the need to respect contributions and those making them.

Skill Development:

In allowing the learners to voice their concerns, vote on their views and share their feelings or confusion you are opening up their learning experience and showing that other students, as well as themselves as individuals, can develop and deepen their understanding through discussion and clarification.  The skill of concise and effective communication is displayed in the voting and within the precision of short texts or 140 characters in twitter.  This task builds confidence if you, as the tutor, welcome comment and develop the “conversation” with your learners.  It is important to acknowledge questions and areas of concern and respond within the class, or specifically state when you will review this topic further, to create a legitimate feedback loop between yourself and students.

Resources:

Note: Check that students have access to mobile or smart phones and that they are happy to engage in learning by sending text messages (many phone packages allow for free texts but it is important to understand the group perception/position on undertaking this task before starting as it may involve expense).  If wifi is available, then many of the features of apps will be free to use and typically university students have access to institutional wifi in order to engage. However you need to check that your particular teaching room will support your proposed activity without students incurring costs to engage.
A little preparation can be needed (either for individuals to prepare (or establish an account) and/or  the tutor to  establish twitter accounts or to familiarise yourself as the tutor with specific apps, such as Poll Everywhere http://www.polleverywhere.com/ or a twitter wall to display (such as https://tweetwall.com/ or similar).   There are lots of different applications available which will display tweets, or visually display votes or words from students, many free to use, so consider the constraints of your teaching room (such as wifi enabled etc) and encourage your learners to be prepared in advance by making any downloads required.

References:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

Communication Re-evaluation (QAA 5, 6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

To understand the importance of developing our feedback techniques as part of a communication and working with others.

Overview:

This session is run as a stand-alone group activity in an informal environment with all participants sitting in a relaxed state in order to create lots of opportunity for group discussions and sharing experiences in order to refine their use of language and consider messages from different perspectives.

Activity

This activity takes about 30 minutes to deliver the airline pilot communication, set the scene: and explore the results with the group together the importance of giving effective constructive feedback when communicating.

Before beginning it is useful to indicate that you are doing a hypothetical task relating to air travel to ensure that you are not working too close to an individual’s phobia or concerns relating to airline travel. You may wish to exempt someone who feels that they may be uncomfortable with the task, but recognise this element is part of the task when giving feedback.

Turning a negative into a positive: The airline pilot scenario

As facilitator, read this announcement to your group, after explaining that they have been sat in an aeroplane for about 15 minutes, when the pilot speaks to you over the intercom:

"Good morning, this is your pilot speaking. We are going to have to delay our departure for about 40 minutes. There have been problems with the cargo onto the airplane and this will take some time to sort out. The plane is also at the present time being refuelled.

When we take off, we shall be flying due east and going at a height of 30.000 feet. The weather forecast in the area is not good and it looks as if we could have quite a bit of turbulences route, so please keep in your seats and I understand the weather at our destination is also bad for this time of year which is causing delays to departures and arrivals.I will let know as we have any further information"

Ask the group informally to share what they heard from this announcement. Explore the feelings of the group as well as the message.

Then provide the text, either as a handout, or on screen and set the task: Can you communicate this information in a more positive way?

All the above information is factually correct, however even before take-off the captain has put you in a poor mood for the journey.

Give the group 10 minutes to read through and come up with a more positive statement. Then go around the group for them to talk through their statements and then talk though the groups as to how and why they presented this information differently and how they might communicate the need to use different language to the pilot. Discuss how to give feedback to colleagues/team members and explore their previous experience of poor feedback.

Discuss how feedback statements are heard and how language can shape what is heard.

Use the following Feedback key points (below) to guide your discussions and agree how best to handle feedback which improves service and quality, and particularly when colleagues are unaware of any performance issues or potential increase in quality that can be achieved.

Feedback should be

  • In a form that is appropriate and acceptable to the receiver
  • descriptive not evaluative
  • about behaviour not personality
  • based on examples

When you give feedback make sure you:

  • communicate how you felt
  • get others to support your observations
  • confirm good as well as bad
  • allow the recipient to question
  • are timely
  • identify sources

When receiving feedback

  • accept it is for your own good
  • be positive
  • listen carefully
  • check and clarify understanding
  • check with others
  • expand on feedback given
  • decide how to use feedback
  • thank the giver

When giving feedback to individuals

  • use supporting evidence
  • be positive
  • gain commitment
  • clarify implications of feedback
  • build up self confidence
  • gain agreement of the way forward
  • develop action plans
  • communicate decisions to appropriate personnel

Skill Development:

The discussion of this task should focus on reflection; review; feedback (see points above) in order to explore the learning through group discussion. It is important that you establish the need to understand the importance of how to give feedback in a safe constructive way which continues to motivate individuals to deliver.

This communication task explores the more subtle, and powerful elements of an individual's communication skills and it can be useful to draw on experiences from part-time/previous jobs or courses to truly understand the emotional impact of feedback and establish the need to consider timing; task; emotional state; message etc when giving feedback. Individual experiences from the group, should they wish to share, can be particularly powerful in exploring group work, team work and motivating for improvement.

Review these lessons and then explore with the group what they can 'take-away' for the future, both as a giver of good and supportive feedback, and a possible receiver of well-intended, but badly executed feedback. What ground rules for feedback can they use in their group work? Can they add this to their meeting agendas? What language is appropriate? What happens when feedback is not accepted within their group?

Resources:

Pilot statement Handouts (or power point slide of text) to produce mid task.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Enterprise Evolution.

A Compendium of Pedagogies: THE USE OF HOT SEATS (QAA 5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

Participants gain confidence in responding to questioning under pressure. They may importantly also learn that they need to ‘act’ differently with different stakeholders. They learn quickly to adapt to others’ point of view.

Overview:

This is a group exercise. Members of the group in turn are put in the ‘Hot Seat’ to respond to intensive questioning from other group members. Traditionally, this ‘Hot Seating’ technique is used by actors to help them identify with the character they are playing. It is used in entrepreneurship education to enable participants to get inside the culture and values of stakeholders with whom they might have to deal. But it can also be used for intensive questioning of an individual’s own personal aims, objectives and plans including business plans. Other participant’s (the group) act as interrogators in this exercise; note: it can be useful to agree ground rules as what is appropriate in terms of questioning and approach within this task.

Activity:

The hot seat itself is in the middle of a semi-circle of chairs. The person in the ‘Hot Seat’ can be himself/herself or represent a client or stakeholder. Dependent upon the role, questions fired rapidly may relate to personal issues; business/organisational problems or community activities (part of ground rules).

Example Hot Seat: Business/plan/idea

The individual is surrounded by those role playing different stakeholders which the plan might need to convince. The aim is to create recognition that the plan will be seen very differently by very different stakeholders. Interrogators may, for example, play the roles of bankers, venture capitalists, family, local government officials offering grants; a potential large customer who will be judging whether to include the client on a buying list or a major potential supplier who may be asked for credit.

Other participants can then be similarly hot seated. At the end of the hot seating there can be a review of what has been learned about the business plan as a relationship management instrument and how it might be best developed to meet different needs.

Example Hot Seat: different stakeholders
Using the same focus of the business plan; hot seater’s, in turn, can be asked to play the roles of different stakeholders, as above, and are quizzed about what they are looking for and why?

Example Hot Seating: on a problem
The technique can be used to role-play individuals from a case study with the aim of creating lively personalised discussion of major points for learningfrom the case. It can also be used to focus discussion on how to deal with a particular problem set out in a simple brief.

Skill Development:

This is an exercise in thinking and responding under pressure. It also is designed to stimulate understanding of relationship management and the value ofthinking empathetically. It can be used to throw light on the ‘organisational cultures’ of different stakeholders that make them see the same things in different ways.

Resources

A Compendium of Pedagogies for Teaching Entrepreneurship. Professor Alan Gibb and Professor Alison Price - Download (PDF) 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Professor Allan Gibb and Professor Alison Price .

Dynamic Review and Reflection (physical) (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • To understand the power and necessity for review and reflection of a task or situation (review the session, understand the concept or steps covered in an interactive way).
  • To understand team dynamics and how teams come together to achieve a goal
  • To evidence the power of group work as more ideas are created through team work

Overview:

This is a physically active exercise that can be used at the end of the day or at the end of a session. It is especially useful after a session that involves a lot of technical material or requires heavy concentration as it is also an effective energizer.  This task brings together physical movement and the
opportunity for revision and review.

This can also be highly effective as an approach to reflective learning and providing natural opportunities for students to comment on the deeper or more personal learning they have achieved during a task.

Activity: 

Example 1 – ‘Valuable Lessons Learned’ Ball Toss

  1. The facilitator asks the workshop participants to form a circle
  2. The facilitator starts by saying what they thought was their most valuable lesson or concept they learned that day, and then throw the ball to another participant
  3. The participant states the most valuable or important lesson/concept they learned that day and throws to another participant and so on until all participants have expressed their valuable lessons/concepts learned.

Example 2 – ‘Concept in Action’ Ball Toss

  1. The facilitator asks the workshop participants to form a circle
  2. The facilitator starts by stating a concept that relates to the workshop / exercise, and then throws the ball to another participant. 3. The participant gives an example of that concept in action, and the states another concept and throws to another participant and so on

Example 3 – ‘Process’ Ball Toss 

1.After an exercise has been conducted about the steps in a particular activity, the facilitator asks the workshop participants to form a circle.
2. The facilitator starts by explaining the first step in the process that has been covered in the exercise, and then throws the ball to another participant.
3. The participant explains the next step in the process and then throws to another participants and so on.  Notes: If someone receives the ball but does not have an example read, they can ‘pass’ by passing the ball to a different person and simply repeating the question.  This can declare them as “out” and result in having to withdraw from the circle, or sit down.  However as facilitator, you may not wish to use this for reflective tasks, as deeper reflections may emerge from the comments of others and total non-participation is not helpful to the individual.

Skill Development: 

This task engages the whole body in either remembering or reflecting in a way that is both energising and engaging to the whole group.  The physical element can divert from the task and as facilitators, you can ask “why” or “so what” as the ball is thrown in order to deepen reflection.

If you wish to have more control over the game, you may stand in the middle and throw the ball back to participant who did not provide a sufficiently strong input. The skill development needs to be explored at the end and the emotions that are created in the game (pressure; speed; short-responses etc) acknowledged as drivers, as well as limiters of good communication.

Resources: 

1. A soft ball or ball of wool.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Enterprise Awareness Module (QAA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre, Presentation Space, Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

The Module Aims to; 

  • Familiarise students with the key concepts of enterprise and entrepreneurship in a variety of contexts. 
  • Provide a framework in which students can develop a range of enterprising skills and behaviours. 
  • Engage students in the creation, management and evaluation of an enterprise project. 
  • Help students identify what ‘being entrepreneurial’ means to them personally. 
  • Encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning.

Introduction:

Developed in 2011, this level 4 module presents students with an introduction to enterprise / entrepreneurial skills, allowing them to develop a fundamental understanding of them, and various factors that interact in developing an idea into an enterprise. 

The learning and teaching strategy has at its heart the values and practices of Glyndwr’s learning and teaching strategy (see references), where studentsare encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning. The key delivery is structured around an action learning methodology centred on the development of an entrepreneurial project, managed by the students across the semester which also forms the evidence base for their assignments. 

The module is delivered using a range of teaching and learning methods. These include lectures, seminars, case studies, open learning programmes, project work, online work and simulations to create a diverse learning portfolio suited to a range of learning styles.

It is assessed via group assessment, including ideas pitching and group project presentations, and individual assessment, including written reflection discussing personal learning and development. 

It is designed to be suitable for delivery within all undergraduate programmes.

Activity:

Syllabus Outline; 

Week 1: Module Introduction
Class: Interactive Lecture
Assignment: Blog

Week 2: Team Building Task
Class: Tower Activity
Assignment: Reflection

Week 3: Opportunity Awareness
Class: Trop Activity
Assignment: Perfect Pitching

Week 4: Ideas Pitch
Class: Group Assessment (Presentation)
Assignment: Project Proposal

Week 5: IDEA Project Shaping
Class: Team Meetings Focussed on Goal Setting / Action Planning.
Assignment: Assessment Work.

Week 6: Practical Creativity
Class: Chocolate Bar Activity
Assignment: Further Reading

Week 7: Group Work
Class: Assessment Work.
Assignment: Communication Skills.

Week 8: Group Work
Class: Assessment Work
Assignment: Strategic Thinking (Online Module)

Week 9: IDEA Project Shaping
Class: Team Mentoring
Assignment: Assessment Work.

Week 10: Marketing for Entrepreneurs
Class: Interactive Lecture
Assignment: Assessment Work

Week 11: Group Work
Class: Assessment Work
Assignment: Strategic Thinking (Online Module)

Week 12: Group Work
Class: Assessment Work
Assignment: Writing Personal Reflection

Week 13: IDEA – Project Presentations
Class: Group Assessment
Assignment: Assessment Work

Week 14: IDEA- Project Presentations
Class: Group Assessment
Assignment: Assessment Work

Week 15: Final Submission of Individual Assessment.

Learner Outcome:

Knowledge and Understanding

Students Will; 

  • Develop a range of enterprising skills and behaviours.
  • Contribute to the creation, implementation and management of an enterprise project which has the potential to be realised during the module.
  • Work in a group to organise and deliver a high quality pitch for their project concept. 
  • Appraise their own and others performance reflecting on how future activity might be modified to improve the project. 
  • Articulate their view of enterprise expressing what it means to them personally by reflecting on achievements in the module. 

Transferrable/Key Skills;

  • Creativity and problem solving 
  • Team working 
  • Communication 
  • Resource planning/management 
  • Networking 
  • Self-reflection 
  • The development of judgement in relation to the creation and evaluation of ideas.

Resources:

For further examples of embedded enterprise modules, see Case Examples including ‘Entrepreneurial Journalism’ and ‘Creating Commercially Aware and Industry Ready Cardiff University Physics Graduates.’

References:

Essential reading for students; 

  • Claxton, G (2000). Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind: How Intelligence Increases When You Think Less, London: Ecco.
  • Rae, D (2007). Entrepreneurship: From Opportunity to Action, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. 
  • Robinson, K (2005). The Element: How Finding Passion Changes Everything. London: Penguin.

Other indicative reading for students; 

  • Alinsky, S.D (1999). Rule for Radicals, Westminster: Random House.
  • Barringer, B.R. & Ireland, D (2009). Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures, Boston: Pearson Education. 
  • Burgh, B (2007). The Go-Giver, New York: Portfolio Hardcover 
  • Gladwell M (2002). The Tipping Point: How Little Changes Can Make a Big Difference, England: Back Bay Books.
  • Gittomer, J (2003). The Sales Bible: The Ultimate Sales Resource, Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons
  • Godin, S (2005). Purple Cow, London: Penguin. 
  • Godin, S (2008). Tribes, London: Paitkus Books
  • Kirby, D (2002). Entrepreneurship, Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Mawson, A (2008). The Social Entrepreneur: Making Communities Work, London: Atlantic Books.
  • Semler, R (2001). Maverick!: The Success Story Behind the World’s Most Unusual Workplace, Harlow: Random House Business Books.
  • Vaynerchuck, G (2009). Crush It!: Why Now is the Time to Cash in on Your Passion, New York: Harper Studio.
  • Weinber, T (2009). The New Community Rules: Marketing on the Social Web, Farnham: O’Reilly Media.
  • West, C (2008). Think Like an Entrepreneur, Your Psychological Toolkit of Success, Harlow: Prentice Hall

Author/Contact Details:

About the Author
This guide was produced by Judith Alexander (ZONE Manager, Glyndwr University). If you would like to contact the author, please use this email address:- J.Alexander@glyndwr.ac.uk.

Architecture Live Projects (QAA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Special

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

To develop attributes in, and offer experience of, the following to students;

  • Authentic problem enquiry and response
  • Innovation and Creativity
  • Risk-taking
  • Taking action
  • True collaboration

Introduction:

Module Title: ARC552 Live Projects

This module is a core module for students on the Masters in Architecture. Students work together in groups over six weeks to complete a community design project. Live Projects were born out of a desire to open up opportunities for students to work with community groups out in the city and further afield while still being supported by the School of Architecture. Students are encouraged to explore how people can effectively participate in the designand construction of the buildings that affect them. Students leave the course with an unusual blend of design skills. Being able to talk to clients, work collaboratively, develop briefs, and work with people in a real project, helps students to stand out.

Activity:

Authentic problem enquiry and response: Students are given a brief which comes from a real client – usually from the public sector or from non-profit organisations that otherwise wouldn’t be able to afford to fund an architectural project. Students have to investigate and incorporate the experiences and needs of a real group of people. They also work with real constraints – they have a tight deadline, and have to consider the resources available both to themselves and the client.

This is fundamentally a design project, and the challenge for students is to come up with an innovative design that still meets the needs of their clients.

With this challenge, there is no ‘right’ answer. Students may produce iterations of their design that then receive poor feedback from the client. They have to learn from this feedback and continue to develop their ideas. Students also need to consider the potential impact their project would have on real communities and stakeholders.

Students work as self-directed groups, and have to show initiative in their interactions with the client, with communities, and with each other.

Students to interact professionally and productively with the client. They also have to work together as strong, professional teams.

Impact:

See ‘Learner Outcome’ section.

Learner Outcome:

Student feedback included;

“My experience of the Live Projects was invaluable. The Live Projects demand ideas which contain depth, creativity and logic and most importantly a confidence to present ideas to real life clients – this kind of experience is often hard to acquire even after years of being in practice. Even now, it is still proving to be something of an ace card during interviews.”

Resources:

References:

Author/Contact Details:

 

 

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alexandra Jones (School of Architecture, The University of Sheffield ).

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Embedding Entrepreneurship

If you or your students are interested in developing a business idea, becoming self-employed/freelance or creating a business here are some tools to help and also some links to business start-up support.

How To Guides

These guides have been selected to build QAA (2018) entrepreneurship skills in your teaching.


Teaching Entrepreneurship A Practice Based Approach Exercise Business Model Canvas Game (QAA 1,5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6)

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Reflect on the meaning and importance of the nine business model components. 
  • Demonstrate how the ordering on the canvas categorizes components as generating value or creating efficiency to deliver value. 
  • Discuss and debate the ordering proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010).

Overview:

The Business Model Canvas (http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/ canvas) has become a popular teaching tool in entrepreneurship classrooms. It is not my intention here to introduce the canvas or illustrate how it works. Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) do a magnificent job explaining the canvas, articulating the theory behind the canvas, and offering many ways to use the canvas. This exercise is a quick game to help students reflect on the nature and ordering of the nine business model components found on the canvas as proposed by Osterwalder and Pigneur.

Usage Suggestions

This exercise works well for both undergraduate and graduate audiences. The exercise is best used in a course or class session where the Business Model Canvas is first being introduced.

Activity:

Pre- Work Required by Students - None.

Time Plan (30 minutes)

The Game Setup 0:00–0:05 (5 minutes) 

Before introducing the canvas, simply introduce that there are nine components of a business model. I typically show a PowerPoint slide with the nine components listed in random order. Tell the students that there is a particular order to the components, but they need to figure out what the order is. In other words, they need to determine which of the components should be considered first, second, and so on. What’s most important to start with and what’s least important? Separate students into teams of five (maximum).

The Game 0:05–0:15 (10 minutes) 

Give each team a deck of cards (see resources) and ask them to place them in order from one to nine (10 minutes). After 10 minutes, give each team a long piece of masking tape and have them tape the order of their cards to the wall or board, so everyone can see the differences across the team.

The Discussion 0:15–0:30 (15 minutes) 

Now it is time to introduce the ordering that Osterwalder and Pigneur use. Their book (see Theoretical Foundations) is quite helpful if you are not familiar with the canvas. I typically give out a copy of the Business Model Canvas to each student prior to disclosing the order. The ordering of the components is: 

  1. Customer segments
  2. Value proposition
  3. Channels
  4. Customer relationships
  5. Revenue streams
  6. Key resources
  7. Key activities
  8. Key partners
  9. Cost structure

Usually student teams will have either customer segments or value propositions first and this creates a wonderful debate in the class. Introduce the order of the components one by one while also explaining what each component is. After walking through the components and discussing the differences in order created by each team I end the exercise with a brief discussion summarizing the order. At the end of the day, the ordering really does not matter because the canvas is meant to be an iterative, working document that will continuously change as you learn new information from every action taken or experiment conducted. What is most interesting about the design of the canvas and its ordering is found when you fold the canvas in half (left to right). 

According to Osterwalder and Pigneur, the right side of the canvas is concerned with creating and generating value. The left side of the canvas is concerned with generating efficiencies to deliver that value. As such, an entrepreneur needs to first determine or create the value and then develop the approach to deliver that value. Innovation, novelty, creativity, and competitive advantage are most often found in the value creation. So, start on the right!

Teaching Tips

The most important reason that I do this exercise is to get the students thinking about each component on their own in teams rather than just “telling” them about each component. Expect raging debates about customer segments versus value propositions as being first in the order. It is always a great conversation to have.

Skill Development: 

Key Takeaways

  • It is important to think about the ordering of the components but not be wedded to one particular ordering. 
  • A business model is about value creation, delivery, and capture – but start with creation and think about cost last. 
  • Focusing too soon on cost structure and resources can diminish the innovativeness of new ideas. This can happen when we start on the left side of the canvas.

Resources: 

Materials List

Instructors will need to create decks of “business model component cards.” One deck is needed per team in the class. Each deck is comprised of nine index cards. On each card should be one of the nine business model components: customer segments, value propositions, channels, customer relationships, revenue streams, key resources, key activities, key partners, cost structure. Given that this is the actual order recommended by Osterwalder & Pigneur, it is important that the cards in the deck are not in this order. You may also want to have copies of the Business Model Canvas to distribute as well, but after the game. A copy of the canvas can be obtained at http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas.

The full text ‘Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach’ can be purchased here > http://www.amazon.co.uk/Teaching-Entrepreneurship-A-Practice-Based-Approach/dp/1782540695 

References:

This exercise is taken from;

•Heidi M. Neck, Patricia G. Greene and Candida G. Brush, 2014. Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Practice-Based Approach (pp.136 – 138). Edition. Edward Elgar Pub.

Theoretical Foundations

•Osterwalder, A., and Pigneur, Y. 2010. Business Model Generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Heidi M. Neck.

Defining your Customer (QAA 2,3,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Small group (teams of 4-6), Individual Task

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Carousel Tables (small working group)

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 7Communication and Strategy

Objectives:

  • To build a profile of (future) customer as a person
  • To develop the business offer through a broader understanding of the customer needs
  • To  support critical thinking and evaluation of ideas 

Overview: 

This exercise enables students to demonstrate their understanding of their potential customer and deepen that understanding to create a robust offer.

Activity: 

Give each group or individual a sheet of paper with an outline of (non-male or female) person drawn in the middle. 

Ask them to depict on the figure what they might know about their (future) customer.  This requires them to visually-describe their customer, including things like: 

  • Where do they live, work, spend time outside of work and home
  • How much do they earn
  • Where else might they access products/services like yours
  • How do they think, feel
  • What experience do they expect 
  • What concerns do they have
  • What life to do they lead

The purpose is to try and establish a real understanding of what is important to a potential customer, rather than drawing out key “facts” about them (disposable income etc).

Once all the drawings are done, everyone looks collectively at the different customer outlines and tries to add further understanding from what they can see.  The owner of the drawing need not accept these, but can include anything relevant onto their picture.

Once every drawing has been explored, each team/individual needs to articulate one message that they have learnt from this exercise that they can take forward into their planning.  So if offering fast-food to a student customer base, they may have identified price as critical.  However the wider discussion might have identified that students may also select to eat somewhere that is offering free wifi to allow them to connect with others or make plans with each other.  Or if the customer base was a family, then other elements that are important to them such as child-friendly parking, might indicate 1 premises to be more attractive than another.  This “linked” thinking allows the student to draw out the wider benefits of their product or service and explore it in order to create an effective offer.

Skill Development: 

Whilst this task can be based on initial research undertaken by the student, the critical thinking comes from the assumptions that the wider group offer to develop their thinking.  This shows the power of group work and allows the students to deepen their own thinking through the examples of others.

It is useful to explore this task at the end of the session to see how the groups found sharing and testing their assumptions in a group environment.

Resources: 

Paper, pens, flipchart (outline of a person)

About the Author
This guide was produced by Alison Price.

A model for an Interdisciplinary intrapreneurship-entrepreneurship module (QAA2,3,4,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Any

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 4Implementation of ideas through leadership and management 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • The learner will understand the importance of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behaviour in the context of their subject area
  • Will engage with subjects outside their discipline to pitch for and explore ideas and concepts
  • To reflect and draw personal conclusions about their capacities and capabilities for entrepreneurial behaviour
  • To research and persuade others of the feasibility and viability of their ideas
  • To conclude with a ‘live’ opportunity which they can research and develop further through a research project/dissertation, employment or a new business venture

Overview: 

This type of module is appropriate on applied courses, or courses ‘with enterprise’. It is especially valuable where students from a range of disciplines are taught together, invited to ‘bring their discipline and interests with them’ (of course, discipline and interests are not always/often synonymous, and this approach helps with that!)

Activity: 

Students engage in a shared first lecture, setting the context for the module, discussing, and responding to individual learner expectations, and an introduction to innovation, delivered by an inventor, which asks the students to invest in one of a series of inventions, based on a case study of each in practice. They are encouraged to reflect on their choice, and in particular the reasons why they feel that their chosen option represents most value.

In week 2 students return to their own discipline (or choose an area of interest based on the available disciplines) and a session is led by academics and industry guests/entrepreneurs focussing on ‘the current and future trends in the XYZ industry’. This tends to be ‘products for users in Science and Engineering’ subjects (e.g. pets and children), and ‘approaches’ in other subjects (e.g. social and online media). 

Week 3 is a facilitated session in which students join interdisciplinary groups (formulated with as wide a variety of disciplines as possible (e.g. 1xcomputing science, 1xbiology, 1xmarketing and management) and share their findings from the previous week to identify areas of shared interest and the skills each member can contribute.

The remainder of the sessions are built around convincing the module assessors, and industry/entrepreneurs that your emerging idea is worth spending more time, money and effort on developing, and that individual students have the appropriate skills and motivations to deliver on the opportunity. The design of the remaining sessions is aimed at students achieving this objective. Remaining module content and tools can be designed together with the students, using flipped classroom, online resources, and update meetings alongside taught lecture material.

Skill Development: 

The confidence gained by the students is seen as they engage with each other and with externals (industry experts).  They are exposed to entrepreneurship through opportunity spotting and evaluation, and through building their reflective and persuasive/selling skills.  By working in teams they are building collaborative approaches to problem solving and task completion.

Resources: 

Planned engagement – including engagement of academics, entrepreneurs and industry partners in each discipline where a student originates.

Time to coach groups individually, access to mentors or online interaction.

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Reflection Icebreaker Entrepreneurial Line Up (QAA 5)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Lecture Theatre

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

5Reflection and Action

Objective:

  • Understanding entrepreneurial experience and unpacking the expertise of the learners/participants
  • Benchmarking the group to plan development and awareness activities

Introduction:

This activity is a great start to a business planning or business start-up module, as it works well as an ice-breaker in any group seeking to explore the spectrum of activity and can be repeated at the end of teaching programme/input to see how the levels of student confidence in the topic have changed.  

Activity:

At the very start of an activity as an ice-breaker, students are asked to line up (single-file) in a continuum of entrepreneurial experience (from ‘I have never heard of entrepreneurship’ to ‘I am running, or have ran my own business’. They have to talk to one another in order to position themselves. A selection of willing group members from various stages of the link tell the group why they are standing where they are. After each one, individuals are asked if they would like to reconsider their position in the line. Teaching and activities follow that unpack the entrepreneurial mind-set, and ways of developing the characteristics, drawing equally on entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and then the line-up is repeated. If you have the opportunity for multiple interventions, the line-up can be repeated at any point (formatively or summatively), to help students learn from each other and the teacher/facilitator to learn more about the needs of the cohort as a whole.

Impact: 

It also denotes a significant change in teaching style – and therefore student learning and engagement – will be required for this module. It signifies that there will opportunities to share experience, and pitch own expertise or ideas. 

It allows the students to benchmark where they are in the context of peers and understand where they may gain further support from during the programme.

It builds confidence by drawing out smaller examples of entrepreneurial endeavour, particularly those that have taken place through involvement in clubs, societies or outside education.

Learner outcome: 

For a short ice-breaker, or reflective activity this group tasks alerts students to the approach being taken within this area of teaching - “I knew this class was going to be different when we all had to stand up before the PowerPoint had even been turned on”.

Students ‘huddle’ together and start discussing their experiences in the area and this forms bonds and provides insights to potential future group members.  The outcome is a powerful ice-breaking activity that builds confidence in the group as a whole.

References:

Link to HOW TO GUIDE _ Interpersonal Icebreaker: Line of Evaluation

About the Author
This guide was produced by Katie Wray.

Design Thinking: From creative thinking to enterprising action (QAA1,2,3,5,6,7)

Group Size ? 1.) Small group (teams of 4-6)
2.) Individual Task
3.) Large Group
4.) Any

Large Group

Learning Environment ? 1.) Lecture Theatre
2.) Presentation Space
3.) Carousel Tables (small working group)
4.) Any
5.) Outside
6.) Special

Any

QAA Enterprise Theme(s) ? 1.) Creativity and Innovation
2.) Opportunity recognition, creation and evaluation
3.) Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement
4.) Implementation of ideas through leadership and management
5.) Reflection and Action
6.) Interpersonal Skills
7.) Communication and Strategy
8.) Digital and Data Skills

1Creativity and Innovation 2Opportunity recognition‚ creation and evaluation 3Decision making supported by critical analysis and judgement 5Reflection and Action 6Interpersonal Skills 7Communication and Strategy

Objective:

  • Know about a range of ideas and concepts about enterprising mind-set and entrepreneurship
  • Reconnecting with your creativity 
  • Introduction to design thinking and exploring a challenge 
  • Apply design thinking to addressing a challenge 
  • Developing a chosen idea (including proto-typing if possible) 
  • Introduction to engaging others in your ideas (moving beyond a ‘Pitch’) 
  • Introduction to crowd funding and funding the idea from within the student and stakeholder audience (external if possible)

Introduction: 

This session suits larger groups of learners being introduced to the concept of enterprise, creative thinking and solving complex challenges. Working with interdisciplinary groups works best to encourage maximum creativity and adds depth to the chosen solution. An introduction to effective engagement with audiences which moves beyond a pitch is introduced and the session closes with the audience crowd funding the idea using specially designed local currency. 

Activity:

This is best run over a 4-6 hour period and can be split between 2-3 sessions to allow for further research into the challenge. Session starts with some team building activities set firmly within the context of the challenge. This can help students to better appreciate the challenge area and develop empathy with various perspectives/realities in relation to the challenge.  

Then follows some creativity exercises with an introduction to design thinking. Teams then apply this process (as time allows) through to completion with ideally prototypes being developed (if not posters/electronic adverts etc). 

Then the large group is introduced to the need for effective and authentic engagement of themselves and their ideas (moving beyond the ‘pitch’). Individual or group presentations are developed and practiced. Depending on timing and group size, there can then follow a couple of rounds of presentations with a final selection presenting to the whole group. Ideally this should include at least one external stakeholder/s linked to the challenge context (clinical/engineering/finance etc) able to provide authentic feedback. 

It can be fun then to introduce/revisit the concept of crowd funding and provide everyone in the audience with some currency (we have developed some university notes) and get them to fund their favourite proposal. Of course it could be that there will be some real funding available…

Impact:

This works best with some facilitators to help support the various groups as they progress through each activity and often can make a significantly positive impact where groups from different curriculum areas meet for the first time. Utilising external stakeholders to share their challenges can also help to add real value and excitement for learners. Learners tend to enjoy the active nature of the workshop and the rigours of presenting to an external stakeholder with potential solutions to the challenges set. 

Learner outcome:

Tend to see an increased awareness of wider enterprise and boost in confidence in terms of team working, design thinking, negotiation and engagement with audiences. A useful taster for deeper enterprising learning. Skilled reflection is vital throughout and post session/s through on-going programme.  Depending on the nature of the ‘challenge’ this can be extended to a module/programme duration.

Resources: 

  • Team building activities based in context – e.g. Clinical setting/Engineering/Creative/Education. 
  • Usual flip charts and pens etc. 
  • Raw materials for prototyping if possible 
  • Electronic devices to film short presentations 
  • Bespoke Currency for crowd funding session 
  • Prizes 

References:

Brown, T (2008) Design Thinking, Harvard Business Review, June 2008  (pages 85 – 92)
Dweck, C (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, By Dweck, Carol S. ( Author ) Dec-26-2007 Paperback
Krueger, N.F.Jr. (2010) 13 Looking Forward, Looking Backward: From entrepreneurial Cognition to Neuroentrepreneurship in Acs, Z.K and Audretsch, D.B. (eds.), 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Springer 
Westfall, C (2012) The New Elevator Pitch: the definitive guide to persuasive communication in the digital age, Marie Street Press  

About the Author
This guide was produced by Carol Langston.

Your How To Guide Here

If you would like to have your How to Guide featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the How to Guide.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Case Examples

Your Example Here

If you would like to have your Case Study featured, please download the template and email the completed version to hello@etctoolkit.org.uk.

We have produced a guidance sheet which will assist you in completing the Case Study.

If you have any questions regarding completing the template, please Contact Us.

Additional Resources

Business Start-Up Resources

BOSS stands for the Business Online Support Service, provided by Business Wales. This service provides online learning courses to help people who are thinking about, or actually, starting a business, already running a business or looking to grow their business.

Big Ideas Wales The Big Ideas Wales campaign is part of the Business Wales service, designed to support the next generation of young entrepreneurs in Wales. It aims to provide inspiration, information and support to being your own boss!

Nesta Creative Enterprise Toolkit
Our enterprise resource toolkit contains tried and tested methods for teaching enterprise skills to creative individuals who are thinking about setting up a business. Available for purchase - with access to resources here http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/cet_worksheets_case_studies_and_tutor_notes.pdf